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Drobytsky Yar is a ravine in Kharkiv, Ukraine. In December 1941, Nazi troops invading the Soviet Union began killing local residents over the following year. At the end of this period, some 16,000 people, mainly Jews were killed. Notably on 15 December 1941, when the temperature was −15 degrees Celsius (+5 °F), ca. 15,000 Jews were shot. Children were thrown into pits alive, to save bullets, in the expectation that they would quickly freeze to death.[1]

Contents

1 Memorial 2 Museum 3 References 4 External links

Memorial[edit] In the beginning of the 1990s, a competition was held for the best design of the memorial to immortalize the thousands of citizens who perished from hands of the Nazis. Twenty-nine designs were submitted. The winner was the architect A. Leibfreid. The construction of the complex lasted several years however it was suspended due to the lack of funds. The memorial is located at 49°56'5.23"N 36°26'55.36"E. At a meeting in late August 2001, the Kharkiv Oblast administration decided to resume the construction of the memorial. The oblast authorities supervised the construction process. The Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine allotted 600,000 hryvnas for the construction. Contributions have also been made by city and oblast administrations, as well as by sponsors.

The Drobitskiy Menorah

On 13 December 2002 the President of Ukraine, Leonid Kuchma, opened the memorial. The main part of the memorial is a monument symbolizing a synagogue with the Ten Commandments between its columns; most notably: "Do not kill". The memorial begins with a monument stylized under a Jewish menorah. A road leads from a black menorah to a white main building of the complex. Thousands of Kharkiv Jews took their last steps along it in 1941/1942. These dates are found on the wall of the main arched building. Underground is a hall of memory; the wall will bear the names of the victims who are known to have died. The territory includes two burials area. One trench is 100m long and the other is 60m. The Kharkiv archives contain data on fifteen thousand victims. However, the "Drobytsky Yar" foundation considers the number of dead to be closer to thirty thousand. 180 tons[vague] of a Zhytomyr granite was used in the construction of the memorial. This is the same material that was used for Lenin's Mausoleum. Due to the granite's particular qualities (it has reddish veins), the stones lying at the menorah's foot seem to bleed.[2] As of 2006 the names of 4,300 of the 16,000 victims were etched on an underground memorial wall, illuminated by candlelight, in a room called "Room of Tragedy".[3] Museum[edit] On 27 January 2002 a new exposition in the Kharkiv City Holocaust Museum was officially opened. The exposition was created in December 2001, when Kharkiv commemorated the 60th anniversary of the Drobytsky Yar tragedy. Excursions to the ravine had already been held before, but the official opening was on 27 January, the anniversary of the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp's 1945 liberation (later designated International Holocaust Remembrance Day). Six candles were lit in memory of the six million Jews who died in the Holocaust.[4] References[edit]

^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on December 9, 2008. Retrieved 2013-01-29.  ^ Observer ^ Greg Dawson (2009). "A return to Ukraine". Orlando Sentinel.  ^ Museum website (in Russian) Archived October 8, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Drobytsky Yar memorial.

Official website of the memorial complex "Drobitsky Yar" Kharkov Charitable fund "to Victims of Holocaust in Drobitskiy Yar" Memorial information

Coordinates: 49°56′5.23″N 36°26′55.36″E / 49.9347861°N 36.4487111°E / 49.9347861; 36.4487111

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The Holocaust in Ukraine

Main article The Holocaust Related articles by country Belarus Estonia Latvia Lithuania Norway Poland Russia

Crimes

Babi Yar Drobytsky Yar Drohobych Kamianets-Podilskyi Lviv pogroms Mizocz Ghetto Odessa Pripyat Swamps

Major perpetrators

Paul Blobel Werner Braune Kurt Eberhard Lothar Fendler Hans Frank Günther Herrmann Friedrich Jeckeln Ernst Kaltenbrunner Fritz Katzmann Erich Koch Felix Landau Gustav Adolf Nosske Otto Ohlendorf Paul Otto Radomski Otto Rasch Walter Schimana Erwin Schulz Heinrich Seetzen Otto Wächter Dieter Wisliceny

Nazi occupation and organizations

Einsatzgruppen Police Regiment South Reichskommissariat Ukraine

Collaborators

Individuals Hryhoriy Vasiura Vladimir Katriuk Petro Voinovsky Petro Zakhvalynsky

Organizations Schutzmannschaft Ukrainian Auxiliary Police Nachtigall Battalion

Ghettos, camps and prisons

Bogdanovka Drohobych Ghetto Syrets concentration camp Vapniarka concentration camp

Resistance and survivors

Priest's Grotto Syrets inmate revolt

Planning, methods, documents and evidence

Planning Generalplan Ost Volksliste

Evidence Graebe affidavit

Concealment and denial

Sonderaktion 1005

Investigations and trials

Einsatzgruppen trial Extraordinary (Soviet) State Commission

Righteous Among the Nations

Klymentiy Sheptytsky Omelyan Kovch Hermann Friedrich Graebe

Memorials

Babi Yar memorials List of Babi Yar victims

See also History of the Jews in Carpathian Ruthenia Transnistria Governorate

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Massacres or pogroms against Jews

1st – 11th century

Alexandrian pogrom (38) The Great Revolt (66–73) Bar Kokhba revolt (132–136) Jewish revolt against Constantius Gallus (351–352) Jewish revolt against Heraclius (614–617) Córdoba massacre (1013) Fez massacre (1033) Granada massacre (1066) Gzerot Tatenu (Rhineland massacres) (1096)

Worms massacre Speyer massacre Mainz massacre

12th – 19th century

Ham massacre (1143) Rintfleisch massacres (1298) Black Death Jewish persecutions (1348–1350)

Erfurt massacre Basel massacre Speyer massacre Strasbourg massacre

Brussels massacre (1370) Massacre of the Assumption (1474) Spanish Inquisition (1478) Arles pogrom (1484) Lisbon massacre (1506) Hebron pogrom (1517) Safed pogrom (1517) Portuguese Inquisition (1536) Chmielnicki massacres (1648–1657) Safed massacre (1660) Mawza Exile (1679) Massacre of Uman (1768) Hep-Hep riots (1819) First Odessa pogrom (1821) Tzfat pogrom (1834) Hebron pogrom (1834) Safed massacre (1838) Allahdad (1839) Damascus affair (1840) Second Odessa pogrom (1859) Third Odessa pogrom (1871) Storms in the Negev (1881–1884)

Kiev pogrom Warsaw pogrom Fourth Odessa pogrom

20th century

1900–1936

Częstochowa pogrom (1902) Kishinev pogrom (1903) Zablotov pogrom (1903) Kiev pogrom (1905) Fifth Odessa pogrom (1905) Kishinev pogrom (1905) Białystok pogrom (1906) Siedlce pogrom (1906) The Tritl (1912) Skver pogrom (1917) Lwów pogrom (1918) Lida pogrom (1919) Radomishel pogrom (1919) Justingrad pogrom (1919) Skver pogroms (1919) Zvil pogrom (1919) Pinsk massacre (1919) Proskurov pogrom (1919) The Kiev pogroms (1919) Zavirtcha pogrom (1921) Safed massacre (1929) Hebron massacre (1929) Constantine pogrom (1934) Thrace pogroms (1934) The Bloody Day in Jaffa (1936) Przytyk pogrom (1936)

1938–1945

Tiberias massacre (1938) Kristallnacht (1938) Częstochowa massacre (1939) Dynów massacre (1939) Silc massacre (1939) Dorohoi pogrom (1940) Bucharest pogrom (1941) Gabès pogrom (1941) Iași pogrom (1941) Jedwabne pogrom (1941) Kamianets-Podilskyi massacre (1941) Lviv pogroms (1941) Ponary massacre (1941) Rumbula massacre (1941) The Farhud (1941) Odessa massacre (1941) The Holocaust (1941–1945) Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (1943) Topoľčany pogrom (1945) Kraków pogrom (1945) Kolbasov pogrom (1945) Tripolitania pogrom (1945) Cairo pogrom (1945)

1946–1999

Kielce pogrom (1946) Kunmadaras pogrom (1946) Miskolc pogrom (1946) Haifa Oil Refinery massacre (1947) Aden pogrom (1947) Aleppo pogrom (1947) Manama pogrom (1947) Tripoli pogrom (1948) The Djerada (1948) Ben Yehuda Street bombing (1948) Cairo bombings (1948) Kfar Etzion massacre (1948) Menarsha synagogue attack (1949) Night of the Murdered Poets (1952) Scorpion Pass massacre (1954) Shafrir synagogue shooting (1956) Purge of Polish Jews (1968) Avivim school bus massacre (1970) Munich massacre (1972) Lod Airport massacre (1972) Ma'alot massacre (1974) Kiryat Shmona massacre (1974) Ben Yehuda Street bombing (1975) Coastal Road massacre (1978) Nahariya massacre (1979) Paris synagogue bombing (1980) Antwerp summer camp attack (1980) Antwerp bombing (1981) Vienna synagogue attack (1981) Goldenberg restaurant massacre (1982) Ras Burqa massacre (1985) Purim stabbing (1989) Cairo bus attack (1990) Crown Heights riots (1991) AMIA bombing (1994) Dizengoff Street bus bombing (1994) Beit Lid massacre (1995) Purim massacre (1996) Island of Peace massacre (1997) Mahane Yehuda Market massacre (1997) Los Angeles Jewish Community Center shooting (1999)

21st century

Dolphinarium discotheque massacre (2001) Sbarro massacre (2001) Ghriba synagogue bombing (2002) Bat Mitzvah massacre (2002) Yeshivat Beit Yisrael massacre (2002) Passover massacre (2002) Matza restaurant bombing (2002) Hebrew University massacre (2002) Rishon LeZion bombing (2002) Matzuva attack (2002) Istanbul bombings (2003) Tel Aviv Central Bus Station massacre (2003) Davidka Square bus bombing (2003) Café Hillel bombing (2003) Maxim restaurant massacre (2003) Shmuel HaNavi massacre (2003) Haifa bus massacre (2003) Beersheba bus bombings (2004) Ashdod Port bombings (2004) Seattle Jewish Federation shooting (2006) Tel Aviv shawarma bombing (2006) Mercaz HaRav massacre (2008) Burgas bus bombing (2012) Toulouse and Montauban shootings (2012) Jerusalem synagogue massacre (2014) Jewish Museum of Belgium shooting (2015) Kosher market siege (2015) Tel Aviv synagogue stabbing (2015) Tel Aviv shooting (2016) Halamish massacre (2017)

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Einsatzgruppen and Einsatzkommandos

People

Director

Reinhard Heydrich Ernst Kaltenbrunner

Commanders of Einsatzgruppen

Humbert Achamer-Pifrader Walther Bierkamp Horst Böhme Erich Ehrlinger Wilhelm Fuchs Heinz Jost Erich Naumann Arthur Nebe Otto Ohlendorf Friedrich Panzinger Otto Rasch Heinrich Seetzen Franz Walter Stahlecker Bruno Streckenbach

Commanders of Einsatzkommandos, Sonderkommandos

Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski Rudolf Batz Ernst Biberstein Wolfgang Birkner Helmut Bischoff Paul Blobel Walter Blume Friedrich-Wilhelm Bock Otto Bradfisch Werner Braune Friedrich Buchardt Fritz Dietrich Karl Jäger Friedrich Jeckeln Waldemar Klingelhöfer Wolfgang Kügler Walter Kutschmann Rudolf Lange Gustav Adolf Nosske Hans-Adolf Prützmann Walter Rauff Martin Sandberger Hermann Schaper Karl Eberhard Schöngarth Erwin Schulz Franz Six Eugen Steimle Eduard Strauch Martin Weiss Udo von Woyrsch

Other members

August Becker Lothar Fendler Joachim Hamann Emil Haussmann Felix Landau Albert Widmann

Collaborators

Viktors Arājs Herberts Cukurs Antanas Impulevičius Konrāds Kalējs Algirdas Klimaitis

Groups

German

SS RSHA SD Orpo 8th SS Cavalry Division Florian Geyer Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz Sonderdienst

Non-German

Schutzmannschaft (Belarusian, Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Ukrainian) Arajs Kommando Lithuanian Security Police Rollkommando Hamann TDA Ypatingasis būrys

Crimes

Belarus

Łachwa Ghetto Minsk Ghetto Slutsk Affair

Estonia

Kalevi-Liiva

Latvia

Burning of the Riga synagogues Dünamünde Action Jelgava Pogulianski Rumbula Liepāja (Šķēde)

Lithuania

Ninth Fort Kaunas June 1941 Kaunas 29 October 1941 Ninth Fort November 1941 Ponary

Poland

Operation Tannenberg Intelligenzaktion AB-Aktion Operation Reinhard

Russia

Gully of Petrushino Zmievskaya Balka Lokot Autonomy

Ukraine

Babi Yar Drobytsky Yar Drohobycz Kamianets-Podilskyi Lviv pogroms Mizocz Ghetto Odessa

Records

The Black Book Commissar Order Einsatzgruppen trial Generalplan Ost Jäger Report Korherr Report Special Prosecution Book-Poland (Sonderfahndungsbuch Polen) Eins

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