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Duryodhana
Duryodhana
originally named "Suyodhana" is a major character in the Hindu
Hindu
epic Mahabharata
Mahabharata
and was the eldest of the Kauravas, the hundred sons of blind king Dhritarashtra
Dhritarashtra
and Queen Gandhari. Being the first born son of the blind king, he was the crown prince of Hastinapura along with his cousin Yudhishtra
Yudhishtra
who was a few days older than him. Karna
Karna
was the closest friend of Duryodhana. Notably, Duryodhana, with significant assistance from Karna, performs Digvijaya Yatra when the Pandavas
Pandavas
are in exile, conquering all kings in every direction of the world, establishing himself as the emperor of the world.[1][2]He was a fearless warrior and never believed in miracles of Lord Krishna. Even when Lord Krishna
Krishna
tried to intimidate him by showing him his universal form prior to the commencement of war it had no effect on him. Although he had no powers or boons granted- unlike Pandavas, who were demi-gods- he always gave them a tough fight.

Contents

1 Birth 2 Early years

2.1 Training 2.2 Relationship with Karna 2.3 Tendencies and schemes

3 Usurping the Kingdom

3.1 The dice plot, and Draupadi's humiliation

4 Following Years

4.1 Conflict with Gandharvas 4.2 World Emperor

5 The Kurukshetra
Kurukshetra
War

5.1 Peace Talks and Buildup 5.2 Gathering the army 5.3 During the War

6 Gada-yuddha 7 Death 8 Other Stories

8.1 Duryodhana’s dilemmas

9 Evaluation

9.1 Friendship with Karna 9.2 Modern Worship

10 In Media 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References 14 External links

Birth[edit]

Gandhari receiving boon from Vyasa

When Gandhari's pregnancy continued for an unusually long period of time, she beat her womb in frustration. This caused a hardened mass of grey-coloured flesh tissue from her womb. She implored Vyasa, the great sage who had blessed her with one hundred sons, to redeem his words. Vyasa
Vyasa
divided the ball of flesh into one hundred and one equal pieces, and put them in pots of ghee, which were sealed and buried into the earth for two years. At the end of the second year, the first pot was opened, and Duryodhana
Duryodhana
emerged.[3] Early years[edit]

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Duryodhana
Duryodhana
in Javanese Wayang

Although loved by his family, Duryodhana
Duryodhana
and most of his brothers are not seen on the same level as the Pandavas
Pandavas
in their adherence to virtue, duty, and respect for elders. Duryodhana
Duryodhana
is mentored by his maternal uncle Shakuni, who masterminded most of Duryodhana's plots to humiliate and kill the Pandavas. Duryodhana's hatred for the Pandavas
Pandavas
stems from his sincere belief that he—being the son of the eldest brother—is the heir apparent to the throne of Hastinapura. Because of his blindness, his father had to renounce the throne in favor of the younger Pandu. Duryodhana deeply believed that what was rightfully his was being given away to his older cousin Yudhishthira. He also felt that the Pandavas
Pandavas
were sons of Kunti
Kunti
and Gods
Gods
(devakin), not of Pandu. He never believed that their divine origin alone proved their superiority, on many occasions questioning their merits, and always calling them the 'Kaunteya' (sons of Kunti). He also bore a deep hatred of Bhima, who was younger than him but much stronger and dominated his brothers in sport and skill with his immense physical power and strength. When they were young, Bhima's bullying and taunting were a constant source of pain for Duryodhana
Duryodhana
and his brothers. Training[edit] Balarama
Balarama
described Duryodhana's body to be "lightning made flesh". He is revered by his younger brothers, especially Dushasana. Learning martial skills from his gurus, Kripacharya
Kripacharya
and Dronacharya, he proved to be extremely skilled with the mace. He then went to specialize in mace fighting under Balarama
Balarama
and went on to become his favorite pupil. And the second greatest mace fighter. Relationship with Karna[edit]

Killing of Karna

At the martial exhibition where the Kaurava
Kaurava
and Pandava
Pandava
princes demonstrate their skills before their elders, their guru Drona
Drona
and the people of the kingdom, the great effulgent warrior Karna
Karna
appears and arrogantly challenges an unsuspecting Arjuna, who is considered by Drona
Drona
to be the best of the warrior princes. But Karna
Karna
is stopped when Kripa
Kripa
asks him to ascertain his caste, as it would be inappropriate for unequals to compete. Duryodhana
Duryodhana
immediately defends Karna, and makes him king of Anga
Anga
so that he is regarded as Arjuna's equal. Karna
Karna
pledges his allegiance and friendship to Duryodhana. Neither of them know that Karna
Karna
is in fact Kunti's oldest son, born to (sun god) Surya, before her marriage to Pandu. There is a general belief that Karna
Karna
and Duryodhana's friendship began at this point of the epic. However a lesser known fact is that Karna was always part of Drone's gurukula, and Duryodhana's close friend from childhood. Moreover, after his training with Parashurama, Karna heads straight for Duryodhana
Duryodhana
and informs him that his training is complete, as mentioned in Shanti Parva. Nonetheless, Duryodhana's friendship with Karna
Karna
is genuine and deep. In the Kurukshetra
Kurukshetra
War, Karna
Karna
is Duryodhana's greatest hope for victory. He truly believes that Karna
Karna
is superior to Arjuna, and will inevitably destroy him and his four brothers. When Karna
Karna
is killed, Duryodhana
Duryodhana
mourns his death intensely, even more than the death of his brothers. Tendencies and schemes[edit] During their childhood Bhima
Bhima
used his brute strength to inflict injuries on the Kaurava
Kaurava
brothers. As Bhima
Bhima
was gluttonous, Duryodhana misguided by Shakuni
Shakuni
attempted to kill Bhima
Bhima
by feeding him a poisoned feast, but Bhima
Bhima
survived due to the poisonous bites from celestial Nagas which neutralized the poison he had ingested. Duryodhana
Duryodhana
then participated in a plot by Shakuni
Shakuni
to burn the Pandavas
Pandavas
at Varnavata; however, they managed to escape the trap. Because of Shakuni's pre-planned schemes. Usurping the Kingdom[edit]

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Duryodhana
Duryodhana
slips into water

After the Pandavas
Pandavas
reveal that they have survived the wax house, with a new wife to boot, Bhishma
Bhishma
suggests that the kingdom be divided in order to ease the obvious tension. Yudhishthira
Yudhishthira
is given half the kingdom and made king of Khandavprastha, so as to avoid a clash with the Kaurava
Kaurava
princes over the whole Kuru Kingdom. Duryodhana
Duryodhana
becomes the crown prince of Hastinapura, and owing to the age and blindness of his father, he accumulates much control and influence, managing the state affairs himself with a group of his advisers that include his uncle Shakuni, brother Dushasana, Bhishma, Vidura
Vidura
and friend Karna. But Duryodhana
Duryodhana
remains jealous of Yudhishthira, especially after the Pandavas
Pandavas
along with Krishna
Krishna
transform Khandavaprastha to Indraprastha. Moreover, Yudhishthira
Yudhishthira
performs the Rajasuya
Rajasuya
Yagna
Yagna
and gains the authority over several other kingdoms; Indraprastha's prosperity and fame appear to exceed Hastinapura's. Duryodhana
Duryodhana
is unable to contain his anger, which is intensified when Bhima, Arjuna, the twins and the servants laugh at him when he slips into a pool of water during a visit to Indraprastha. Draupadi
Draupadi
insulted Duryodhana
Duryodhana
by uttering the words "a blind man's son is blind" or Andha Ka Putra Andha which is attributed to Draupadi. It is believed Draupadi
Draupadi
insulted Duryodhan and thus paved the way for the war. The dice plot, and Draupadi's humiliation[edit]

Draupadi
Draupadi
is presented to a parcheesi game

Previously when Suyodhana visited Indraprastha
Indraprastha
to meet his cousins he was insulted by Draupadi
Draupadi
the common wife of the Pandavas. He did not take it lightly. Scheming to start a great war, Shakuni
Shakuni
devises a scheme to rob Yudhishthira
Yudhishthira
of his kingdom and wealth by defeating him in a game of dice, which Shakuni
Shakuni
cannot lose due to his superior skill over Yudhishthira's ineptitude and addiction to the game of dice. Unable to resist the challenge, Yudhishthira
Yudhishthira
gambles away his entire kingdom, his wealth, his four brothers and even his wife, in a series of gambits to retrieve one by staking another. Duryodhana
Duryodhana
encouraged his brother Dushasana
Dushasana
to drag Draupadi
Draupadi
into the court. As she is Duryodhana's property after Yudhishthira
Yudhishthira
had gambled everything away to him, Duryodhana
Duryodhana
tells Draupadi
Draupadi
to sit on his left thigh, showing and patting it to insult her for revenge. Due to this action, Bhima swears, he would break Duryodhana's thigh. As an enraged Draupadi
Draupadi
is about to curse the Kuru clan, Gandhari intervenes. Fearing retribution by the Pandavas, their allies, and history, Dhritarashtra
Dhritarashtra
and Gandhari reverse all of Yudhishthira's losses. But then (either through Duryodhana
Duryodhana
forcing his father to command the Pandavas
Pandavas
to play again, or through the Pandavas' own desire to win a kingdom without bloodshed) the game is repeated. For this game of dice Shakuni
Shakuni
sets the condition that upon losing, Yudhishthira
Yudhishthira
and his brothers must spend thirteen years in exile in the forest before they may reclaim their kingdom. The thirteenth year must be passed incognito, or else the term of exile would be repeated. The Pandavas
Pandavas
lose and begin their exile. Following Years[edit] Conflict with Gandharvas[edit] During the exile of Pandavas, a drunk Duryodhana
Duryodhana
travels to a Gandharvan land to swim in a pool, he is however caught in a conflict with the Gandharva
Gandharva
king Chitrasena, who captures him. Yudhishthira asks Arjuna
Arjuna
to rescue Duryodhana. They rescue him, and Duryodhana offers Arjuna
Arjuna
a vow that he will fulfill one demand of Arjuna
Arjuna
anytime in his life. However, Duryodhana
Duryodhana
also feels humiliated. Setting his mind to die, Duryodhana
Duryodhana
pledges to fast unto death. He is pacified by Karna, who vows he will kill Arjuna
Arjuna
in battle and to never drink wine until he does so. World Emperor[edit] Karna
Karna
took up the task of establishing Duryodhana
Duryodhana
as the Emperor of the world. Karna
Karna
embarks upon a worldwide military campaign, otherwise called Digvijaya Yatra.[2][4][5] Bringing tribute and allegiance from all the world's kings, Karna
Karna
helped Duryodhana
Duryodhana
to perform the Vaishnava
Vaishnava
yagna to please Vishnu
Vishnu
and crown Duryodhana
Duryodhana
as "Emperor of the World", as Yudhishthira
Yudhishthira
did with the Rajasuya
Rajasuya
Yagna. No person in the entire universe, except Lord Vishnu, had performed this Vaishnava sacrifice. Duryodhana
Duryodhana
thus became the most powerful and the wealthiest man in the world. With the help of Karna, Duryodhana
Duryodhana
even made plans and preparations to conquer Indra, the lord of the heavens and the father of Arjuna
Arjuna
in order to become the sovereign ruler of both heaven and earth.[6] The Kurukshetra
Kurukshetra
War[edit] Peace Talks and Buildup[edit] At the end of the exile term, Duryodhana
Duryodhana
refuses to return Yudhishthira's kingdom, despite the counsel of Bhishma, Dronacharya, and Vidura. Although Dhritarashtra
Dhritarashtra
criticizes his son, he tacitly desires that Duryodhana
Duryodhana
retain his throne. In a final attempt at securing peace, Krishna
Krishna
returns with the Pandavas' final proposal: the Pandavas
Pandavas
would give up all claims to Indraprastha
Indraprastha
and Hastinapura
Hastinapura
in exchange for five villages. Scoffing, Duryodhana
Duryodhana
says he will not even give "five needlepoints of land" to the Pandavas. Egged on by Krishna, Duryodhana
Duryodhana
attempts to arrest him. Krishna
Krishna
reveals his Vishvarupa form. The entire Kaurava
Kaurava
court, save for Bhishma, Drona, Vidura, and Dhritarashtra(who was granted divine vision in order to see that by supporting his son, he was going against God), is temporarily blinded by the form. This confirms to those present that Krishna
Krishna
is indeed an avatar of Vishnu. Duryodhana, in some versions of the story an outright atheist, brushes off the incident, not convinced of Krishna's divinity, and believing that strength of arms, not philosophy, would win him a war. Gathering the army[edit] With war inevitable, Duryodhana
Duryodhana
gathers support from his powerful vassals. The most legendary warriors – Bhishma, Drona, Karna, Kripa, Ashwathama, Shrutyudha, even those who were critical of him are forced to fight for Duryodhana
Duryodhana
due to their previous commitments. He ends up amassing a larger army than his rivals. Shakuni
Shakuni
also advises Duryodhana
Duryodhana
to seek Krishna's help. Duryodhana rushes to Dvārakā
Dvārakā
only to find Krishna
Krishna
sleeping; he waits at the head of Krishna's bed when suddenly, Arjuna
Arjuna
arrives with the same goal in mind. Arjuna
Arjuna
waits at the foot of Krishna's bed. When Krishna
Krishna
wakes up, both Duryodhana
Duryodhana
and Arjuna
Arjuna
appeal for his alliance. Krishna
Krishna
offers a choice of himself, completely unarmed, or the entire Vrishini army. Duryodhana
Duryodhana
proclaims that because he arrived first, he should get first-pick. However, Krishna
Krishna
says that because he saw Arjuna
Arjuna
first, and because Arjuna
Arjuna
is younger, that Arjuna
Arjuna
gets the first choice. Duryodhana
Duryodhana
becomes worried, but is overjoyed when Arjuna
Arjuna
elects to reject Krishna's army in favor of Krishna
Krishna
alone. Joyously, Duryodhana returns to Hastinapura
Hastinapura
with the Vrishini army in-hand, only to be rebuked by Shakuni, who comments that Krishna
Krishna
is worth many armies by him.

Duryodhana
Duryodhana
also manages to win the army of king Shalya, the maternal uncle of the Pandavas. Duryodhana
Duryodhana
intercepts Shalya's army as it comes to Kurukshetra
Kurukshetra
and offers hospitality; Shalya
Shalya
accepts thinking Yudhishthira
Yudhishthira
had made the offer. After Shalya
Shalya
has enjoyed Duryodhana's comforts, Duryodhana
Duryodhana
reveals the treachery, and indicates that Shalya is now indebted to him. He uses this indebtedness to extract Shalya's army and support. Duryodhana
Duryodhana
wanted Shalya
Shalya
mainly so that Karna
Karna
would have an equivalent charioteer to Arjuna's Krishna. During the War[edit] In the war, Duryodhana
Duryodhana
repeatedly eggs on the invincible Bhishma
Bhishma
and Drona
Drona
to forward his cause, even though his main hope is Karna. He desires to appoint Karna
Karna
as his commander-in-chief; however, Karna
Karna
and Shakuni
Shakuni
point out that his already reluctant allies would much rather fight under Bhishma, an older, experienced, god-born, kshatriya than fight under a suta-putra, son of a charioteer. Reluctantly, Duryodhana appoints Bhishma
Bhishma
as the commander in chief. Duryodhana
Duryodhana
had defeated Bhima
Bhima
on 4th day and 8th day of war in an archery combat. On the 8th day as Arjuna's son Iravan
Iravan
died happily he killed Vegavat, Maharudra , Vidyujihvi and Parmathin demons from Pandava
Pandava
army. When Bhishma
Bhishma
falls to Arjuna, Duryodhana
Duryodhana
appoints Drona
Drona
as commander-in-chief and orders him to capture Yudhishthira
Yudhishthira
to win the war. On the thirteenth day of battle, his heir Lakshmana is killed by Arjuna's son, Abhimanyu, who proceeds to try and arrest Duryodhana. Duryodhana
Duryodhana
does not stop his warriors to brutally kill of Abhimanyu
Abhimanyu
even if it took unethical means to finish him off. But he is repeatedly frustrated, as the Pandavas
Pandavas
succeed in downing Drona, and is emotionally distraught when Arjuna
Arjuna
kills Jayadratha, his brother-in-law, to avenge Abhimanyu. And all along, Bhima
Bhima
is steadily slaying his brothers, increasing his misery and bringing him closer to defeat. On 14th night he defeated all the Pandavas
Pandavas
alone. On 15th day Duryodhan defeated Nakula
Nakula
in a single combat. It is said that, Duryodhana
Duryodhana
never shed a single tear for any of his real brothers who were killed in the battlefield, but when his beloved friend Karna
Karna
was slain, he was inconsolable. Duryodhan defeated Nakula and Sahadeva
Sahadeva
on 17 th day of war.Duryodhana's hopes are finally shattered when Karna
Karna
is felled by the cheating of Lord Krishna
Krishna
and Arjuna. Duryodhana
Duryodhana
appoints Shalya
Shalya
as the next commander-in-chief.After the death of his beloved friend Karna
Karna
he defeated all the Pandavas
Pandavas
on 17th day singly handedly. On the final day of war, Duryodhana
Duryodhana
takes out his anger by killing Chekitana,he also manages to thrice defeat all the Pandavas
Pandavas
and protect his army. As Shalya
Shalya
is killed by Yudhishthira, Duryodhana's paltry army-once eleven akshauhinis strong-breaks, and the army is essentially routed. Having lost his horse, Duryodhana
Duryodhana
leaves the battlefield. He cools his body by entering a lake, all hope of winning lost, yet he prepares for his final battle; for a death befitting a warrior on the battlefield and hoping to reunite with his friends and relations in the afterlife. He re-emerges from the lake after Ashwatthama
Ashwatthama
and Kripa
Kripa
counsel him to face his destiny with courage.

Duryodhana
Duryodhana
found in the lake

Gada-yuddha[edit]

The final battle between Bhima
Bhima
& Duryodhana

Duryodana was defeated by Bhima
Bhima
– A scene from Razmanama

On the eighteenth day of the war, with his army reduced to himself, Ashwatthama, Kripa
Kripa
and Kritvarma, Duryodhana
Duryodhana
goes to meditate in a lake. When the Pandavas
Pandavas
and Krishna
Krishna
eventually find him, Duryodhana tells them that he wants to gift the kingdom to them, and retire to the forest. Yudhishthira
Yudhishthira
balks at the offer, telling him that Hastinapuram is not Duryodhana's to gift. Instead, he offers that Duryodhana
Duryodhana
may pick any of the Pandava
Pandava
brothers to fight against one-to-one with a weapon of his choice, with the winner of the conflict the victor of the war. Despite his proposed advantage over Yudhishthira, Arjuna, Nakula, or Sahadeva
Sahadeva
with the gada, Duryodhana
Duryodhana
picks his nemesis Bhima. Despite Bhima's physical advantage, Duryodhana
Duryodhana
had the better technique due to his devotion to his craft. After a long and brutal battle between the two disciples of Balarama, Duryodhana
Duryodhana
begins to exhaust Bhima, and nearly makes Bhima
Bhima
faint. At this point, Krishna, observing the fight, calls out to Bhima
Bhima
and signals him by repeatedly clapping his own thigh with his hand. As intended, Bhima
Bhima
was reminded of an oath he had taken after the game of dice to crush Duryodhana's thighs. Bhima
Bhima
victoriously attacks Duryodhana
Duryodhana
with his mace and strikes his thigh, mortally wounding Duryodhana. After having his face insultingly kicked by Bhima, Duryodhana
Duryodhana
bemoans that he was slain by unfair means, given that it was illegal to attack below the waist in a mace fight. Infuriated at the violation, Balarama, the brother of Lord Krishna, raises his weapon in attack. Lord Krishna
Krishna
consoles Balarama, by reminding him of Duryodhana's evil deeds. Relenting but fuming, Balarama
Balarama
curses Bhima to be known in the world as a crooked warrior and blesses Duryodhana with glory, naming Duryodhana
Duryodhana
his greatest pupil.[7] Lying defeated, Duryodhana
Duryodhana
boasts to the Pandavas
Pandavas
about how he will die a glorious death, about how he got to enjoy Hastinapur
Hastinapur
while the Pandavas
Pandavas
were in exile, and about how he would now spend the afterlife in the company of his friends and relatives. He again eviscerates the Pandavas
Pandavas
for all their chicanery during the war and decries their legacy. Venerating his own character, Duryodhana
Duryodhana
proclaims he will die happily. Duryodhana
Duryodhana
then turns to Krishna
Krishna
and specifically accuses him of engineering his defeat. Upon the conclusion of these words of Duryodhana, signs from the heavens (flowers and music) validate the merits of Duryodhana's words.[8] Beholding these exceedingly wonderful things and this worship offered to Duryodhana
Duryodhana
by heavenly beings, the Pandavas
Pandavas
headed by Lord Krishna
Krishna
became ashamed. Hearing the words of Devas and Siddhas that Bhishma, Drona, Karna, Duryodhana, and others were cheated to death, the Pandavas
Pandavas
became afflicted with grief and wept in sorrow. The Pandavas, along with Yuyutsu, Krishna, and Satyaki
Satyaki
went to stay in the Kaurava
Kaurava
camp, while the rest of the army returns to their camp. Death[edit] When the coast is clear, Ashwatthama, Kripacharya, and Kritvarma, having witnessed the fight and not wanting to interrupt so as to rob Duryodhana
Duryodhana
of his honour, come to Duryodhana's broken body. Duryodhana commands them to take revenge on the Pandavas, and to specifically kill all the Pandava
Pandava
brothers and Panchalas. Using the blood from his body, Duryodhana
Duryodhana
appoints Ashwatthama
Ashwatthama
as the army's supreme commander and the protector of his wealth, country, family, and honor. Already angry at the deceitful killing of his father Drona, Ashwatthama
Ashwatthama
ambushes the Pandava
Pandava
camp at night. The three maharathis lay waste to the sleeping, drunk, and unaware army. Other than those who had been staying in the Kaurava
Kaurava
camp, few escape the slaughter. The trio rushes to tell Duryodhana
Duryodhana
of the news. After destroying the entire Pandava
Pandava
camp, Ashwatthama
Ashwatthama
proceeds towards Duryodhana
Duryodhana
with the cut-off heads of the Upapandavas. He told Duryodhana
Duryodhana
that he only managed to kill the Pandava's children as the Pandavas
Pandavas
were not there, and this makes Duryodhana
Duryodhana
happy, as that means the Pandava
Pandava
lineage would die out.[9] Duryodhana
Duryodhana
then, having heard the news that was so agreeable to his heart, regained his senses and praised Ashwatthama
Ashwatthama
for achieving what Bhishma, Drona, and Karna had failed to accomplish.[10] Duryodhana
Duryodhana
died happily with a smile in his face. At the same time, Sanjaya
Sanjaya
loses his divine sight, which he had been using to update Duryodhana's father Dhritarashtra. According to the Mahabharata, after entering the svarga with a human body on Indra's invitation, Yudhishthira
Yudhishthira
witnessed that Duryodhana "was seated on a beautiful throne and he shone with the splendour of the sun and around him stood in attendance the goddess of heroism and other angels." Yudhishthira
Yudhishthira
found this insufferable and reminded the dwellers of svarga about his sinful deeds. Following that, Narada smiled at Yudhishthira
Yudhishthira
and said that "the brave Duryodhana
Duryodhana
had attained his present state by force of kshatriya dharma." The Mahabharata
Mahabharata
further mentions that in svarga, Duryodhana
Duryodhana
and his brothers "attained the state of the gods."[11] Other Stories[edit] Duryodhana’s dilemmas[edit] Duryodhana
Duryodhana
is lying in the battle field, awaiting death, badly bruised by the wounds inflicted by Bhima. He kept his three fingers in a raised position and is unable to speak. All the efforts made by his men to understand the meaning proved to be futile. Seeing his plight Krishna
Krishna
approached him and said "I know what issues occupied your mind. I will address them". Krishna
Krishna
identified the issues as:

Not building a fort around Hastinapur, Not persuading Vidura
Vidura
to fight the battle, and Not making Ashwatthama
Ashwatthama
the commander-in-chief after the death of Drona.

On hearing this Duryodhana
Duryodhana
closed all the fingers and rested. Duryodhana
Duryodhana
concluded that these 3 factors should have surely brought him victory. Had he built a fort around Hastinapura, he could have totally avoided the war in the first place. If Vidura
Vidura
had fought on his side, he would have had the best strategist, even better than Krishna. At last, Duryodhana
Duryodhana
came to the conclusion that Krishna
Krishna
was in fact the avatar of Lord Vishnu. If Duryodhana
Duryodhana
had named Ashwatthama the commander of the army after the death of Drona, victory would have surely be his as Ashwatthama
Ashwatthama
was the avatar of Lord Shiva.[12] No one can handle a 'furious' Ashwatthama, the part incarnate of Lord Shiva. All Duryodhana
Duryodhana
need to do to win the war was to make Ashwatthama furious. The remorse about under-utilizing Ashwatthama
Ashwatthama
prompted Duryodhana
Duryodhana
to rethink and make Ashwatthama
Ashwatthama
the commander of his army after the war, after his defeat.[13] These events led to the complete destruction of the Pandavas' army. After the night raid of Ashwatthama on the Pandava
Pandava
camp, Duryodhana
Duryodhana
felt like he had won the war, as the Pandavas
Pandavas
lost everything and everyone they cared about.[14] Evaluation[edit] Duryodhana
Duryodhana
is a popular choice of analysis. His merits, flaws, symbolism, and relevance are widely discussed. Urubhanga
Urubhanga
is a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
play written by Bhasa in the 2nd or 3rd century AD with Duryodhana
Duryodhana
as its primary protagonist. Written as a tragedy, the drama focuses on his point of view of the events of Mahabharata. His portrayal as a tragic hero is an especially unique within body of works in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
drama. Many Hindus believe that Duryodhana
Duryodhana
was the personification of Kali. Many critics argue that he is not without positives; many consider Duryodhana
Duryodhana
as a fair king and there are temples dedicated to him and Kauravas. Scholars believe that like most other characters of the Mahabharata, the true picture is not black and white. His name is often mistaken to mean bad ruler, however his name is actually coined from the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
words "du"/"duh" which means "difficult" and "yodhana" which means "fight"/"war".[citation needed] So Duryodhana actually means someone who is extremely difficult to fight/defeat or wage war against. Duryodhana
Duryodhana
is viewed, by some, as the product of Dhritarashtra's ambition and also in a metaphorical sense, his "blindness". He is also praised for his adherence to his duties as a Kshatriya, and even in his last combat, fights bravely. He chooses to face Bhima
Bhima
in combat over all the other Pandavas, with whom he has an advantage in mace fighting. His skills in the mace are also praised; many stories call him the best mace-fighter of the age after Balarama. According to Mahabharata, when Bhishma
Bhishma
has to pick Dhritarashtra's successor, he mentions to Vidura
Vidura
many of Duryodhana's positive qualities in comparison to Yudhishthira. Having spent so many years in the forest, Yudhishthira
Yudhishthira
doesn't have Duryodhana's experience, military expertise, education, and courtly manners. Bhishma
Bhishma
adds that Duryodhana
Duryodhana
is loved by the people, while Yudhishthira
Yudhishthira
is an unknown quantity to them. However, Bhishma
Bhishma
ultimately selects Yudhishthira, telling Vidura
Vidura
that in his heart, Duryodhana
Duryodhana
is a power-hungry, vitriolic individual, while at his core, Yudhishthira
Yudhishthira
is a good man who cares tremendously for his people. Friendship with Karna[edit] The friendship between Karna
Karna
and Duryodhana
Duryodhana
is considered to be a great one, and is used as an example of friendship and loyalty.[15][16] In the epic, Duryodhana
Duryodhana
decries the means of discrimination employed by Dronacharya. He goes one step further to accord Karna
Karna
a place among the royals, by crowning him the King
King
of Anga
Anga
and standing by him whenever anyone pointed a finger at his lower-birth. He seems to not care about the low birth of Karna
Karna
and is the only one to vocally support Karna
Karna
candidature in the archery contest without caring about caste inequality. When Draupadi
Draupadi
refuses to allow Karna
Karna
to string the bow at her Swayamvara
Swayamvara
because of his low birth, Duryodhana
Duryodhana
defends him saying "great sages, philosophers, and warriors have no source. They are made great, not born great". In modern light, his disrespect for discrimination and blind following of tradition is seen more positively.

Coronation of Karna

Modern Worship[edit]

At Poruvazhy Peruviruthy Malanada Temple
Poruvazhy Peruviruthy Malanada Temple
in Kerala's Kollam
Kollam
district, Duryodhana
Duryodhana
is worshipped as the main deity. It is the only temple in South India
South India
where a Kaurava
Kaurava
is considered a God.[17] In the Kumaon region of Uttarakhand, several beautifully carved temples are dedicated to Duryodhana
Duryodhana
and he is worshipped as the deity. The mountain tribes of Kumaon fought along with Duryodhana
Duryodhana
in the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
war; he was venerated as a capable and generous administrator. There is a temple in Osla, Garhwal division
Garhwal division
of Uttarakhand. This was built by inhabitants of Saur. People believe he stayed here with blessings of Lord Mahasu to take care of the people.[18]

In Media[edit]

Krishnavatara (Hindi: कृष्णअवतार), a series of seven novels written by Dr. K.M. Munshi (Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan) Duryodhana
Duryodhana
by Viswanathan Raghunathan (2014, Harper Collins).

Year TV Series Channel Country Language Played by

1964 Karnan (film) N/A India Tamil S. A. Ashokan

1977 Daana Veera Shura Karna N/A India Telugu N. T. Rama
Rama
Rao

1988 Mahabharat (1988 TV series) DD National India Hindi Amit Shukla/Puneet Issar

1989 The Mahabharata
Mahabharata
(1989 film) N/A Belgium Australia U.S. Sweden Portugal Norway Netherlands Japan Ireland Iceland Finland Denmark UK France English Georges Corraface

1993 Krishna
Krishna
(TV series) DD Metro India

Kumar Hegde

2013 Mahabharat (2013 TV series) STAR Plus India Hindi Alam Khan/Arpit Ranka

2015 Suryaputra Karn Sony Entertainment Television India Hindi Yash Karia/Shaleen Bhanot

See also[edit]

Kauravas Kali
Kali
(demon) Mahabharata

Notes[edit]

^ Ganguli, Kisari Mohan. The Mahabharata, Book 3: Vana Parva. Netlancers Inc, 2014.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ a b Kisari Mohan Ganguli (1896). "Mahabaratha, Digvijaya yatra of Karna". The Mahabharata. Sacred Texts. Retrieved June 11, 2015.  ^ "The Mahabharata, Book 1: Adi Parva: Sambhava Parva: Section CXV". Sacred-texts.com. Retrieved 2014-08-15.  ^ MBH 8.8.18–20. ^ Ganguli, Kisari Mohan. The Mahabharata, Book 3: Vana Parva. Netlancers Inc, 2014.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Kisari Mohan Ganguli (1896). " Mahabharata
Mahabharata
- Karna
Karna
conquering the entire world". The Mahabharata. Sacred Texts. Retrieved June 11, 2015.  ^ K M Ganguly(1883-1896) Balarama
Balarama
curses Bhima
Bhima
and came to aid of Duryodhana
Duryodhana
October 2003,Retrieved 2015-03-08 ^ K M Ganguly(1883-1896). Krishna
Krishna
Speaking to Duryodhana
Duryodhana
and Pandavas The Mahabharatha,Book 9: Shalya
Shalya
Parva Section 61 sacred-texts.com,October 2003,Retrieved 2013-11-18 ^ K M Ganguly(1883-1896). The Mahabharatha Book 10: Sauptika Parva section 9 Ashwatthama
Ashwatthama
killing Dhrishtadyumna, October 2003, Retrieved 2015-04-17 ^ K M Ganguly(1883-1896). The Mahabharatha Book 10: Sauptika Parva section 9 Duryodhana
Duryodhana
praising Ashwatthama, October 2003, Retrieved 2015-04-17 ^ Rajagopalachari, Chakravarti (2005). "Yudhishthira's final trial". Mahabharata
Mahabharata
(45th ed.). Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. pp. 439–444. ISBN 81-7276-368-9.  ^ J.L Shastri. "The Siva Purana - The Complete Set in 4 Volumes". Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Pvt Ltd; 2008 Edition ^ K M Ganguly(1883-1896). The Mahabharatha Book 9: Shalya
Shalya
Parva section 65 Duryodhana
Duryodhana
speaking to Asvathama, Kripa, and Kritavarma, October 2003,Retrieved 2015-04-17 ^ K M Ganguly(1883-1896). The Mahabharatha Book 10: Sauptika Parva section 10 [permanent dead link] Yudhishthira
Yudhishthira
and Pandavas
Pandavas
crying over the death of Upapandavas
Upapandavas
and Panchalas, October 2003,Retrieved 2015-04-17 ^ Vignesh, Inba. "The Greatest friends ever lived - Karna
Karna
and Duriyoudan". India - The Land Of Hearts. India - The Land Of Hearts. Retrieved 15 June 2017.  ^ "Friendship". The Hindu. The Hindu. Retrieved 15 June 2017.  ^ "Poruvazhy Peruviruthy Malanada The one and only one Duryodhana Temple in South India". Malanada.com. Retrieved 2014-08-15.  ^ "Shrine for Duryodhana!". The Hindu. 11 May 2017. Retrieved 12 May 2017. 

References[edit]

The Mahabharata
Mahabharata
(1999) by Krishna
Krishna
Dharma

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Duryodhana

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Duryodhana.

Duryodhana
Duryodhana
Temples and Lineage karna great personalities THE RELEVANCE OF “KARNA AND DURYODHANA’S” FRIENDSHIP IN THE MODERN INDIAN SOCIETY From Duryodhana’s perspective

v t e

Mahabharata

Books (parvas)

Adi Sabha Vana Virata Udyoga Bhishma Drona Karna Shalya Sauptika Stri Shanti Anushasana Ashvamedhika Ashramavasika Mausala Mahaprasthanika Svargarohana Harivamsa

Kuru Kingdom

Shantanu Ganga Bhishma Satyavati Chitrāngada Vichitravirya Ambika Ambalika Vidura Dhritarashtra Gandhari Pandu Kunti Madri Pandavas

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Duryodhana Dushasana Vikarna Yuyutsu Dushala

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Amba Ashwatthama Balarama Bhagadatta Brihannala Chekitana Chitrasena Dhrishtadyumna Drona Drupada Durvasa Ekalavya Hidimba Jarasandha Jayadratha Kali
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(demon) Karna Kichaka Kindama Kripa Krishna Kritavarma Mayasura Sanjaya Satyaki Shakuni Shalya Shikhandi Shishupala Bahlika Sudeshna Uttara Kumara Virata Vrishasena Vyasa

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