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The Duke of York
York
is a title of nobility in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. Since the 15th century, it has, when granted, usually been given to the second son of English (later British) monarchs. The equivalent title in the Scottish peerage was Duke of Albany. However, King George I and Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
granted the second sons of their eldest sons the titles Duke of York and Albany
Duke of York and Albany
and Duke of York respectively. Initially granted in the 14th century in the Peerage of England, the title Duke of York
York
has been created eight times. The title Duke of York
York
and Albany has been created three times. These occurred during the 18th century, following the 1707 unification of the Kingdom of England and Kingdom of Scotland
Kingdom of Scotland
into a single, united realm. The double naming was done so that a territorial designation from each of the previously separate realms could be included. The current Duke of York
York
is Prince Andrew, the second son of Queen Elizabeth II. Prince Andrew currently has no male heirs and has been unmarried since his 1996 divorce.

Contents

1 History 2 Dukes of York

2.1 First creation, 1385–1415, 1425–1461 2.2 Second creation, 1474 2.3 Third creation, 1494 2.4 Fourth creation, 1605 2.5 Fifth creation, 1633/1644 2.6 Sixth creation, 1892 2.7 Seventh creation, 1920 2.8 Eighth creation, 1986

3 Family tree 4 Duke of York
York
eponyms

4.1 Places 4.2 Ships and locomotives

5 See also 6 References 7 External links

History[edit] In medieval times, York
York
was the main city of the North of England and the see of the Archbishop of York
York
from AD 735. Yorkshire
Yorkshire
was England's largest shire in area. York
York
under its Viking name "Jorvik" was a petty kingdom in the Early Medieval period. In the interval between the fall of independent Jorvik under Eirik Bloodaxe, last King of Jorvik (d. 954), and the first creation of the Dukedom of York, there were a few Earls of York. The title Duke of York
York
was first created in the Peerage of England in 1385 for Edmund of Langley, the fourth surviving son of Edward III, and an important character in Shakespeare's Richard II. His son Edward, who inherited the title, was killed at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415. The title passed to Edward's nephew Richard, the son of Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge
Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge
(who had been executed for plotting against King Henry V). The younger Richard managed to obtain a restoration of the title, but when his eldest son, who inherited the title, became king in 1461 as Edward IV, the title merged into the Crown. The title was next created for Richard of Shrewsbury, second son of King Edward IV. Richard was one of the Princes in the Tower, and, as he died without heirs, the title became extinct at his death. The third creation was for Henry Tudor, second son of King Henry VII. When his elder brother Arthur, Prince of Wales, died in 1502, Henry became heir-apparent to the throne. When Henry ultimately became King Henry VIII, his titles merged into the crown. The title was created for the fourth time for Charles Stuart, second son of James I. When his elder brother, Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, died in 1612, Charles became heir-apparent. He was created Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
in 1616 and eventually became Charles I in 1625 when the title again merged into the Crown. The fifth creation was in favour of James Stuart, the second son of Charles I. The city and state of New York
York
in what is now the United States of America were named for this particular Duke of York. When his elder brother, King Charles II, died without heirs, James succeeded to the throne as King James II, and the title once again merged into the Crown. In the early 18th century, the Jacobite claimant to the throne, James Francis Edward Stuart, son of James II, granted the title "Duke of York" (in the Jacobite Peerage) to his own second son, Henry. James Francis Edward Stuart was known to those who rejected his claims as "The Old Pretender"; his elder son Charles was called "The Young Pretender" (or "Bonnie Prince Charlie" among his supporters), and the younger son, Henry, who became a Roman Catholic cardinal, was known as the Cardinal Duke of York. To the Jacobites, they are Kings James III, Charles III, and Henry IX, respectively. (From the Jacobite perspective, this creation of the title merged into the Crown with Charles' death without legitimate issue, and Henry's succession to his rights.) During the 18th century the double dukedom of York
York
and Albany was created a number of times in the Peerage of Great Britain. The title was first held by Duke Ernest Augustus of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Bishop of Osnabrück, the youngest brother of King George I. He died without heirs. The second creation of the double dukedom was for Prince Edward, younger brother of King George III, who also died without heirs, having never married. The third and last creation of the double dukedom was for Prince Frederick Augustus, the second son of King George III. He served as Commander-in-Chief of the British Army
British Army
for many years, and was the original "Grand old Duke of York" in the popular rhyme. He too died without heirs. The sixth creation of the Dukedom of York
York
(without being combined with Albany) was for Prince George of Wales, second son of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, the future King Edward VII. He was created Duke of York
York
following the death of his elder brother, Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence. The title merged with the crown when George succeeded his father as King George V. The seventh creation was for Prince Albert, second son of King George V, and younger brother of the future King Edward VIII. Albert came unexpectedly to the throne when his brother abdicated, and took the name George VI, the Dukedom then merging into the crown. The title was created for the eighth time for Prince Andrew, second son of Queen Elizabeth II. At present (2018), he only has two daughters. Thus, if he has no future (legitimate) sons, the title will again become extinct at his death. Aside from the first creation, every time the Dukedom of York
York
has been created it has had only one occupant, that person either inheriting the throne or dying without male heirs. Dukes of York[edit] First creation, 1385–1415, 1425–1461[edit]

Duke Portrait Birth Marriages Death

Edmund of Langley House of York
York
(founder) 1385–1402[1] also: Earl of Cambridge (1362)

5 June 1341 Kings Langley son of Edward III of England
Edward III of England
and Philippa of Hainault Isabella of Castile 1372 3 children

Joan Holland no children

1 August 1402 Kings Langley aged 61

Edward of Norwich House of York 1402–1415[2] also: Duke of Aumale
Duke of Aumale
(1397–1399), Earl of Cambridge (1362–1414), Earl of Rutland
Earl of Rutland
(1390–1402), Earl of Cork
Earl of Cork
(c. 1396)

1373 Norwich son of Edmund of Langley
Edmund of Langley
and Isabella of Castile Philippa de Mohun no children 25 October 1415 Battle of Agincourt aged 42

Edward of Norwich's brother, Richard of Conisburgh, had been attainted and executed for treason in August 1415. This attainder stood in the way of his son Richard of York
York
succeeding Edward until the king deemed it prudent to restore them.

Richard (Plantagenet) of York House of York 1425–1460[3] also: Lord Protector of England, Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
and Earl of Chester, Duke of Cornwall
Duke of Cornwall
(1460, see Act of Accord); Earl of Ulster
Earl of Ulster
(1264), Earl of March
Earl of March
(1328), Earl of Cambridge (1414, restored 1426), feudal Lord of Clare (bt. 1066–1075), Baron Mortimer of Wigmore (1331)

21 September 1411 son of Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge
Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge
and Anne de Mortimer Cecily Neville 1437 13 children 30 December 1460 Wakefield aged 49

Edward Plantagenet House of York 1460–1461[4] also: Earl of Ulster
Earl of Ulster
(1264), Earl of March
Earl of March
(1328), Earl of Cambridge (1414), feudal Lord of Clare (bt. 1066–1075), Baron Mortimer of Wigmore (1331)

28 April 1442 Rouen son of Richard of York
York
and Cecily Neville Elizabeth Woodville 1 May 1464 10 children 9 April 1483 Westminster aged 40

Edward IV
Edward IV
seized the throne in 1461, and all of his titles merged with the crown.

Second creation, 1474[edit]

Duke Portrait Birth Marriages Death

Richard of Shrewsbury House of York 1474–1483 also: Duke of Norfolk
Duke of Norfolk
(1477), Earl of Norfolk (1477), Earl of Nottingham (1476), possibly Earl of Warenne
Earl of Warenne
(1477)

17 August 1473 Shrewsbury son of Edward IV
Edward IV
and Elizabeth Woodville Anne de Mowbray 15 January 1478 no children unknown

How Prince Richard died is a controversial, frequently debated topic and there is no solid evidence for his date, age or place of death. He was last seen in the Tower of London
Tower of London
along with his brother, becoming popularly known as one of the Princes in the Tower. Since he died without legitimate issue his titles became extinct.

Third creation, 1494[edit]

Duke Portrait Birth Marriages Death

Henry Tudor House of Tudor 1494–1509[5] also: Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
(1504), Duke of Cornwall
Duke of Cornwall
(1337)

28 June 1491 Greenwich Palace, London son of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York Catherine of Aragon 11 June 1509 – 23 May 1533 (annulment) 1 child

Anne Boleyn 25 January 1533 – 17 May 1536 (annulment) 1 child

Jane Seymour 30 May 1536 – 24 October 1537 1 child

Anne of Cleves 6 January 1540 – 9 July 1540 (annulment) no children

Catherine Howard 28 July 1540 – 23 November 1541 (annulment) no children

Catherine Parr 12 July 1543 no children 28 January 1547 Whitehall Palace, London aged 55

Henry VIII succeeded in 1509 upon his father's death, and his titles merged with the crown.

Fourth creation, 1605[edit]

Duke Portrait Birth Marriages Death

Charles Stuart House of Stuart 1605–1625[6] also: Duke of Albany
Duke of Albany
(1604); Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
(1616), Duke of Cornwall
Duke of Cornwall
(1337), Duke of Rothesay (1398)

19 November 1600 Dunfermline
Dunfermline
Palace, Dunfermline son of James I
James I
and Anne of Denmark Henrietta Maria of France 13 June 1625 9 children 30 January 1649 Whitehall Palace, London aged 48

Charles I succeeded in 1625 upon his father's death, and his titles merged with the crown.

Fifth creation, 1633/1644[edit]

Duke Portrait Birth Marriages Death

James Stuart House of Stuart 1633/1644–1685[7] also: Duke of Albany
Duke of Albany
(1660), Earl of Ulster
Earl of Ulster
(1659)

14 October 1633 St. James's Palace, London son of King Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France Anne Hyde 3 September 1660 8 children

Mary of Modena 21 November 1673 7 children 16 September 1701 Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Paris aged 67

Prince James was styled Duke of York
York
from birth and officially created as such in 1644. He succeeded as James II in 1685 upon brother's's death, and his titles merged with the crown.

Sixth creation, 1892[edit]

Duke Portrait Birth Marriages Death

Prince George House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha 1892–1910 also: Earl of Inverness and Baron Killarney
Baron Killarney
(1892); Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
(1901), Duke of Cornwall
Duke of Cornwall
(1901), Duke of Rothesay (1901)

3 June 1865 Marlborough House son of King Edward VII
Edward VII
and Queen Alexandra Mary of Teck 6 July 1893 6 children 20 January 1936 Sandringham House, Sandringham aged 70

Prince George succeeded as George V
George V
in 1936 upon his father's death, and his titles merged with the crown.

Seventh creation, 1920[edit]

Duke Portrait Birth Marriages Death

Prince Albert House of Windsor 1920–1936 also: Earl of Inverness and Baron Killarney
Baron Killarney
(1920)

14 December 1895 Sandringham House, Sandringham son of King George V
George V
and Queen Mary Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon 26 April 1923 2 children 6 February 1952 Sandringham House, Sandringham aged 56

Prince Albert succeeded as George VI
George VI
in 1936 upon his brother's abdication in 1936, and his titles merged with the crown.

Eighth creation, 1986[edit]

Duke Portrait Birth Marriages Death

Prince Andrew House of Windsor 1986–present also: Earl of Inverness and Baron Killyleagh
Baron Killyleagh
(1986)

19 February 1960 Buckingham Palace son of Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
and Prince Philip Sarah Ferguson 23 July 1986 – 30 May 1996 (divorce) 2 children  – now 58 years, 43 days old

Family tree[edit]

Family tree: Dukes of York

 

 

 

 

King Edward III (1312–r.1327–1377)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DUKE OF YORK, 1385

 

 

 

 

Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York (1341–1402)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Edward of Norwich, 2nd Duke of York (1373–1415)

 

Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge (1375–1415)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DUKE OF YORK, 1385 (RESTORED 1425)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York (1411–1460)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Edward, 4th Duke of York King Edward IV (1442–1483, r.1461–70, 1471–83)

 

King Richard III (1452–r.1483–1485)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DUKE OF YORK, 1474

 

 

 

 

Elizabeth of York (1466–1503) m. King Henry VII

 

King Edward V (1470–r.1483–1483)

 

Richard of Shrewsbury, Duke of York (1473–1483)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DUKE OF YORK, 1494

 

 

 

 

Princess Margaret Tudor (1489–1541) m. James IV of Scotland

 

 

 

 

 

Prince Henry, Duke of York King Henry VIII (1491–r.1509–1547)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

James V of Scotland (1512–1542)

 

 

 

 

 

Edward VI (1537–r.1547–1553) Mary I (1516–r.1553–1558) Elizabeth I (1533–r.1558–1603)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mary, Queen of Scots (1542–1587)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

King James VI & I (1566–r.1603–1625)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DUKE OF YORK, 1605

 

 

Princess Elizabeth Stuart (1596–1662) m. Frederick V of the Palatinate

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Prince Charles, Duke of York King Charles I (1600–r.1625–1649)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DUKE OF YORK, 1644

 

 

Sophia of Hanover (1630–1714) m. Ernest Augustus of Brunswick

 

 

 

King Charles II (1630–r.1660–1685)

 

Prince James, Duke of York King James II (1633–1701, r.1685–1688)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DUKE OF YORK & ALBANY, 1716

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

King George I (1660–r.1714–1727)

 

Ernest Augustus, Duke of York
York
and Albany (1674–1728)

 

 

Queen Mary II (1662–r.1689–1694)

 

Queen Anne (1665–r.1702–1714)

 

 

 

King George II (1683–r.1727–1760)

 

 

 

Prince Frederick Louis, Prince of Wales (1707–1751)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DUKE OF YORK & ALBANY, 1760

King George III (1738–r.1760–1820)

 

Prince Edward, Duke of York
York
and Albany (1739–1767)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DUKE OF YORK & ALBANY, 1784

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

King George IV (1762–r.1820–1830)

 

Prince Frederick, Duke of York
York
and Albany (1763–1827)

 

King William IV (1765–r.1830–1837)

 

Prince Edward, Duke of Kent (1767–1820)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Queen Victoria (1819–r.1837–1901)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

King Edward VII (1841–r.1901–1910)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DUKE OF YORK, 1892

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Prince George, Duke of York King George V (1865–r.1910–1936)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DUKE OF YORK, 1920

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

King Edward VIII (1894–1972, r.1936)

 

Prince Albert, Duke of York King George VI (1895–r.1936–1952)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Queen Elizabeth II (1926–r.1952–)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DUKE OF YORK, 1986

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Prince Andrew, Duke of York (1960–)

Duke of York
York
eponyms[edit] Places[edit]

Cape York
York
Peninsula, Australia[8] Duke of York
York
Archipelago, Canada Duke of York
York
Bay, Canada York, Upper Canada, now Toronto Ontario[9] York
York
County, New Brunswick, Canada[10] Duke of York
York
Island, Antarctica Cape York, Greenland[citation needed] Duke of York
York
Island, Papua New Guinea Duke of York
York
Islands Duke of York's Royal Military School New York, a U.S. state[11] New York
York
City, the largest city in the state of New York
York
and the United States[11] Duke of York
York
School, renamed Lenana School after Kenya attained independence in 1963.Nairobi, Kenya

Ships and locomotives[edit]

HMS Duke of York (1763), a 4-gun cutter purchased in 1763 and sold in 1776 HMS Duke of York (17), a King George V-class battleship launched in 1940, and broken up in 1958 Hired armed cutter Duke of York Hired armed lugger Duke of York TSS Duke of York
York
(1894) TSS Duke of York
York
(1935) Duke of York
York
was one of the GWR 3031 Class locomotives that were built for and run on the Great Western Railway
Great Western Railway
between 1891 and 1915.

See also[edit]

Duke of Albany Duke of York
York
and Albany Earl of Inverness, a subsidiary title of the current creation Henry Benedict Stuart, created Duke of York
York
in the Jacobite Peerage by his father the titular King James III in 1725. Living in Italy as a cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church, he called himself the "Cardinal Duke of York" (or "Cardinal called Duke of York") for most of his life and was recognised as such by the Papacy, Modena, France, and Spain. He became the Jacobite pretender himself as "Henry IX" in 1788. The last surviving legitimate descendant of James II, his grandfather, he died without issue in 1807.

References[edit]

^ Encyclopædia Britannica Edmund of Langley
Edmund of Langley
First Duke of York ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Edward of Norwich
Norwich
Second Duke of York ^ English Monarchs ^ BBC Edward IV ^ Scarisbrick, J. J. (1997). Henry VIII (2nd ed.). Yale University Press. ISBN 0300071582. ^ Gregg, Pauline (1981), King Charles I, London: Dent ^ Callow, John, The Making of King James II: The Formative Years of a King, Sutton Publishing, Ltd, Stroud, Gloucestershire, 2000. Page ^ "Cape York". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved 13 December 2017.  ^ Scadding, Henry (1873). Toronto of old: collections and recollections illustrative of the early settlement and social life of the capital of Ontario. Toronto, ON.: Adam, Stevenson & Co. p. 21. Retrieved 13 December 2017.  ^ " York
York
County". Where is Home? New Brunswick Communities Past and Present. Provincial Archives of New Brunswick. Retrieved 13 December 2017.  ^ a b "New York
York
Under The Duke of York". Empire State History. Retrieved 13 December 2017. 

External links[edit]

Duke of York

v t e

Dukes of York

Edmund of Langley
Edmund of Langley
(1385–1402) Edward of Norwich
Norwich
(1402–1415) Richard Plantagenet (1415–1460) Edward of York
York
(1460–1461) Richard of Shrewsbury
Shrewsbury
(1474–1483) Henry (1494–1509) Charles (1605–1625) James (1633/1644–1685) Dukes of York
York
and Albany (18th century) George (1892–1910) Albert (1920–1936) Andrew (1986–present)

v t e

British royal titles

Monarch

King/Queen of United Kingdom (consort), Duke of Lancaster
Duke of Lancaster
& Duke of Normandy

Heir

Wales

Prince and Princess

Cornwall

Duke and Duchess

Rothesay

Duke and Duchess

Current titles

Edinburgh

Duke and Duchess

Cambridge

Duke and Duchess

York

Duke and Duchess

Gloucester

Duke

Kent

Duke

Wessex

Earl

Princess Royal

Princess Royal

Vacant titles

Clarence

Duke

Connaught
Connaught
and Strathearn

Duke ( Connaught
Connaught
is not part of the United Kingdom, Strathearn
Strathearn
is currently an earldom held by the Duke of Cambridge)

Kendal

Duke

Ross

Duke

Sussex

Duke

Windsor

Duke

Former titles

Albany

Duke (Suspended by the Titles Deprivation Act 1917)

Albemarle

Duke (Currently an Earldom held by the Keppel family)

Clarence and Avondale

Duke (Clarence is Vacant)

Clarence and St Andrews

Duke (Clarence is Vacant)

Cumberland

Duke ( Cumberland
Cumberland
is Suspended)

Cumberland
Cumberland
and Strathearn

Duke ( Cumberland
Cumberland
is Suspended)

Cumberland
Cumberland
and Teviotdale

Duke (Suspended by the Titles Deprivation Act 1917)

Exeter

Duke (Currently a Marquessate held by the Cecil family)

Gloucester
Gloucester
and Edinburgh

Duke (Currently both are separate Dukedoms)

Hereford

Duke (Currently a Viscountcy held by the Devereux family)

Kent
Kent
and Strathearn

Duke ( Kent
Kent
is currently a separate Dukedom) ( Strathearn
Strathearn
is currently an Earldom held by the Duke of Cambridge)

Kintyre
Kintyre
and Lorne

Duke (Currently both are Marquessate titles to the Duke of Argyll
Duke of Argyll
held by the Campbell family)

York
York
and Albany

Duke ( York
York
is currently a separate Dukedom, but Albany is Suspended)

Former titles Non-Royal Dukedoms

Bedford

Duke (Russell family)

Lennox

Duke (Lennox family, held by the Duke of Gordon)

Norfolk

Duke (Fitzalan-Howard family)

Richmond

Duke (Lennox family, held by the Duke of Gordon)

Somerset

Duke (Seymour family)

v t e

Extant dukedoms in the peerages of Britain and Ireland*

Cornwall Norfolk Somerset Richmond Grafton Beaufort St Albans Bedford Devonshire Marlborough Rutland Rothesay Hamilton Buccleuch Lennox Queensberry Argyll Atholl Montrose Roxburghe Brandon Manchester Northumberland Leinster Wellington Sutherland Abercorn Westminster Gordon Fife Gloucester Kent Edinburgh York Cambridge

* Listed by precedence, from highest to lowest Dukedoms in italics are held by members of the R

.