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Dutch Brazil, also known as New Holland, was the northern portion of the Portuguese colony of Brazil, ruled by the Dutch during the Dutch colonization of the Americas between 1630 and 1654.[1] The main cities of the Dutch colony
Dutch colony
of New Holland were the capital Mauritsstad
Mauritsstad
(today Recife), Frederikstadt (João Pessoa), Nieuw Amsterdam (Natal), Saint Louis (São Luís), São Cristóvão, Fortaleza
Fortaleza
(Fort Schoonenborch), Sirinhaém
Sirinhaém
and Olinda. From 1630 onward, the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
conquered almost half of Brazil's settled European area at the time, with their capital in Recife. The Dutch West India Company
Dutch West India Company
(WIC) set up their headquarters in Recife. The governor, Johan Maurits, invited artists and scientists to the colony to help promote Brazil
Brazil
and increase immigration. However, the tide turned against the Dutch when the Portuguese won a significant victory at the Second Battle of Guararapes
Second Battle of Guararapes
in 1649. On 26 January 1654, the Dutch surrendered and signed the capitulation, but only as a provisional pact. By May 1654, the Dutch demanded that the Dutch Republic was to be given New Holland back. On 6 August 1661, New Holland was formally ceded to Portugal
Portugal
through the Treaty of The Hague. While of only transitional importance for the Dutch, this period was of considerable importance in the historical memory in Brazil. It did not have lasting changes on the social and institutional development of Portuguese Brazil.[2] Local Portuguese settlers had to oppose the Dutch largely by their own resources, including mobilizing black and indigenous allies, and made use of their knowledge of local conditions. This struggle is counted, in Brazilian historical memory, as laying the seeds of Brazilian nationhood. This period also precipitated a decline in Brazil's sugar industry, since conflict between the Dutch and Portuguese disrupted Brazilian sugar production, amidst rising competition from British, French, and Dutch planters in the Caribbean.[3]

Contents

1 Early Iberian-Dutch relations

1.1 Unsuccessful 1624 invasion

2 Northeastern Brazil
Brazil
in the Golden Age of Dutch Rule

2.1 Establishment of Dutch Brazil

2.1.1 Successful 1630 invasion 2.1.2 Consolidation of Dutch control

2.2 Dutch Brazil
Brazil
under Johan Maurits
Johan Maurits
van Nassau-Siegen

2.2.1 Governance under Maurits 2.2.2 Population of Dutch Brazil

3 The end of Dutch Brazil

3.1 Departure of Maurits 3.2 Demise of Dutch West India Company
Dutch West India Company
in Brazil

3.2.1 Recapture of Recife

3.3 Role of the Amerindians and Africans 3.4 Aftermath 3.5 Peace treaty

4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links

Early Iberian-Dutch relations[edit] Further information: Groot Desseyn The Habsburg family had ruled the Low Countries
Low Countries
from 1482; the area became part of the Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
under the Spanish Habsburgs in 1556; however, in 1568 the Eighty Years' War
Eighty Years' War
(1568-1648) broke out, and the Dutch established the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands
Republic of the Seven United Netherlands
in 1581. As part of the war, Dutch raiders attacked Spanish lands, colonies, and ships. In 1594 Philip II, who was king both of Spain and (from 1580) of Portugal, gave permission for Dutch ships bound for Brazil
Brazil
to sail together once a year in a fleet of twenty ships.[4] In 1609 the Habsburgs and the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
signed a Twelve Years' Truce, during which the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
was allowed to trade with Portuguese settlements in Brazil
Brazil
( Portugal
Portugal
was in a dynastic union with Habsburg Spain
Habsburg Spain
from 1580 to 1640). Portugal's small geographic size and small population meant that it needed "foreign participation in the colonization and commerce of its empire", and the Dutch had played such a role, which was mutually beneficial.[5] As part of the truce of 1609-1621 the Dutch also agreed to delay the establishment of a West India Company, a counterpart to the already existing Dutch East India Company. By the end of the truce, the Dutch had vastly expanded their trade networks and gained over half of the carrying trade between Brazil
Brazil
and Europe. (The northern Netherlands
Netherlands
operated 29 sugar refineries by 1622, versus 3 in 1595.[6]) In 1621, the twelve-year peace treaty expired and the United Netherlands
Netherlands
immediately chartered a Dutch West India Company.[7] The Dutch–Portuguese War, which had started in 1602, resumed, and through the new company the Dutch now started to interfere with the Spanish and Portuguese colonies in America. Unsuccessful 1624 invasion[edit] As part of the Groot Desseyn plan, Admiral Jacob Willekens
Jacob Willekens
in December 1623 led a West Indische Compagnie
West Indische Compagnie
(WIC) force to Salvador, which was then the capital of Brazil
Brazil
and the center of a captaincy famous for its sugarcane.[8] The expedition consisted of 26 ships and 3,300 men.[9] They arrived there on May 8, 1624, whereupon the Portuguese Governor Diogo Tristão de Mendonça Furtado surrendered.[10] However, on April 30, 1625, the Portuguese recaptured the city with the help of a combined Spanish and Portuguese force consisting of 52 ships and 12,500 men.[11] The city would then play a critical role as a base of the Portuguese struggle against the Dutch for the control of Brazil. In 1628, the seizure of a Spanish silver convoy by Piet Heyn
Piet Heyn
in Matanzas Bay provided the Dutch WIC the funds for another attempt to conquer Brazil
Brazil
at Pernambuco.[11][12] Northeastern Brazil
Brazil
in the Golden Age of Dutch Rule[edit] Establishment of Dutch Brazil[edit]

South America around 1650

Successful 1630 invasion[edit] In the summer of 1629, the Dutch coveted a newfound interest in obtaining the Brazilian state (captaincy) of Pernambuco, the largest and richest sugar-producing area in the world.[13][14] The Dutch fleet of 65 ships was led by Hendrick Corneliszoon Loncq; the WIC gained control of Olinda by February 16, 1630, and Recife
Recife
(the capital of Pernambuco) and António Vaz by March 3.[14] Consolidation of Dutch control[edit]

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Matias de Albuquerque, the Portuguese governor, led a strong Portuguese resistance which hindered the Dutch from developing their forts on the lands which they had captured. By 1631, the Dutch left Olinda and tried to gain control of the Fort of Cabedello on Paraíba, the Rio Grande, Rio Formoso, and Cabo de Santo Agostinho. These attempts were also unsuccessful, however. Still in control of António Vaz and Recife, the Dutch later gained a foothold at Cabo de Santo Agostinho. By 1634 the Dutch controlled the coastline from the Rio Grande do Norte
Rio Grande do Norte
to Pernambuco's Cabo de Santo Agostinho. They still maintained control of the seas as well. By 1635 many Portuguese settlers were choosing Dutch-occupied land over Portuguese-controlled land. The Dutch offered freedom of worship and security of property. In 1635 the Dutch conquered three strongholds of the Portuguese: the towns of Porto Calvo, Arraial do Bom Jesus, and Fort Nazaré on Cabo de Santo Agostinho. These strongholds gave the Dutch increased sugar lands which led to an increase in profit. Dutch Brazil
Brazil
under Johan Maurits
Johan Maurits
van Nassau-Siegen[edit]

After returning from Brazil, Johan Maurits
Johan Maurits
of Nassau became known as "The Brazilian" in the Netherlands.[15]

Title page of Georg Marcgraf's Historia Naturalis Brasiliae
Historia Naturalis Brasiliae
(1648)

Recife
Recife
or Mauritsstad
Mauritsstad
– Capital of the Nieuw Holland in Brazil

In 1637, the WIC gave control of its Brazilian conquests, now called "Nieuw Holland," to Johan Maurits
Johan Maurits
van Nassau-Siegen (John Maurice of Nassau), the great-nephew of William the Silent. Within the year, Johan Maurits
Johan Maurits
captured the Brazilian province of Ceara
Ceara
and sent an expedition to capture the West African trading post of Elmina Castle, which became the capital of the Dutch Gold Coast. In 1641 the Dutch captured the province of Maranhao, meaning that Dutch control now extended across the entire coastline between the Amazon and Sao Francisco Rivers.[16]

African Woman in Brazil
Brazil
by Albert Eckhout, one of the Dutch artists brought by Johan Maurits

The Kahal Zur Israel Synagogue
Kahal Zur Israel Synagogue
in Mauritsstad
Mauritsstad
(Recife) is the oldest synagogue in the Americas. Jews made up 50% of the white population in Dutch Brazil.[17]

Governance under Maurits[edit] Maurits claimed to have always loved Brazil
Brazil
due to its beauty and its people, and under his rule, the colony thrived.[18] His patronage of Dutch Golden Age painters, such as Albert Eckhout
Albert Eckhout
and Frans Post, to depict Brazil's richness resulted in works showing different races, landscapes, and still lifes. He also invited naturalists Georg Marcgraf and Willem Piso
Willem Piso
to Brazil. They collected and published a vast amount of information on Brazil's natural history, resulting in the 1648 publication of Historia Naturalis Brasiliae, the first organized European compendium of knowledge on the Americas, which was hugely influential in learned European scientific circles for well over a century.[19] He organized a form of representative local government by creating municipal councils and rural councils with both Dutch and Brazilian Portuguese members to represent the population.[20] Through these he began to modernize the country with streets, bridges, and roads in Recife. On the island of António Vaz, he founded the town of Mauritsstad
Mauritsstad
(also known as Mauricia) where he created an astronomic observatory and a meteorological station, which were the first created by Europeans in the Americas. Under Maurits, protection for Brazilian Jews who had been formerly ostracized was increased. He allowed former Jews who had been forced to convert to Christianity to return to their former faith. Non-Catholic Christians, such as Calvinists, were also allowed to practice their faith as part of religious toleration.[18] Furthermore, the Catholic majority in Dutch Brazil
Brazil
was allowed to practice their faith freely, at a time in history in which there was extreme religious conflicts such as the Thirty Years' War between Catholics and Protestants. This was formed into the new law of Dutch Brazil
Brazil
in the peace accord signed after the conquest of the captaincy of Paraiba. The monastic orders of the Franciscans, Carmelites, and Benedictines were quite prominent in the former Portuguese colony. They were also allowed to retain all of their frairies and monasteries and allowed to practice and preach Catholicism among the population.[20]

Main Dutch Brazilian
Dutch Brazilian
Cities

Dutch colonial Name Today

Mauritsstad Recife

Frederikstadt João Pessoa

Nieuw-Amsterdam Natal

Population of Dutch Brazil[edit] See also: Dutch Brazilians Although there were Dutch immigrants to Brazil, the majority of the population was Portuguese and Brazilian-born Portuguese, African slaves, and Amerindians, with Dutch rule an overlay on pre-existing social groups.[18] The colony of Dutch Brazil
Brazil
had a difficult time of attracting Dutch colonists to immigrate and colonize in Brazil, as the main attraction of the colony was the extreme riches one could reap from starting a sugar plantation, as it was one of the few major market exporters of sugar to Europe at the time. This would also most likely entail the buying of African slaves, and as such only rich men could afford to start a plantation. There was also very significant risk with border contention and skirmish with the Portuguese from the parts of Brazil
Brazil
still under their control and the nonexistent loyalty of the local Portuguese Brazilians to the Dutch colony. Most of the Dutchmen employed in the Dutch West India Company
Dutch West India Company
went back to the Netherlands
Netherlands
after they were relieved of duty and did not stay to settle the colony. As such, the Dutch were a ruling minority with a Portuguese and Brazilian-born Portuguese population.[20] The Dutch settlers were divided into two separate groups, the first of which was known as “Dienaren” (servants). Dienaren were soldiers, bureaucrats, and Calvinist ministers employed by the WIC. Vrijburghers (freemen) – or Vrijluiden – were the second group of Dutch settlers who did not fit into the category of Dienaaren. The Vrijburghers were mostly ex-soldiers formerly employed by the WIC but who then began to settle down as farmers or engenho lords. Others who didn't fit the Vrijburgher or Dienaren categories included Dutch who left the Netherlands
Netherlands
to find a new life in Nieuw Holland as traders. This group was the most economically important in Nieuw Holland since most trade was under their control. The end of Dutch Brazil[edit]

Frans Post
Frans Post
View of Pernambuco, Brazil, ca. 1637-44, Museu Nacional de Belas Artes.

Departure of Maurits[edit] In 1640, John, 8th Duke of Braganza declared Portuguese independence from Spain, ending the six decade-long Iberian Union. As a result, the threat of further Spanish intervention against Dutch Brazil
Brazil
declined, since Brazil
Brazil
was originally and had remained a Portuguese colony. In 1641-1642 the new Portuguese regime concluded a truce with the Dutch, temporarily ending hostilities, but the Dutch remained in Brazil. In 1643 Johan Maurits
Johan Maurits
equipped the expedition of Hendrik Brouwer
Hendrik Brouwer
that unsuccessfully attempted to establish an outpost in southern Chile.[21][22] In 1644, the WIC recalled Johan Maurits
Johan Maurits
to Europe in an attempt to cut military expenditures, following the cession of hostilities. Demise of Dutch West India Company
Dutch West India Company
in Brazil[edit] A year after Maurits was summoned back by the WIC board, the WIC faced a major uprising of Portuguese planters in June 1645. The Portuguese planters around Pernambuco
Pernambuco
had never fully accepted Dutch rule, and had also resented the high interest rates charged by Dutch moneylenders for loans to rebuild their plantations following the initial Dutch conquest. In August, the planters revolted and prevailed over Dutch forces in a minor battle fought outside Recife, effectively ending Dutch control over the colony. That year, the Portuguese gained Várzea, Sirinhaém, Pontal de Nazaré, the Fort of Porto Calvo, and Fort Maurits. By 1646, the WIC only controlled four toeholds along the Brazilian coast, chief among them being Recife.[18] In the spring of 1646, the Dutch sent a relief expedition to Recife consisting of 20 ships with 2000 men, temporarily forestalling the fall of the city. Back in Europe, the collapse of Dutch Brazil accelerated Dutch efforts to end its longstanding conflict with Spain, the Eighty Years' War. In August 1647, representatives from the Dutch province of Zeeland
Zeeland
(the final holdout against peace with Spain) acquiesced to the Peace of Munster
Peace of Munster
ending the war with Spain. In return, Zeeland
Zeeland
obtained promises from the other Dutch provinces to support a second, larger relief expedition to reconquer Brazil. The expedition, consisting of 41 ships with 6000 men, set sail on December 26, 1647.[23]

The Portuguese victory at the Battle of Guararapes, ended Dutch presence in Brazil.

In Brazil, the Dutch had already abandoned Itamaracá
Itamaracá
on December 13, 1647. The new expeditionary force arrived late at Recife, with many of its soldiers either dead or mutinous from lack of pay. In April 1648, the Portuguese routed the expeditionary force at the First Battle of Guararapes, fought outside Recife. The Portuguese had sent an armada of 84 ships, including 18 warships to recapture Recife.[24] In February 1649, the Portuguese again routed the Dutch at the Second Battle of Guararapes.[25] Recapture of Recife[edit]

Reconquest of Recife

Part of Dutch-Portuguese War

A letter written by the Portuguese King John IV ordering the attack on Recife

Date May 1652 – February 1654

Location Pernambuco, Brazil

Result Decisive Portuguese victory Dutch expelled from Brazil

Belligerents

 Portugal

Brazilian Colonial Forces

 Dutch Republic

Commanders and leaders

Francisco Barreto Pedro Jacques de Magalhães[26] Walter Van Loo [26]

Strength

2,500 men [26] Unknown

Casualties and losses

Unknown Unknown

v t e

Dutch–Portuguese War

Bantam 1st Malacca Cape Rachado Swally Macau 1st Bahia Persian Gulf 2nd Bahia 1st Elmina 1st Recife Albrolhos 2nd Elmina Goa 3rd Bahia 4th Bahia Mormugão Itamaracá Galle 2nd Malacca 1st Luanda Tabocas Kombi 2nd Luanda 1st Guararapes 2nd Guararapes 2nd Recife 1st Colombo 2nd Colombo

v t e

Dutch colonial campaigns

Bantam (1601) Malacca (1606) Cape Rachado (1606) Banda Islands (1621) Macau (1622) Pescadores (1622–1624) Bahia
Bahia
(1624) Persian Gulf (1625) Elmina (1625) Cuba (1628) Recife
Recife
(1630) Albrolhos (1631) Liaoluo Bay (1633) Taiwan (1635–36) Lamey Island (1636) Elmina (1637) Vietnam (1637–43) Goa (1638) 1st Bahia
Bahia
(1638) 2nd Bahia
Bahia
(1638) Mormugão (1639) Itamaracá
Itamaracá
(1640) Ceylon (1640) Malacca (1641) Luanda (1641) Chile (1643) Cambodia (1643–44) New Netherland
New Netherland
(1643–45) Tabocas (1645) Philippines (1646) Kombi (1647) Guararapes (1648) Guararapes (1649) Taiwan (1652) 2nd Colombo (1654) New Netherland
New Netherland
(1659–63) Taiwan (1661–62) Java (1674–1680) Java (1704–07) Java (1719–23) India (1739–41) Java (1741–43) Java (1749–57) India (1781) Ceylon (1782) Gold Coast (1782) Cape Colony
Colony
(1795) Suriname
Suriname
(1804) Cape Colony
Colony
(1806) Java (1810–11) Palembang
Palembang
(1819) Palembang
Palembang
(1821) Sumatra (1821–37) Borneo (1823) Bone (1824) Bone (1825) Java (1825–30) Aceh (1831) Ahanta (1837–39) Bali (1846) Bali (1848) Bali (1849) Palembang
Palembang
(1851–59) Montrado (1854–55) Nias (1855–64) Bali (1858) Borneo (1859–63) Japan (1863–64) Pasoemah (1864–68) Gold Coast (1869–70) Aceh (1873–1913) Mandor (1884–85) Jambi (1885) Edi (1890) Lombok and Karangasem (1894) Pedir (1897–98) Kerinci (1903) Celebes (1905–06) Bali (1906) Bali (1908) Venezuela (1908)

War with Japan (1941–45) Indonesian Revolution (1945–49)

v t e

Portuguese colonial campaigns

Prolonged conflicts shown in bold

Date  Region 

1415–1578 Morocco

1478 Guinea

1501–02 India

1502 India

1504 India

1505 Ceylon

1505–17 Indian Ocean

1506 India

1507–1622 Persia

1508 India

1509 India

1510 India

1511 Malacca

1521 China

1522 China

1526 India

1527–1658 Ceylon

1529–59 Ethiopia

1531 India

1538–59 Indian Ocean

1546 India

1548 Arabia

1552–54 Arabia

1558 Brazil

1558–66 Indian Ocean

1567 Brazil

1568 Malacca

1569 Aceh

1570-74 India

1580–83 Atlantic Ocean

1580–89 Indian Ocean

1587 Johor

1601 Java

1606 Malacca

1606 (Aug) Malacca

1612 India

1622 China

1622 Angola

1624 Brazil

1625 Persia

1625 Brazil

1625 Gold Coast

Date  Region 

1629 Malacca

1630 Brazil

1631 Brazil

1637 Gold Coast

1638 India

1638 Brazil

1639 India

1640 Brazil

1640–41 Malacca

1641–48 Angola

1645 Brazil

1647 Angola

1648 Brazil

1649 Brazil

1652–54 Brazil

1654 (Mar) Ceylon

1654 (May) Ceylon

1665 Angola

1670 (Jun) Angola

1670 (Oct) Angola

1696–98 Mombasa

1710 Brazil

1711 Brazil

1735–37 Banda Oriental

1752 India

1756 South America

1761–63 South America

1762–63 Sacramento

1776–77 South America

1809 French Guiana

1816–20 Banda Oriental

1821–23 Brazil

1846 China

1849 China

1902–03 Angola

1907 Angola

1914–15 Angola

1954 India

1961 India

1961–74 Africa

 • 1961–74 Angola

 • 1963–74 Guinea-Bissau

 • 1964–74 Mozambique

The Reconquest of Recife
Recife
was a military engagement between the Portuguese forces under Francisco Barreto de Meneses
Francisco Barreto de Meneses
and the Dutch forces of Captain Walter Van Loo.[27] After the Dutch defeats at Guararapes, their surviving men, as well as other garrisons of New Holland, joined in the area of Recife
Recife
in order to make a last stand. However, after fierce fighting, the Portuguese victoriously entered the city and the remaining Dutch were ousted from Brazil. The Dutch finally lost control of Recife
Recife
on January 28, 1654, leaving to the Portuguese their colony of Brazil
Brazil
and putting an end to Nieuw Netherlands.[28] Role of the Amerindians and Africans[edit]

17th century portrait of Antônio Filipe Camarão, Amerindian ally of the Portuguese, knighted for his service.

Portrait of Henrique Dias, who led blacks against the Dutch.

Although the historical focus is usually on the European rivals in the conflict, the Brazilian indigenous population was drawn into the conflict as allies on both sides. Most sided with Dutch, but there were some notable exceptions. One was a Potiguara
Potiguara
chieftain who came to be known as Dom Antônio Filipe Camarão, who was rewarded for his loyalty to the Portuguese by being made a knighthood in the Order of Christ.[29] In the aftermath of the conflict when the Dutch were expelled, there were reprisals against their Brazilian Amerindian allies.[30] Both the Dutch and the Portuguese used African slaves in the conflict, sometimes with the promise of freedom for fighting. On the Portuguese side, one name comes down in history, Henrique Dias, who was awarded noble status by the monarch, but not the knighthood in the Order of Christ as promised.[31] Aftermath[edit] In the aftermath of the Dutch occupation, Portuguese settled scores with Amerindians who had supported the Dutch. There were tensions between Portuguese who had fled the area under occupation and those who had lived under Dutch occupation. The returnees attempted to litigate so as to regain the properties they had abandoned, which in this sugar-producing area included sugar mills and other buildings, as well as cane fields. The litigation dragged on for years.[32] The conflict in Brazil's northeast had severe economic consequences. Both sides had practiced a scorched earth policy that disrupted sugar production,[3] and the war had diverted Portuguese funds from being invested in the colonial economy. After the war, Portuguese authorities were forced to spend their tax revenues on rebuilding Recife. The sugar industry in Pernambuco
Pernambuco
never fully recovered from the Dutch occupation, being surpassed by sugar production in Bahia.[33] Meanwhile, the British, French, and Dutch Caribbean
Caribbean
had become a major competitor to Brazilian sugar due to rising sugar prices in the 1630s and 1640s. After the WIC evacuated Pernambuco, the Dutch brought their expertise and capital to the Caribbean
Caribbean
instead. In the 1630s, Brazil provided 80% of the sugar sold in London, while it only provided 10% by 1690.[34] The Portuguese colony of Brazil
Brazil
did not recover economically until the discovery of gold in southern Brazil
Brazil
during the 18th century.[35] The Dutch period in Brazil
Brazil
was "a historical parenthesis with few lasting traces" in the social sphere.[36] That said, Dutch artistic production in Brazil, particularly by Albert Eckhout
Albert Eckhout
and Frans Post left an important visual record of Brazilian people and places in the early seventeenth century. Peace treaty[edit] Seven years after the surrender of Recife, a peace treaty was organized between the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
and Portugal. The Treaty of The Hague (1661) was signed on August 6, 1661,[37] and it demanded that the Portuguese would pay 4 million réis over the span of 16 years in order to help the Dutch recover from the loss of Brazil. See also[edit]

Part of a series on the

History of Brazil

Pre-Cabraline

Luzia Indigenous peoples Marajoara culture

Colonial Brazil

Discovery Letter of Pêro Vaz de Caminha Treaty of Tordesillas Captaincies Bandeirantes Slave Trade France Antarctique France Equinoxiale Quilombo dos Palmares Dutch Brazil Battle of Rio de Janeiro Jesuit reductions War of the Emboabas Mascate War Guaraní War Gold Rush Inconfidência Mineira

United Kingdom with Portugal

Transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil Pernambucan Revolt Conquest of French Guiana Conquest of the Banda Oriental

Independence

Declaration of Independence War of Independence

Empire of Brazil

Dom Pedro I Constitution of 1824 and the 1834 Additional Act Night of Agony Confederation of the Equator Cisplatine War Irish and German Mercenary Soldiers' Revolt Regency April Revolt Malê Revolt Cabanagem Ragamuffin War Balaiada Dom Pedro II Liberal rebellions of 1842 Praieira revolt Eusébio de Queirós Law Platine War Uruguayan War Paraguayan War Grande Seca Religious Question Revolt of the Muckers Abolition of Slavery

Old Republic

Proclamation of the Republic Café com leite politics Coronelismo Amazon rubber boom Federalist Riograndense Revolution Revolta da Armada War of Canudos Vaccine Revolt Annexation of Acre Contestado War World War I Revolt of the Lash Tenente revolts 18 of the Copacabana Fort revolt Coluna Prestes

Vargas Era

Revolution of 1930 Constitutionalist Revolution Integralism Estado Novo World War II

Second Republic

Construction of Brasília Plano Trienal

Military rule

1964 Brazilian coup d'état AI-5 Araguaia Guerrilla War March of the One Hundred Thousand Brazilian Miracle Diretas Já

New Republic

Lost Decade Brazilian Constituent Assembly Plano Collor Impeachment of Fernando Collor 1993 Constitutional referendum Plano Real 2005 firearms and ammunition referendum Mensalão and Petrolão scandals Car Wash investigation Impeachment of Dilma Rousseff

Years in Brazil

Years in Brazil

Timeline

Timeline of Brazilian history

Brazil
Brazil
portal

v t e

Colonial Brazil Dutch West India Company Dutch Brazilian 17th century Dutch Brazil:

Georg Marcgrave Willem Piso Caspar Barlaeus Frans Post Albert Eckhout Zacharias Wagenaer Isaac Aboab da Fonseca Historia Naturalis Brasiliae
Historia Naturalis Brasiliae
(1648) Battle of Tabocas (1645)

Recife
Recife
and Pernambuco:

Ricardo Brennand Institute

Others:

Barbadian Jews France Antarctique Equinoctial France History of Suriname

References[edit]

^ The term "New Holland" should not be confused with the later term for present-day Western Australia. ^ James Lockhart and Stuart B. Schwartz, Early Latin America, New York: Cambridge University Press 1983, p. 251. ^ a b Lockhart and Schwartz, Early Latin America, p. 252. ^ Acta Historiae Neerlandicae IX By R. Baetens, H. Balthazar, etc. ^ James Lockhart and Stuart B. Schwartz, Early Latin America. New York: Cambridge University Press 1983, p. 250. ^ Parker 1976, p. 64. ^ Catherine Lugar, "Dutch West India Company" in Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons 1996, vol. 2, p. 421. ^ Lockhart and Schwartz, Early Latin America, p. 2150. ^ Francis A. Dutra, "Dutch in Colonial Brazil" in Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons 1996, vol. 2, p. 415. ^ Facsimile of manuscript regarding the ending of hostilities:Tractaet van Bestand ende ophoudinge van alle acten van vyandtschap als oock van traffijq commercien ende secours ghemaecht ghearresteert ende beslooten in s'Graven-Hage den twaelf den Junij 1641 ...; ^ a b Dutra, "Dutch in Colonial Brazil" p. 415. ^ Lugar, "Dutch West India Company", p. 421. ^ "The Brazil
Brazil
Reader: History, Culture, Politics". Google Books. p. 121. Retrieved 21 September 2016.  ^ a b "Recife—A City Made by Sugar". Awake!. Retrieved 21 September 2016.  ^ Maurício de Nassau, o brasileiro Mariana Lacerda ^ Parker 1976, p. 70-71. ^ Judeus Suas Extraordinárias Histórias e Contribuições para o Progresso da Humanidade, p. 117, at Google Books ^ a b c d Lockhart and Schwartz, Early Latin America, p. 251. ^ Neil Safier, "Beyond Brazilian Nature: The Editorial Itineraries of Marcgraf and Piso's Historia Naturalis Braziliae in Michiel Van Grosen, The Legacy of Dutch Brazil. New York: Cambridge University Press 2014, pp. 168-186. ^ a b c Schwartz, Stuart B. Early Brazil: A Documentary Collection to 1700. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2010. ^ Robbert Kock The Dutch in Chili Archived March 3, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. at coloniavoyage.com ^ Kris E. Lane Pillaging the Empire: Piracy in the Americas, 1500–1750, 1998, pages 88-92 ^ Parker 1976, p. 71-72. ^ Dutra, "Dutch in Colonial Brazil", p. 418. ^ Parker 1976, p. 72. ^ a b c Paula Lourenço p.78 ^ Lourenço, Paula.Battles of Portuguese History - Defence of the Overseas. - Volume X. (2006), p. 78 ^ Facsimile of manuscript regarding the surrender of Dutch Brazil:Cort, Bondigh ende Waerachtigh Verhael Wan't schandelyck over-geven ende verlaten vande voorname Conquesten van Brasil...; ^ Dutra, "Dutch in Colonial Brazil", p. 415. ^ Dutra, "Dutch in Colonial Brazil, p. 419. ^ Dutra, "Dutch in Brazil, pp. 415-16. ^ Dutra, "Dutch in Colonial Brazil", p. 419. ^ Schwartz, Stuart (2004). Tropical Babylons. The University of North Carolina Press. p. 170. ISBN 0-8078-2875-0.  ^ Schwartz, Tropical Babylons, p. 170. ^ Lockhart and Schwartz, Early Latin America, pp. 251-2. ^ Lockhart and Schwartz, Early Latin America, p. 251 ^ Facsimile of the treaty:Articulen van vrede en Confoederarie, Gheslooten Tusschen den Doorluchtighsten Comingh van Portugael ter eenre, ende de Hoogh Mogende Heeren Staten General ...;

Further reading[edit]

Barlaeus, The History of Brazil
Brazil
Under the Governorship of Count Johan Maurits of Nassau, 1636-1644. Gainesville: University of Florida Press 2011. Boxer, C.R., The Dutch in Brazil, 1624–1654, The Clarendon press, Oxford, 1957. ISBN 0-208-01338-5 Boogaart, Ernst Van den, et al. Johan Maurits
Johan Maurits
van Nassau-Siegen, 1604-1679: A Humanitst Prince in Europe and Brazil. The Hague: Johan Maurits van Nasssau Stichting 1979. Dutra, Francis A. "Dutch in Colonial Brazil" in Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons 1996, vol. 2, pp. 414–420. Feitler, Bruno. "Jews and New Christians in Dutch Brazil, 1630-1654," in Richard L. Kagan and Philip D. Morgan, eds. Atlantic Diasporas. Jews, conversos, and Crypto-Jews in the Age of Mercantilism, 1500-1800. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press 2009, 123-51. Groesen, Michiel van. "Lessons Learned: The Second Dutch Conquest of Brazil
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and the Memory of the First," Colonial Latin American Review 20-2 (2011) 167-93. Groesen, Michiel van, Amsterdam's Atlantic: Print Culture and the Making of Dutch Brazil, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 2017. ISBN 978-0-8122-4866-1 Groesen, Michiel van (ed.), The Legacy of Dutch Brazil, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2014. ISBN 978-1-107-06117-0 Israel, Jonathan I. "Dutch Sephardi Jewry, Millenarian Politics, and the Struggle for Brazil
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(1645-54)." In Diasporaporas Winthin a Disapora. Jonathan I. Israel, ed. Leiden: Brill 2002. Israel, Jonathan, Stuart B. Schwartz, and Michiel van Groesen. The expansion of tolerance: religion in Dutch Brazil
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Dutch colonial campaigns

Bantam (1601) Malacca (1606) Cape Rachado (1606) Banda Islands (1621) Macau (1622) Pescadores (1622–1624) Bahia
Bahia
(1624) Persian Gulf (1625) Elmina (1625) Cuba (1628) Recife
Recife
(1630) Albrolhos (1631) Liaoluo Bay (1633) Taiwan (1635–36) Lamey Island (1636) Elmina (1637) Vietnam (1637–43) Goa (1638) 1st Bahia
Bahia
(1638) 2nd Bahia
Bahia
(1638) Mormugão (1639) Itamaracá
Itamaracá
(1640) Ceylon (1640) Malacca (1641) Luanda (1641) Chile (1643) Cambodia (1643–44) New Netherland
New Netherland
(1643–45) Tabocas (1645) Philippines (1646) Kombi (1647) Guararapes (1648) Guararapes (1649) Taiwan (1652) 2nd Colombo (1654) New Netherland
New Netherland
(1659–63) Taiwan (1661–62) Java (1674–1680) Java (1704–07) Java (1719–23) India (1739–41) Java (1741–43) Java (1749–57) India (1781) Ceylon (1782) Gold Coast (1782) Cape Colony
Colony
(1795) Suriname
Suriname
(1804) Cape Colony
Colony
(1806) Java (1810–11) Palembang
Palembang
(1819) Palembang
Palembang
(1821) Sumatra (1821–37) Borneo (1823) Bone (1824) Bone (1825) Java (1825–30) Aceh (1831) Ahanta (1837–39) Bali (1846) Bali (1848) Bali (1849) Palembang
Palembang
(1851–59) Montrado (1854–55) Nias (1855–64) Bali (1858) Borneo (1859–63) Japan (1863–64) Pasoemah (1864–68) Gold Coast (1869–70) Aceh (1873–1913) Mandor (1884–85) Jambi (1885) Edi (1890) Lombok and Karangasem (1894) Pedir (1897–98) Kerinci (1903) Celebes (1905–06) Bali (1906) Bali (1908) Venezuela (1908)

War with Japan (1941–45) Indonesian Revolution (1945–49)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dutch Brazil.

Dutch West Indies 1630–1975 on YouTube Facsimiles of 20 manuscripts from the Dutch West India Company Relating about the events in Brazil
Brazil
in the 17th century (PT & NL) Guararapes Birth of the Brazilian Nationality Brazilian Armed Forces site The Dutch in Brazil History of Dutch Brazil
Brazil
and Guiana The New Holland Foundation World Statesmen – Brazil History of Portuguese America, in Portuguese, by Sebastião da Rocha Pita

v t e

Dutch Empire

Colonies and trading posts of the Dutch East India Company (1602–1798)

Governorate General

Batavia

Governorates

Ambon Banda Islands Cape Colony Celebes Ceylon Coromandel Formosa Malacca Moluccas Northeast coast of Java

Directorates

Bengal Persia Suratte

Commandments

Bantam Malabar West coast of Sumatra

Residencies

Bantam Banjarmasin Batavia Cheribon Palembang Preanger Pontianak

Opperhoofd settlements

Myanmar Canton Dejima Mauritius Siam Timor Tonkin

Colonies and trading posts of the Dutch West India Company (1621–1792)

Colonies in the Americas

Berbice 1 Brazil Cayenne Curaçao
Curaçao
and Dependencies Demerara Essequibo New Netherland Pomeroon Sint Eustatius
Sint Eustatius
and Dependencies Surinam 2 Tobago Virgin Islands

Trading posts in Africa

Arguin Gold Coast Loango-Angola Senegambia Slave Coast

1 Governed by the Society of Berbice 2 Governed by the Society of Suriname

Settlements of the Noordsche Compagnie
Noordsche Compagnie
(1614–1642)

Settlements

Jan Mayen Smeerenburg

Colonies of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Netherlands
(1815–1962)

Until 1825

Bengal Coromandel Malacca Suratte

Until 1853

Dejima

Until 1872

Gold Coast

Until 1945

Dutch East Indies

Until 1954

Curaçao
Curaçao
and Dependencies 3 Surinam 3

Until 1962

New Guinea

3 Became constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; Suriname
Suriname
gained full independence in 1975, Curaçao
Curaçao
and Dependencies was renamed to the Netherlands
Netherlands
Antilles, which was eventually dissolved in 2010.

Kingdom of the Netherlands
Netherlands
(1954–present)

Constituent countries

Aruba Curaçao Netherlands Sint Maarten

Public bodies of the Netherlands

Bonaire S

.