HOME
The Info List - Dummer's War





The Dummer's War
Dummer's War
(1722–1725, also known as Father Rale's War, Lovewell's War, Greylock's War, the Three Years War, the 4th Anglo- Abenaki
Abenaki
War,[3] or the Wabanaki- New England
New England
War of 1722–1725)[4] was a series of battles between New England
New England
and the Wabanaki Confederacy
Wabanaki Confederacy
(specifically the Mi'kmaq, Maliseet, and Abenaki) who were allied with New France. The eastern theater of the war was fought primarily along the border between New England
New England
and Acadia
Acadia
in Maine, as well as in Nova Scotia; the western theater was fought in northern Massachusetts and Vermont
Vermont
at the border between Canada (New France) and New England. (During this time, Massachusetts included Maine
Maine
and Vermont.)[5] The root cause of the conflict on the Maine
Maine
frontier concerned the border between Acadia
Acadia
and New England, which New France
New France
defined as the Kennebec River
Kennebec River
in southern Maine.[6]:27,266 [7][8] Mainland Nova Scotia came under British control after the Siege
Siege
of Port Royal in 1710 and the Treaty of Utrecht
Treaty of Utrecht
in 1713 (not including Cape Breton), but present-day New Brunswick
New Brunswick
and Maine
Maine
remained contested between New England and New France. New France
New France
established Catholic missions among the four largest Indian villages in the region: one on the Kennebec River (Norridgewock), one farther north on the Penobscot River (Penobscot Indian Island Reservation), one on the Saint John River (Meductic Indian Village / Fort Meductic),[9][10]:51,54 and one at Shubenacadie, Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
(Saint Anne's Mission).[11] Similarly, New France established three forts along the border of New Brunswick during Father Le Loutre's War
Father Le Loutre's War
to protect it from a British attack from Nova Scotia. The Treaty of Utrecht
Treaty of Utrecht
ended Queen Anne's War, but it had been signed in Europe and had not involved any member of the Wabanaki Confederacy. The Abenaki
Abenaki
signed the Treaty of Portsmouth (1713), but none had been consulted about British ownership of Nova Scotia, and the Mi'kmaq began to make raids against New England
New England
fishermen and settlements.[12]:96 The war began on two fronts as a result of the expansion of New England
New England
settlements along the coast of Maine
Maine
and at Canso, Nova Scotia. The New Englanders were led primarily by Massachusetts Lt. Governor William Dummer, Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
Lt. Governor John Doucett, and Captain John Lovewell. The Wabanaki Confederacy
Wabanaki Confederacy
and other Indian tribes were led primarily by Father Sébastien Rale, Chief Gray Lock, and Chief Paugus. During the war, Father Rale was killed by the British at Norridgewock. The Indian population retreated from the Kennebec and Penobscot rivers to St. Francis and Becancour, Quebec, and New England
New England
took over much of the Maine
Maine
territory.[13] In New Brunswick
New Brunswick
and Nova Scotia, the treaty that ended Father Rale's war marked a significant shift in European relations with the Mi'kmaq and Maliseet
Maliseet
tribes.[citation needed]

Contents

1 Background 2 Encroachment of settlements and fortifications 3 Undeclared war 4 Eastern theater ( Maine
Maine
and New Hampshire)

4.1 1722 campaign 4.2 1723 campaign 4.3 1724 campaign 4.4 Battle of Norridgewock

5 Lovewell's raids

5.1 Battle of Pequawket

6 Western theater: Vermont
Vermont
and western Massachusetts 7 Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
theater 8 Peace negotiations 9 Consequences 10 See also 11 References 12 External links

Background[edit] Main articles: Queen Anne's War, Treaty of Utrecht, and Treaty of Portsmouth (1713)

A New Map of the North Parts of America claimed by France under the names of Louisiana... in 1720 drawn by Hermann Moll

The War of the Spanish Succession
War of the Spanish Succession
ended with the Treaty of Utrecht
Treaty of Utrecht
in 1713. The colonial borders of northeastern North America were reshaped as a result, but the treaty did not account for Indian claims to the same area. French Acadia
Acadia
was ceded to Great Britain which established the province of Nova Scotia, although its borders were disputed. The area disputed by the European powers consisted of land between the Kennebec River
Kennebec River
(the eastern portion of Maine) and the Isthmus of Chignecto (all of the Canadian province of New Brunswick). This land was occupied by a number of Algonquian-speaking Indian tribes loosely allied in the Wabanaki Confederacy, which also claimed sovereignty over most of this territory and had occupancy preceding that of the Colonists. Massachusetts Governor Joseph Dudley
Joseph Dudley
organized a major peace conference at Portsmouth, New Hampshire. In negotiations there and at Casco Bay, the Wabanaki present orally objected to British assertions that the French had ceded their territory to Britain in eastern Maine and New Brunswick, and agreed to a confirmation of boundaries at the Kennebec River
Kennebec River
and the establishment of government-run trading posts in their territory.[14]:162–163 The Treaty of Portsmouth was ratified on July 13, 1713 by eight representatives of the Wabanaki Confederacy, however, which asserted British sovereignty over their territory.[15]:107–110 Over the next year, other Abenaki
Abenaki
tribal leaders also signed the treaty, but no Mi'kmaq ever signed it or any other treaty until 1726.[16]:97–98 Encroachment of settlements and fortifications[edit] Following the peace, New England
New England
settlements expanded east of the Kennebec River, and significant numbers of New Englanders began fishing in Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
waters. They established a permanent fishing settlement at Canso which upset the local Mi'kmaq, who then began raiding the settlement and attacking the fishermen.[12]:96 In response to Wabanaki hostilities, Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
Governor Richard Philipps
Richard Philipps
built a fort at Canso in 1720. Massachusetts governors Joseph Dudley
Joseph Dudley
and Samuel Shute
Samuel Shute
built forts around the mouth of the Kennebec River: Fort George at Brunswick (1715),[17] Fort Menaskoux at Arrowsic (1717), St. George's Fort at Thomaston (1720), and Fort Richmond (1721) at Richmond.[6]:88,97 The French built a church in the Abenaki
Abenaki
village of Norridgewock
Norridgewock
in Madison, Maine
Maine
on the Kennebec River, maintained a mission at Penobscot on the Penobscot River, and built a church in the Maliseet
Maliseet
village of Meductic on the Saint John River.[9][10]:51 In a meeting at Arrowsic, Maine
Maine
in 1717, Governor Shute and representatives of the Wabanakis attempted to reach some agreement concerning encroachment on Wabanaki lands and the establishment of provincially operated trading posts. Kennebec sachem Wiwurna objected to Colonists establishing settlements on the land and to their constructing forts; he claimed sovereign control of the land, while Shute reasserted Colonial rights to expand into the territory.[18] The Wabanakis were willing to accede to existing settlements if a proper boundary was delineated, beyond which settlement would not be allowed. Shute responded, "We desire only what is our own, and that we will have."[14]:174–176 Over the next several years, New England
New England
Colonists continued to settle in Wabanaki lands east of the Kennebec River—and the Wabanakis responded by stealing livestock.[18] Canso, Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
was established as a fishing settlement disputed by all three parties but fortified by Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
and primarily occupied by Massachusetts fishermen. It was attacked by Mi'kmaq and French forces in 1720, further raising tensions.[19] Shute protested the presence of French Jesuit
Jesuit
priest Sebastian Rale, who lived among the Kennebec tribe at Norridgewock
Norridgewock
in central Maine, and he demanded that Rale be removed. The Wabanakis refused in July 1721 and demanded that hostages be released (who had been given in surety during earlier negotiations) in exchange for a delivery of furs made in restitution for their raiding. Massachusetts made no official response. The Wabanakis then went to extraordinary lengths to produce a written document reasserting their sovereign claims to disputed areas, delineating the areas that they claimed, and threatening violence if their territory was violated.[16]:97 Shute dismissed the letter as "insolent and menacing" and sent militia forces to Arrowsic.[14]:184 [20]:119 He also asserted that the Wabanaki claims were part of a French intrigue, based on Rale's influence, to further French claims to the disputed areas.[14]:185 Undeclared war[edit]

Raid on Norridgewock
Norridgewock
(1722): Westbrook confiscates Father Rale's Strongbox[21]

Governor Shute was convinced that the French were behind Wabanaki claims, so he sent a military expedition under the command of Colonel Thomas Westbrook
Thomas Westbrook
of Thomaston to capture Father Rale in January 1722.[14]:185 Most of the tribe was away hunting, and Westbrook's 300 soldiers surrounded Norridgewock
Norridgewock
to capture Rale, but he was forewarned and escaped into the forest. They found Rale's strongbox among his possessions, however, which contained a secret compartment. Inside that compartment they found letters implicating Rale as an agent of the government of Canada, promising Indians enough ammunition to drive the Colonists from their settlements.[6]:109[22] Shute reiterated English claims of sovereignty over the disputed areas in letters to the Lords of Trade and to Governor General Philippe de Rigaud Vaudreuil of New France. Vaudreuil pointed out in response that France claimed sovereignty over the area, while the Wabanakis maintained possession, and he suggested that Shute misunderstood the way in which European ideas of ownership differed from those of the Indians.[20]:120–124 In response to the raid on Norridgewock, the Abenakis raided Fort George on June 13[6]:114[10]:55[23] which was under the command of Captain John Gyles. They burned the homes of the village and took 60 prisoners, most of whom were later released.[6]:114 [24] On 15 July 1722, Father Lauverjat from Penobscot led 500-600 Indians from Penobscot and Medunic (Maliseet) and laid siege to Fort St. George for 12 days. They burned a sawmill, a large sloop, and sundry houses, and killed many of their cattle. Five New Englanders were killed and seven were taken prisoner, while the New Englanders killed 20 Maliseet
Maliseet
and Penobscot warriors. After the raid, Westbrook was given command of the fort.[6]:115 [10]:56,59 [25]:30 Following this raid, Brunswick was raided again and burned before the warriors returned to Norridgewock.[6]:116 In response to the New England
New England
attack on Father Rale at Norridgewock in March 1722, 165 Mi'kmaq and Maliseet
Maliseet
troops gathered at Minas (Grand Pre, Nova Scotia) to lay siege to Annapolis Royal.[10]:56 [26]:47 Lieutenant Governor John Doucett took 22 Mi'kmaqs hostage in May 1722 to prevent the provincial capital from being attacked.[10]:56 In July, the Abenakis and Mi'kmaqs blockaded Annapolis Royal
Annapolis Royal
with the intent of starving the capital.[27] The Indians captured 18 fishing vessels and prisoners in raids from Cape Sable Island
Cape Sable Island
to Canso. They also seized prisoners and vessels working in the Bay of Fundy.[27][28] On July 25, 1722, Governor Shute formally declared war on the Wabanakis.[14]:185 Lieutenant Governor William Dummer
William Dummer
conducted the Massachusetts involvement in the war,[14]:186–188 [20]:124 since Shute sailed for England at the end of 1722 to deal with ongoing disputes that he had with the Massachusetts colonial assembly. Eastern theater ( Maine
Maine
and New Hampshire)[edit] 1722 campaign[edit]

Lt. Governor of Massachusetts William Dummer

Between 400 and 500 St. Francis (Odanak, Quebec) and Mi'kmaq Indians attacked Arrowsic, Maine
Maine
on September 10, 1722, in conjunction with Father Rale at Norridgewock. Captain Penhallow discharged musketry from a small guard, wounding three of the Indians and killing another. This defense gave the inhabitants of the village time to retreat into the fort, leaving the Indians in full possession of the village. They slaughtered 50 head of cattle and set fire to 26 houses outside the fort, then assaulted the fort, killing one New Englander but otherwise making little impression. That night, Col. Walton and Capt. Harman arrived with 30 men, to which were added approximately 40 men from the fort under Captains Penhallow and Temple. The combined force of 70 men attacked the Indians, but they were overwhelmed by their numbers. The New Englanders then retreated back into the fort. The Indians eventually retired up the river, viewing further attacks on the fort as useless.[6]:119 During their return to Norridgewock, the Indians attacked Fort Richmond[6]:119 with a three-hour siege. They burned homes and killed cattle, but the fort held. Brunswick and other settlements near the mouth of the Kennebec were destroyed. On March 9, 1723, Colonel Thomas Westbrook
Thomas Westbrook
led 230 men to the Penobscot River
Penobscot River
and traveled approximately 32 miles (51 km) upstream to the Penobscot Village. They found a large Penobscot fort some 70 by 50 yards (64 by 46 m), with 14-foot (4.3 m) walls surrounding 23 wigwams. There was also a large chapel (60 by 30 feet (18.3 by 9.1 m)). The village was vacant of people, and the soldiers burned it to the ground.[6]:120 1723 campaign[edit] Main article: Northeast Coast Campaign (1723) The Wabanaki Confederacy
Wabanaki Confederacy
of Acadia
Acadia
orchestrated a total of 14 raids against towns along the border of New England
New England
throughout 1723, primarily in Maine. The campaign started in April and lasted until December, during which 30 people were killed or taken captive. The Indian attacks were so fierce along the Maine
Maine
frontier that Dummer ordered residents to evacuate to the blockhouses in the spring of 1724.[26]:49 1724 campaign[edit] During the spring of 1724, the Wabanaki Confederacy
Wabanaki Confederacy
orchestrated ten raids on the Maine
Maine
frontier which killed, wounded, or imprisoned more than 30 New Englanders. In Kennebunk harbor, a sloop was taken, and the whole crew was put to death.[6]:125 In the spring of 1724 the command of St. George's Fort at Thomaston was given to Capt. Josiah Winslow, older brother of John Winslow.[29] On 30 April 1724, Winslow and Sergeant Harvey and 17 men left George's Fort in two whale boats and went downriver several miles to Green Island. The following day, the two whale boats became separated and approximately 200-300 Abenakis descended on Harvey's boat, killing Harvey and all of his men except three Indian guides who escaped to the Georges fort. Captain Winslow was then surrounded by 30 to 40 canoes which came off from both sides of the river and attacked him with great fury. After hours of fighting, Winslow and his men were killed except for three friendly Indians who escaped back to the fort. The Tarrantine Indians were reported to have lost over 25 warriors.[6]:126 [25]:30 On May 27 at Purpooduck), the Indians killed one man and wounded another. On the same day, a man was killed at Saco. In June, Indians raided Dover, New Hampshire
New Hampshire
and Elizabeth Hanson wrote her captivity narrative.[30] The Indians also engaged in a naval campaign, assisted by the Mi'kmaqs from Cape Sable Island. In just a few weeks, they had captured 22 vessels, killing 22 New Englanders and taking more prisoner.[6]:127 They also made an unsuccessful siege of St. George's Fort. Battle of Norridgewock[edit] Main article: Battle of Norridgewock

The Father Rale memorial at the battle site in Madison, Maine

In the second half of 1724, the New Englanders launched an aggressive campaign up the Kennebec and Penobscot rivers.[31]:80 On August 22, Captains Jeremiah Moulton
Jeremiah Moulton
and Johnson Harmon
Johnson Harmon
led 200 rangers to Norridgewock
Norridgewock
to kill Father Rale and destroy the settlement. There were 160 Abenakis, many of whom chose to flee rather than fight. At least 31 chose to fight, and most of them were killed.[31]:80 Rale was killed in the opening moments of the battle, a leading chief was killed, and nearly two dozen women and children.[10]:84 The Colonists had casualties of two militiamen and one Mohawk. Harmon destroyed the Abenaki
Abenaki
farms, and those who had escaped were forced to abandon their village and move northward to the Abenaki
Abenaki
village of St. Francis and Becancour, Quebec.[31]:81 [15]:123 Lovewell's raids[edit] Captain John Lovewell made three expeditions against the Indians. On the first expedition in December 1724, he and his militia company of 30 men (often called "snowshoe men") left Dunstable, New Hampshire, trekking to the north of Lake Winnipesaukee
Lake Winnipesaukee
("Winnipiscogee Lake") into the White Mountains of New Hampshire. On December 10, 1724, they and a company of rangers killed two Abenakis.[10]:65 In February 1725, Lovewell made a second expedition to the Lake Winnipesaukee area.[10]:65 On February 20, his force came across wigwams at the head of the Salmon Falls River
Salmon Falls River
in Wakefield, New Hampshire, where ten Indians were killed. Battle of Pequawket[edit] Main article: Battle of Pequawket

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Death of Chief Paugus

Lovewell's third expedition consisted of 46 men and left from Dunstable on April 16, 1725. They built a fort at Ossipee, New Hampshire and garrisoned it with 10 men, including a doctor and John Goffe, while the rest left to raid the Pequawket
Pequawket
tribe at Fryeburg, Maine. On May 9, the militiamen were being led in prayer by chaplain Jonathan Frye when a lone Abenaki
Abenaki
warrior was spotted. Lovewell and his men closed in on the warrior, leaving their packs behind in a clearing. Shortly after they left, their packs were discovered by a Pequawket
Pequawket
war party led by Chief Paugus, who set up an ambush in anticipation of their eventual return. Lovewell and his men caught up with the warrior and exchanged gunfire. Lovewell and one of his men were wounded in the encounter, and the Indian was killed by Ensign Seth Wyman, Lovewell's second in command. Lovewell's force then returned to their packs and the ambush was sprung. Lovewell and eight of his men were killed and two were wounded when the Pequawkets opened fire. The survivors managed to retreat to a strong position, and fended off repeated attacks until the Pequawkets withdrew around sunset. Only 20 of the militiamen survived the battle; three died on the return journey. The Pequawket
Pequawket
losses included Chief Paugus. Western theater: Vermont
Vermont
and western Massachusetts[edit]

Monument of Chief Grey Lock
Grey Lock
in Battery Park (Burlington, Vermont)

The western theater of the war has also been referred to as "Grey Lock's War".[32] On August 13, 1723, Gray Lock
Gray Lock
entered the war by raiding Northfield, Massachusetts, when four warriors killed two citizens near Northfield. The next day, they attacked Joseph Stevens and his four sons in Rutland, Massachusetts. Stevens escaped, two of the boys were killed, and the other two sons were captured.[15]:117 On October 9, 1723, Gray Lock struck two small forts near Northfield, inflicting casualties and carrying off one captive.[15]:119 In response, Governor Dummer ordered the construction of Fort Dummer in Brattleboro, Vermont. The fort became a major base of operations for scouting and punitive expeditions into Abenaki
Abenaki
country.[15]:119 Fort Dummer
Fort Dummer
was Vermont's first permanent settlement, made under the command of Lieutenant Timothy Dwight.[33] On June 18, 1724, Grey Lock
Grey Lock
attacked a group of men working in a meadow near Hatfield, Massachusetts. He then moved on and killed men at Deerfield, Northfield, and Westfield over the summer. In response to the raids, Dummer ordered more soldiers for Northfield, Brookfield, Deerfield, and Sunderland, Massachusetts.[6]:121 On October 11, 1724, 70 Abenakis attacked Fort Dummer
Fort Dummer
and killed three or four soldiers.[34] In September 1725, a scouting party of six men was sent out from Fort Dummer. Grey Lock
Grey Lock
and 14 others ambushed them just west of the Connecticut River, killing two and wounding and capturing three others. One man escaped, while two Indians were killed.[6]:126 Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
theater[edit] Main article: Battle at Winnepang (Jeddore Harbour) Nova Scotia's governor launched a campaign to end the Mi'kmaq blockade of Annapolis Royal
Annapolis Royal
at the end of July 1722. They retrieved over 86 New England prisoners taken by the Indians. One of these operations resulted in the Battle at Winnepang (Jeddore Harbour), in which 35 Indians and five New Englanders were killed.[27] Only five Indian bodies were recovered from the battle, and the New Englanders decapitated the corpses and set the severed heads on pikes surrounding Canso's new fort.[35] During the war, a church was erected at the Catholic mission in the Mi'kmaq village of Shubenacadie (Saint Anne's Mission). In 1723, the village of Canso, Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
was raided again by the Mi'kmaqs, who killed five fishermen, so the New Englanders built a 12-gun blockhouse to guard the village and fishery.[10]:62[36] The worst moment of the war for Annapolis Royal
Annapolis Royal
came on July 4, 1724 when a group of 60 Mi'kmaqs and Maliseets raided the capital. They killed and scalped a sergeant and a private, wounded four more soldiers, and terrorized the village. They also burned houses and took prisoners.[37]:164–165 The New Englanders responded by executing one of the Mi'kmaq hostages on the same spot where the sergeant was killed. They also burned three Acadian houses in retaliation.[38] As a result of the raid, three blockhouses were built to protect the town. The Acadian church was moved closer to the fort so that it could be more easily monitored.[39] In 1725, 60 Abenakis and Mi'kmaqs launched another attack on Canso, destroying two houses and killing six people.[40][41] Peace negotiations[edit]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Penobscot tribal chiefs expressed a willingness to enter peace talks with Lieutenant Governor Dummer in December 1724. They were opposed in this by French authorities, who continued to encourage the conflict, but Massachusetts Lieutenant Governor Dummer announced a cessation of hostilities on 31 July 1725 following negotiations in March.[31]:83 The terms of this preliminary agreement were negotiated by Dummer and Chiefs Loron and Wenemouet and applied only to the Penobscots at first. They were allowed to retain Jesuit
Jesuit
priests, but the two parties were in disagreement concerning land titles and British sovereignty over the Wabanakis. The written agreement was translated into Abenaki by French Jesuit
Jesuit
Etienne Lauverjat; Chief Loron immediately repudiated it, specifically rejecting claims of British sovereignty over him. Despite his disagreement, Loron pursued peace, sending wampum belts to other tribal leaders, although his envoys were unsuccessful in reaching Gray Lock, who continued his raiding expeditions. Peace treaties were signed in Maine
Maine
on 15 December 1725 and in Nova Scotia on 15 June 1726, involving a large number of tribal chiefs. The peace was reconfirmed by all except Gray Lock
Gray Lock
at a major gathering at Falmouth in the summer of 1727; other tribal envoys claimed that they were not able to locate him. Gray Lock's activity came to an end in 1727, after which time he disappears from English records. Consequences[edit] As a result of the war, the Indian population declined on the Kennebec and Penobscot Rivers, and western Maine
Maine
came more strongly under British control. The terms of Dummer's Treaty were restated at every major new treaty conference for the next 30 years, but there was no major conflict in the area until King George's War
King George's War
in the 1740s. In New Brunswick
New Brunswick
and Nova Scotia, Dummer's Treaty marked a significant shift in British relations with the Mi'kmaqs and Maliseets, who refused to declare themselves British subjects.[10]:70 The French lost their footholds in Maine, while New Brunswick
New Brunswick
remained under French control for a number of years. The peace in Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
lasted for 18 years.[37]:167 The British took control of New Brunswick
New Brunswick
at the end of Father Le Loutre's War, with the defeat of Le Loutre at Fort Beausejour. This was the only war fought by the Wabanakis against the British on their own terms and for their own reasons, rather than in support of French interests.[42] The final major battle of the war was the Battle of Pequawket, or "Lovewell's Fight", which was celebrated in song and story in the 19th century. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
wrote "The Battle of Lovells Pond," and Nathaniel Hawthorne
Nathaniel Hawthorne
wrote "Roger Malvin's Burial" about the battle, while Henry David Thoreau
Henry David Thoreau
mentioned it in his A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers.[43] The town of Lovell, Maine
Maine
is named after John Lovewell. Paugus Bay, the town of Paugus Mill (now part of Albany, New Hampshire), and Mount Paugus in New Hampshire
New Hampshire
were named after Chief Paugus.[44][45] The site of the Kennebec village of Norridgewock
Norridgewock
was declared a National Historic Landmark District
National Historic Landmark District
in 1993, now located at Old Point in Madison, Maine.[46] See also[edit]

Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
portal Acadia
Acadia
portal

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dummer's War.

Father Le Loutre's War Colonial American military history Military history of Nova Scotia American Indian Wars

References[edit]

Sources

Belmessous, Saliha (2011). Native Claims: Indigenous Law Against Empire. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199794850. OCLC 703871436.  Calloway, Colin. The Western Abenakis of Vermont, 1600-1800: War, Migration, and the survival of an Indian people (University of Oklahoma Press, 1990) Day, Gordon. In Search of New England's Native Past: Selected Essays (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1998) Eaton, Cyrus. Annals of the Town of Warren[25] Faragher, John Mack. A Great and Noble Scheme. New York; W. W. Norton & Company, 2005. Haviland, William; Power, Marjory. The Original Vermonters: Native Inhabitants, Past and Present (University Press of New England, 1994) Haynes, Mark. The Forgotten Battle: A History of the Acadians of Canso/ Chedabuctou. British Columbia: Trafford. 2004 Grenier, John. The Far Reaches of Empire. University of Oklahoma Press. 2008 Grenier, John. The First Way of War: American War Making on the Frontier, 1607-1814. 2003. 47-52. Morrison, Kenneth (1984). The Embattled Northeast: The Elusive Ideal of Alliance in Abenaki-Euramerican Relations. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-05126-3. OCLC 10072696.  Rawlyk, George (1973). Nova Scotia's Massachusetts. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN 978-0-7735-0142-3. OCLC 1371993.  Reid, John; Basque, Maurice; Mancke, Elizabeth; Moody, Barry; Plank, Geoffrey; Wicken, William (2004). The 'Conquest' of Acadia, 1710: Imperial, Colonial, and Aboriginal Constructions. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-3755-8. OCLC 249082697.  Wicken, William. Mi'kmaq Treaties on Trial. University of Toronto Press. 2002. Wicken, William. "Mi'kmaq Decisions: Antoine Tecouenemac, the Conquest, and the Treaty of Utrecht". In John Reid et al. (eds). The Conquest of Acadia, 1710: Imperial, Colonial and Aboriginal Constructions. University of Toronto Press. 2004. Williamson, William Durkee. The History of the State of Maine: From Its First Discovery, A.D ..., Volume 2. 1832.[47] Biography of Gray Lock
Gray Lock
at the Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online[48]

Endnotes

^ Hatch, Louis Clinton (ed.) (1919). Maine: A History. American Historical Society. p. 53. Retrieved 24 July 2011. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Johnson, Micheline D. (1974). "Aubrey, Joseph". In Halpenny, Francess G. Dictionary of Canadian Biography. III (1741–1770) (online ed.). University of Toronto Press.  ^ The three previous Indian Wars were King Philip's War
King Philip's War
or the First Indian War in 1675, King William's War
King William's War
or the Second Indian War, and Queen Anne's War
Queen Anne's War
or Third Indian War (1703-11). ^ See Wicken, William. Mi'kmaq Treaties on Trial. University of Toronto Press, 2002. p. 71. ^ The Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
theater of the Dummer War is named the "Mi'kmaq- Maliseet
Maliseet
War". John Grenier. The Far Reaches of Empire: War in Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
1710-1760. University of Oklahoma Press. 2008. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Williamson, William Durkee (1832). The History of the State of Maine: From Its First Discovery, A.D ..., Volume 2.  ^ Griffiths, E. From Migrant to Acadian. McGill-Queen's University Press, 2005. p.61 ^ Campbell, Gary. The Road to Canada: The Grand Communications Route from Saint John to Quebec. Goose Lane Editions and The New Brunswick Heritage Military Project, 2005. p. 21. ^ a b " Meductic Indian Village / Fort Meductic
Meductic Indian Village / Fort Meductic
National Historic Site of Canada". Parks Canada. Archived from the original on June 27, 2012. Retrieved December 20, 2011.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Grenier, John, The Far Reaches of Empire. University of Oklahoma Press, 2008. ^ "Recent Projects: Mission Sainte-Anne". Northeast Archaeological Research. 2003. Archived from the original on October 11, 2012. Retrieved December 21, 2015.  ^ a b Wicken, William. "Mi'maq Decisions: Antoine Tecouenemac, the Conquest, and the Treaty of Utrecht", in John Reid et al (eds). The Conquest of Acadia, 1710: Imperial, Colonial and Aboriginal Constructions. University of Toronto Press. 2004. ^ New Englanders safely settled the land, but Massachusetts did not officially lay claim to the entire Penobscot watershed until the treaty of 1752. In 1759, the Pownall Expedition led by Governor Thomas Pownall established Fort Pownall
Fort Pownall
on Cape Jellison
Cape Jellison
within Stockton Springs, Maine. ^ a b c d e f g Morrison, Kenneth (1984). The Embattled Northeast: The Elusive Ideal of Alliance in Abenaki-Euramerican Relations. University of California Press. ^ a b c d e Calloway, Colin. The Western Abenakis of Vermont, 1600-1800: War, Migration, and the Survival of an Indian People (University of Oklahoma Press, 1990) ^ a b Reid, John; Basque, Maurice; Mancke, Elizabeth; Moody, Barry; Plank, Geoffrey; Wicken, William (2004). The 'Conquest' of Acadia, 1710: Imperial, Colonial, and Aboriginal Constructions. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ^ Fort George replaced Fort Andros which was built during King William's War (1688). ^ a b Hay, Douglas (1979) [1969]. "Wowurna". In Hayne, David. Dictionary of Canadian Biography. II (1701–1740) (online ed.). University of Toronto Press.  ^ Rawlyk, George (1973). Nova Scotia's Massachusetts. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press. p.129 ^ a b c Belmessous, Saliha (2011). Native Claims: Indigenous Law Against Empire. New York: Oxford University Press. ^ "Sebastien Rasles strongbox, ca. 1720". Maine
Maine
Memory Network. Maine Historical Society. Retrieved December 21, 2015.  ^ Kanes, Candace. "Father Rasles, the Indians and the English". Maine History Online. Maine
Maine
Historical Society. Retrieved December 21, 2015.  ^ Goold, William, Portland in the Past, pp.184-185 ^ The Encyclopedia of North American Indian Wars, 1607-1890: A Political ... edited by Spencer C. Tucker, James Arnold, Roberta Wiener, p. 249 ^ a b c Eaton, Cyrus (1851). "Annals of the Town of Warren". Hallowell, Masters, Smith & Co.  ^ a b Grenier, John. The First Way of War: American War Making on the Frontier, 1607-1814. 2003 ^ a b c Murdoch, Beamish. History of Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
or Acadia, p. 399 ^ William Wicken notes that the three Boston newspapers printed 13 separate stories between June 25 and September 24, 1722, describing violent altercations along the east coast of mainland Nova Scotia. See Wicken, 2002, p. 83. ^ "Genealogy of Edward Winslow of the Mayflower, and his descendants, from 1620 to 1865".  ^ Drake, Samuel Gardner. Tragedies of the wilderness, or True and authentic narratives of captives ... p. 144 ^ a b c d Wicken, William. Mi'kmaq Treaties on Trial. University of Toronto Press, 2002. ^ See Colin G. Calloway, 1990 ^ "Interesting Facts about the History of VERMONT ***". Archived from the original on 2012-05-13.  ^ Brattleboro History - WordPress & Atahualpa 2012 ^ Plank, Geoffrey, An Unsettled Conquest, p. 78 ^ Benjamin Church, p. 289 ^ a b Faragher, John Mack, A Great and Noble Scheme. New York; W. W. Norton & Company, 2005 ^ Brenda Dunn, p. 123 ^ Brenda Dunn, pp. 124-125 ^ Haynes, Mark. The Forgotten Battle: A History of the Acadians of Canso/ Chedabuctou. British Columbia: Trafford. 2004. p.159 ^ Penhallow, Samuel; Adams, Nathaniel; Colman, Benjamin; Dodge, W. (William) (23 December 2017). "The history of the wars of New-England with the eastern Indians". Cincinnati, Re-printed for W. Dodge, by J. Harpel. Retrieved 23 December 2017 – via Internet Archive.  ^ Wicken (2002), p. 96. Wicken acknowledges (p. 73), however, that France did offer material support for the Wabanaki, even though they were not officially involved. ^ "imaginemaine.com". www.imaginemaine.com. Retrieved 23 December 2017.  ^ "History of the Kancamagus Highway in NH". The Kancamagus Highway: The Unofficial Guide to the Kanc. Kancamagus Highway.com. Retrieved December 21, 2015.  ^ Tadeusz Piotrowski, ed. (2002-01-01). "Part III: Collections, Sites, Trails, Names". The Indian Heritage of New Hampshire
New Hampshire
and Northern New England. Jefferson, North Carolina; London: McFarland & Company, Inc. p. 186. ISBN 9780786410989.  ^ "NHL Summary listing for Norridgewock
Norridgewock
Archeological District". National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2010-09-23. Retrieved 2013-01-17.  ^ Williamson, William Durkee (1832). The History of the State of Maine. Books.google.com.  ^ Day, Gordon M. (1974). "Gray, Lock". In Halpenny, Francess G. Dictionary of Canadian Biography. III (1741–1770) (online ed.). University of Toronto Press. 

External links[edit]

A Military History of the United States of America: Dummer's War, 1724-1725 at Motherbedford.com Facts about the History of Vermont
Vermont
at Facts-about.org.uk Fort Dummer
Fort Dummer
State Park, Vermont
Vermont
State Parks Bureau Lake Champlain, Lake George, and Richelieu River History Timeline; Part 1 - New France
New France
and New England: Discovery and Exploration, Time Span 1609-1645, James P. Millard, Historiclakes.org Kidd, Thomas S., "'The Devil and Father Rallee': The Narration of Father Rale's War
Father Rale's War
in Provincal Massachusetts", Historical Journal of Massachusetts Volume 30, No. 2 (Summer 2002)

v t e

Colonial conflicts involving the English/British Empire

17th century

Virginia (1609–46) Swally (1612) Ormuz (1622) Saint Kitts (1626) Quebec (1628) Pequot War
Pequot War
(1634–38) Acadia
Acadia
(1654–67) Anglo-Spanish War (1654–60) Jamaica (1655–1739) King Philip's War
King Philip's War
(1675–78) King William's War
King William's War
(1688–97) Ghana (1694–1700)

18th century

Queen Anne's War
Queen Anne's War
(1702–13) Tuscarora War (1711–15) Yamasee War
Yamasee War
(1715–17) Father Rale's War/ Dummer's War
Dummer's War
(1722–25) War of Jenkins' Ear
War of Jenkins' Ear
(1740–42) King George's War
King George's War
(1744–48) Carnatic Wars
Carnatic Wars
(1746–63) Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
(1749–55) French and Indian War
French and Indian War
(1754–63) Seven Years' War (1756–63) Anglo–Cherokee War (1758–61) Jamaica (1762) Anglo-Spanish War (1762–63) Pontiac's War
Pontiac's War
(1763–66) Lord Dunmore's War
Lord Dunmore's War
(1774) American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War
(1775–83) First Anglo–Maratha War (1775–82) Second Anglo–Mysore War (1779–84) Gold Coast (1781–82) Sumatra (1782–84) Australian Frontier Wars (1788–1934) Nootka Sound (1789) Third Anglo–Mysore War (1789–92) Cotiote (Wayanad) War (1793–1806) Cape Colony (1795) Jamaica (1795–96) Ceylon (1795) Kandyan Wars
Kandyan Wars
(1796–1818) Malta (1798–1800) Fourth Anglo–Mysore War (1798–99) Dwyer's Guerrilla Campaign (1799–1803)

19th century

Newfoundland (1800) Castle Hill convict rebellion Second Anglo–Maratha War (1803–05) Suriname (1804) Guiana (1804) Cape Colony (1806) Río de la Plata (1806–07) Egypt (1807) Froberg mutiny
Froberg mutiny
(1807) Reunion (1809) Seychelles (1809) Mauritius (1810) Java (1810–11) Xhosa Wars
Xhosa Wars
(1811–79) Martinique (1809) Guadeloupe (1810) USA (1812–15) Nepal (1814–16) Guadeloupe (1815) Cape Colony (1815) Third Anglo-Maratha War
Third Anglo-Maratha War
(1817–18) Guiana (1823) Anglo-Ashanti wars
Anglo-Ashanti wars
(1824–1901) First Anglo-Burmese War (1824–26) Black War
Black War
(Van Diemen's Land) 1828–32) Jamaica (1831–32) Malacca (1831–33) Lower Canada (1837–38) Upper Canada (1837–38) Egyptian–Ottoman War (1839–41) First Anglo-Afghan War
First Anglo-Afghan War
(1839–42) First Opium War
First Opium War
(1839–42) New Zealand Wars
New Zealand Wars
(1845–72) First Anglo–Sikh War (1845–46) Río de la Plata (1845–50) Ceylon (1848) Second Anglo–Sikh War (1848–49) Second Anglo–Burmese War (1852) Eureka Rebellion
Eureka Rebellion
(1852) Anglo–Persian War (1856–57) Second Opium War
Second Opium War
(1856–60) Indian Rebellion (1857–59) Ambela Campaign (1863–64) Bhutan War
Bhutan War
(1864–65) Fenian Rebellion in Canada (1866–71) Abyssinia (1868) Manitoba (1870) Perak (1875–76) Anglo–Zulu War (1879) Second Anglo-Afghan War
Second Anglo-Afghan War
(1879–80) Basutoland (1880–81) First Boer War
First Boer War
(1880–81) Mahdist War
Mahdist War
(1881–99) Anglo-Egyptian War
Anglo-Egyptian War
(1882) Saskatchewan (1885) Central Africa (1886–89) Third Anglo-Burmese War
Third Anglo-Burmese War
(1885) Mashonaland (1890) Hunza-Nagar Campaign (1891) Anglo-Manipur War
Anglo-Manipur War
(1891) Matabeleland (1893–94) North Borneo (1894–1905) Chitral Expedition
Chitral Expedition
(1895) Jameson Raid
Jameson Raid
South Africa (1896) Anglo–Zanzibar War (1896) Matabeleland (1896–97) Benin Expedition (1897) Siege
Siege
of Malakand (1897) First Mohmand Campaign (1897–98) Tirah Campaign
Tirah Campaign
(1897–98) Six-Day War (1899) Boxer Rebellion
Boxer Rebellion
(1898–1901) Second Boer War
Second Boer War
(1899–1902)

20th century

Somaliland (1900–20) West Africa (1901–02) Tibet expedition (1903–04) Bambatha Rebellion
Bambatha Rebellion
(1906) Nyasaland (1915) Nigeria (1915) Nigeria (1918) Third Anglo-Afghan War
Third Anglo-Afghan War
(1919) Waziristan campaign (1919–1920) Iraq (1920) Malabar Rebellion (1921) Kurdistan (1922–24) Transjordan (1923) Pink's War
Pink's War
(1925) Ikhwan Revolt
Ikhwan Revolt
(1927–30) Barzani revolt (1931–32) Second Mohmand Campaign (1935) Palestine (1936–39) Waziristan campaign (1936–1939) Ethiopia (1943) Indochina (1945–46) Indonesia (1945) Sarawak (1946–50) Malayan Emergency
Malayan Emergency
(1948–60) Mau Mau Uprising
Mau Mau Uprising
Kenya (1952–60) Oman (1954–59) Cyprus Emergency
Cyprus Emergency
(1955–59) Suez Crisis
Suez Crisis
(1956) Oman (1962–76) Brunei (1962) Sarawak (1962–90) Malaysia (1962–66) Aden (1963–67) Falklands (1982)

v t e

French colonial conflicts

16th–17th centuries

Brazil (1557–60) Florida (1562–65) Brazil (1612–15) Morocco (1629) Beaver Wars
Beaver Wars
(1641–1701) French colonization of Texas
French colonization of Texas
(1685–89) Siam (1688) King William's War
King William's War
(1689–97)

18th century

Queen Anne's War
Queen Anne's War
(1702–13) Chickasaw Wars
Chickasaw Wars
(1721–52) Dummer's War
Dummer's War
(1721–25) Burma–France relations (1729–56) King George's War
King George's War
(1744–48) First Carnatic War
First Carnatic War
(1746–48) Second Carnatic War (1749–54) Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
(1749–55) French and Indian War
French and Indian War
(1754–60) East Indies (1757–63) Larache expedition
Larache expedition
1765 Vietnam (1777–1820) North America (1778–83) Caribbean and East Indies (1778–83) Haitian Revolution
Haitian Revolution
(1791–1804) Siege
Siege
of Pondicherry (1793) French acquisition of Santo Domingo (1795–1809) French campaign in Egypt and Syria
French campaign in Egypt and Syria
(1798–1801)

19th century

West Indies (1804–10) Indian Ocean (1809–11) Java (1811) Algeria (1830–47) Algeria (1835–1903) Río de la Plata (1838–40) Mexico (1838–39) Argentina–Uruguay (1845–50) Morocco (1844) Philippines (1844–45) Bombardment of Tourane
Bombardment of Tourane
Vietnam (1847) Franco-Tahitian War
Franco-Tahitian War
(1844–47) French conquest of Senegal
French conquest of Senegal
(1854) Cochinchina Campaign
Cochinchina Campaign
(1858–62) Second Opium War
Second Opium War
(1860) Intervention in Mexico (1861–67) Japan (1863–64) Korea (1866) North Vietnam (1873–74) Tunisia (1881) Madagascar (1883) Ivory Coast (1883–98) Tonkin Campaign
Tonkin Campaign
(1883–86) Sino-French War
Sino-French War
(1884–85) North Vietnam (1886–96) Leewards War
Leewards War
(1888–97) First Franco-Dahomean War (1890) Second Franco-Dahomean War
Second Franco-Dahomean War
(1892–94) Franco-Siamese War
Franco-Siamese War
(1893) Second Madagascar expedition (1895) Voulet–Chanoine Mission
Voulet–Chanoine Mission
(1898)

20th century

Boxer Rebellion
Boxer Rebellion
(1901) Holy Man's Rebellion (1901-36) Ouaddai War (1909–11) Morocco (1911) Zaian War
Zaian War
(1914-1921) Volta-Bani War
Volta-Bani War
(1915-1916) Kaocen Revolt
Kaocen Revolt
(1916-1917) Syria (1919–21) Cilicia (1920–21) Rif War
Rif War
(1920–26) Kongo-Wara rebellion (1928–31) Franco-Thai War
Franco-Thai War
(1940–41) Indochina (1945) South Vietnam (1945–46) First Indochina War
First Indochina War
(1946–54) Malagasy Uprising
Malagasy Uprising
(1947–48) Tunisian independence
Tunisian independence
(1952–56) Algerian War
Algerian War
(1954–62) Suez Crisis
Suez Crisis
(1956) Ifni War
Ifni War
(1957–58) Cameroonian Independence War (1955-1960) Bizerte crisis
Bizerte crisis
(1961) Ouvéa cave hostage taking (1988)

v t e

Military history of Canada

History of ...

Colonial militia - (Military of New France) Crown & Forces Army Navy Air Force

Conflicts

Beaver Wars King William's War Queen Anne's War Father Rale's War King George's War Father Le Loutre's War French and Indian War War of 1812 Fenian raids Red River Rebellion Wolseley Expedition North-West Rebellion Boer War First World War Russian Civil War Second World War Cold War Korean War Gulf War Afghanistan War Intervention in Libya Intervention against ISIL

See also

Canada in the American Civil War Mackenzie–Papineau Battalion Canada and the Vietnam War Canada and the Iraq War

Lists

Bibliography Conflicts Operations Victories Peacekeeping Internment Camps WWI Internment Camps WWII

Category Portal

.