Drin (river)
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The Drin (; sq, Drin or ; mk, Дрим, Drim ) is a
river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching another body of wate ...

river
in
Southern The name Southern may refer to: * South South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north and is perpendicular to the east and west. Etymology The word ''south'' comes from Old English ''sūþ'', from earl ...

Southern
and
Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to th ...

Southeastern Europe
with two
distributaries A distributary, or a distributary channel, is a stream that branches off and flows away from a main stream channel. Distributaries are a common feature of river deltas. The phenomenon is known as river bifurcation. The opposite of a distributary ...
one discharging into the
Adriatic Sea The Adriatic Sea () is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkans. The Adriatic is the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea, extending from the Strait of Otranto (where it connects to the Ionian Sea) to the northwest ...

Adriatic Sea
and the other one into the
Buna River The Bojana ( sq, Bunë or ''Buna''; sr, Бојана / Bojana) is a river in Albania and Montenegro which flows into the Adriatic Sea. An outflow of Lake Skadar, measured from the source of the lake's longest tributary, the Morača River, Mo ...
. Its
catchment area In human geography Human geography or anthropogeography is the branch of geography Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellen ...

catchment area
extends across
Albania Albania ( ; sq, Shqipëri or Shqipëria), officially the Republic of Albania ( sq, Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a par ...

Albania
,
Kosovo Kosovo, or ; sr-Cyrl, Косово officially the Republic of Kosovo,; sr, / is a partially recognised state in Southeast Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a ...

Kosovo
,
Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geogr ...

Greece
,
Montenegro Montenegro (; cnr, Crna Gora, , , ; sq, Mali i zi) is a country in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography Geography (fro ...

Montenegro
and
North Macedonia North Macedonia, ; sq, Maqedonia e Veriut, (Macedonia before February 2019), officially the Republic of North Macedonia,, is a country in Southeast Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A sub ...
. The river and its tributaries form the
Gulf of Drin The Gulf of Drin or Bay of Drin ( sq, Gjiri i Drinit or ''Pellgu i Drinit'') is an oceanic basin, ocean basin of the Adriatic Sea within the Mediterranean Sea along the northern Albanian Adriatic Sea Coast, coast of Albania. Roughly scythe-shaped ...
, an
ocean basin In hydrology Hydrology (from Ancient Greek, Greek wikt:ὕδωρ, ὕδωρ, ''hýdōr'' meaning "water" and wikt:λόγος, λόγος, ''lógos'' meaning "study") is the scientific study of the movement, distribution, and management of w ...
that encompasses the northern
Albanian Adriatic Sea Coast The Albanian Adriatic Sea Coast ( — ) stretches in the Adriatic Sea, Southeastern Adriatic Sea beginning at the Gulf of Drin in the north, across the port cities of Shëngjin, Durrës and Vlorë, to the Bay of Vlorë in the south, where the A ...
. At long, the Drin is the longest river of Albania of which passes across Albania and the remainder through Kosovo and North Macedonia. It starts at the
confluence In geography Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is ...
of its two headwaters, namely the
Black Drin The Black Drin, or Black Drim ( sq, Drini i Zi, mk, , translit=Crn Drim) is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ...

Black Drin
and
White Drin The White Drin or White Drim ( sq, Drini i Bardhë, sr, Бели Дрим / ''Beli Drim'') is a river in Kosovo Kosovo, or ; sr-Cyrl, Косово officially the Republic of Kosovo,; sr, / is a partially recognised state in So ...

White Drin
. It originates in the mountainous northern mountain range, flows westwards through the
Albanian Alps The Accursed Mountains ( sq, Bjeshkët e Nemuna; sh, Prokletije, cyrl, Проклетије, ; both translated as "Cursed Mountains") also known as the Albanian Alps ( sq, Alpet Shqiptare; sh, Albanski Alpi) are a mountain group on the weste ...

Albanian Alps
and
Dukagjin Highlands Dukagjin highlands ( sq, Malsia E Dukagjinit) is a mountainous region in northern Albania, east of Shkodër, Shkodra and north of the Drin River, Drin. It is roughly equivalent to the northern half of the Shkodër District, with some minor parts ...
, and eventually drains into the
Adriatic Sea The Adriatic Sea () is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkans. The Adriatic is the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea, extending from the Strait of Otranto (where it connects to the Ionian Sea) to the northwest ...

Adriatic Sea
, between
Shëngjin Shëngjin is a coastal town and a former municipality in Lezhë County, northwestern Albania. At the 2015 local government reform it became a subdivision of the municipality of Lezhë. The population at the 2011 census was 8,091.
Shëngjin
and
Durrës Durrës ( , ; sq-definite, Durrësi) is the second most populous city of the Republic of Albania Albania ( ; sq, Shqipëri or Shqipëria), officially the Republic of Albania ( sq, Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern ...

Durrës
. Numerous
lake A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, surrounded by land Land is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently submerged in water. Most but not all land is situated at elevations above sea level (variable ove ...

lake
s and
reservoir A reservoir (; from French ''réservoir'' ) is most commonly an enlarged natural or artificial lake A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, surrounded by land Land is the solid surface of Earth that is not per ...

reservoir
s are formed by the river or flow into it such as the Fierza Lake and . Located in the
Balkan Peninsula The Balkans ( ), also known as the Balkan Peninsula, are a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various definitions and meanings, including geopolitical and historical. The region takes its name from the Balkan Mountains that stretch ...

Balkan Peninsula
at the crossroad of
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...

Europe
and
Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, Northern Hemisphere of the Earth, Hemispheres. It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the cont ...

Asia
, the river basin's varied climate and topography have shaped a vast array of
flora Flora is all the plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular respiration, ca ...

flora
and
fauna Fauna is all of the animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals Heterotroph, consume organic material, Cellular r ...

fauna
. In addition, it has been recognised as one of the most important
biodiversity hotspot A biodiversity hotspot is a biogeographic region with significant levels of biodiversity Biodiversity is the biological variety and Genetic variability, variability of life, life on Earth. Biodiversity is a measure of variation at the Geneti ...
s in Europe. The Drin Delta is classified as an
Important Bird Area An Important Bird and Biodiversity Area (IBA) is an area identified using an internationally agreed set of criteria as being globally important for the conservation of bird Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrate Vertebrates () ...
of international importance by designation under the
BirdLife International BirdLife International is a global partnership of non-governmental organization A non-governmental organization, or simply an NGO, is an organization that is, generally, formed independent from government. They are typically nonprofit organ ...
Convention.


Name

The name of the river is recorded in
Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the diale ...
as ''Drilon'' (Δρίλων) and in
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
as ''Drinus''. The name is considered to be of
Illyrian Illyrian may refer to: * Illyria, the historical region on the Balkan Peninsula ** Illyrians, ancient tribes inhabiting Illyria ** Illyrian language, a language or group of languages of ancient Illyrian tribes * Illyrian (South Slavic), a common na ...
origin. The form ''Drin-'' has been evidenced by
Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder#REDIRECT Pliny the Elder Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD 23/2479), called Pliny the Elder (), was a Roman author, a naturalist Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms, includi ...

Pliny the Elder
( 1st century AD) and is most likely primary. The ancient name ''Drinus'' has undergone sound changes reaching the current
Albanian Albanian may refer to: *Pertaining to Albania in Southeast Europe; in particular: **Albanians, an ethnic group native to the Balkans **Albanian language **Albanian culture **Demographics of Albania, includes other ethnic groups within the country ...

Albanian
form ''Drin'' through the evolution of . The
Macedonian Macedonian most often refers to someone or something from or related to Macedonia (disambiguation), Macedonia. Macedonian may specifically refer to: People Modern * Macedonians (ethnic group), the South Slavic ethnic group primarily associated w ...
name of the river is Дрим, ''Drim''.
Homonym In linguistics, homonyms, broadly defined, are words which are homographs (words that share the same spelling, regardless of pronunciation) or homophones (words that share the same pronunciation, regardless of spelling), or both. For example, acc ...
rivers are
Drino The Drino or Drinos ( sq, Drino, el, Δρίνος) is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes ...
between southern Albania and northwestern
Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geogr ...

Greece
, and
Drina The Drina ( sr-Cyrl, Дрина, ) is a long Balkans The Balkans ( ), also known as the Balkan Peninsula, are a geographic area in southeastern Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Ge ...

Drina
between
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina,, abbreviated BiH or B&H, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in South South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north a ...

Bosnia and Herzegovina
and
Serbia Serbia (, ; Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a country in Southeastern Europe * someone or something related to the Serbs, a South Slavic people * in both meanings, depending on the context, it may ref ...

Serbia
.


Overview

The Drin originates near the town of
Kukës Kukës ( sq-definite, Kukësi) is a city in the Republic of Albania Albania ( ; sq, Shqipëri or Shqipëria), officially the Republic of Albania ( sq, Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Sou ...

Kukës
, in the northeast of
Albania Albania ( ; sq, Shqipëri or Shqipëria), officially the Republic of Albania ( sq, Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a par ...

Albania
, at the confluence of the rivers
Black Drin The Black Drin, or Black Drim ( sq, Drini i Zi, mk, , translit=Crn Drim) is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ...

Black Drin
and
White Drin The White Drin or White Drim ( sq, Drini i Bardhë, sr, Бели Дрим / ''Beli Drim'') is a river in Kosovo Kosovo, or ; sr-Cyrl, Косово officially the Republic of Kosovo,; sr, / is a partially recognised state in So ...

White Drin
. It then flows west for about passing through the
Albanian Alps The Accursed Mountains ( sq, Bjeshkët e Nemuna; sh, Prokletije, cyrl, Проклетије, ; both translated as "Cursed Mountains") also known as the Albanian Alps ( sq, Alpet Shqiptare; sh, Albanski Alpi) are a mountain group on the weste ...

Albanian Alps
and Fierzë then upon reaching the Dukagjini highlands, flowing then to the south through Apripë e Gurit, Toplanë, Dushman, Koman, Vjerdhë Mazrrek, Rragam, and Pale Lalej. At
Vau i Dejës Vau i Dejës (), English: Deja's Ford, is a town and a municipality in Shkodër County, northwestern Albania. It was formed at the 2015 local government reform by the merger of the former municipalities Bushat, Hajmel, Shllak, Temal, Vau i Dejës, ...
, it enters the low Shkodër Field and splits into two arms. One empties into the
Gulf of Drin The Gulf of Drin or Bay of Drin ( sq, Gjiri i Drinit or ''Pellgu i Drinit'') is an oceanic basin, ocean basin of the Adriatic Sea within the Mediterranean Sea along the northern Albanian Adriatic Sea Coast, coast of Albania. Roughly scythe-shaped ...
into the
Adriatic Sea The Adriatic Sea () is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkans. The Adriatic is the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea, extending from the Strait of Otranto (where it connects to the Ionian Sea) to the northwest ...

Adriatic Sea
southwest of
Lezhë Lezhë (, sq-definite, Lezha) is a List of cities and towns in Albania, city in the Republic of Albania and seat of Lezhë County and Lezhë Municipality. One of the main strongholds of the Labeatae, Labeatai, the earliest of the fortification ...

Lezhë
, forming the Mouth of Drin, sq, Gryk' e Drinit). The other empties into the
Bojana River The Bojana ( sq, Bunë or ''Buna''; sr, Бојана / Bojana) is a river in Albania and Montenegro which flows into the Adriatic Sea. An outflow of Lake Skadar, measured from the source of the lake's longest tributary, the Morača River, Mo ...

Bojana River
near the
Rozafa Castle Rozafa Castle ( sq, Kalaja e Rozafës), also known as the Shkodër Castle ( sq, Kalaja e Shkodrës) is a castle near the city of Shkodër Shkodër ( , ; sq-definite, Shkodra) is the List of cities and towns in Albania, fifth most populous cit ...

Rozafa Castle
. Measured from the source of White Drin, the rivers length is , making it the longest river in Albania. The Black Drin flows out from the
Lake Ohrid Lake Ohrid ( mk, Охридско Езеро , al, Liqeni i Ohrit , ''Liqeni i Pogradecit'';) is a lake which straddles the mountainous border between the southwestern part of North Macedonia and Albanian Ohrid Lake Coast, eastern Albania. It is ...

Lake Ohrid
near
Struga Struga ( mk, Струга , sq, Strugë) is a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts o ...

Struga
and flow through eastern Albania and western North Macedonia. The White Drin originates from the Zhleb mountain, north of the town of
Peja Peja ( sq-definite, Pejë ) or Peć ( sr-cyr, Пећ ) is the fourth largest city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The S ...

Peja
in the Dukagjin region of
Kosovo Kosovo, or ; sr-Cyrl, Косово officially the Republic of Kosovo,; sr, / is a partially recognised state in Southeast Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a ...

Kosovo
, and flows from there through to Albania. The basin encompasses the transboundary subbasins of
Lake Shkodër Lake Skadar ( sh, Скадарско језеро, Skadarsko jezero, ; sq, Liqeni i Shkodrës, ) also called Lake Scutari, Lake Shkodër and Lake Shkodra lies on the border of Albania Albania ( ; sq, Shqipëri or Shqipëria), officially ...

Lake Shkodër
(largest lake in Southern Europe),
Lake Ohrid Lake Ohrid ( mk, Охридско Езеро , al, Liqeni i Ohrit , ''Liqeni i Pogradecit'';) is a lake which straddles the mountainous border between the southwestern part of North Macedonia and Albanian Ohrid Lake Coast, eastern Albania. It is ...

Lake Ohrid
(one of the most
ancient lake An ancient lake is a lake that has consistently carried water for more than one million years. Many have existed for more than 2.6 million years, the full Quaternary period The Quaternary ( ) is the current and most recent of the three periods ...
s in the World),
Lake Prespa The Lake Prespa is located on the tripoint of North Macedonia, Albania, and Greece. It is a system of two lakes separated by an isthmus: the Great Prespa Lake, divided between the three countries, and the Little Prespa Lake, mostly within Greece. ...

Lake Prespa
and
Small Prespa Lake Small Prespa Lake ( el, Λίμνη Μικρή Πρέσπα, ''Limni Mikri Prespa''; sq, Prespa e Vogël; mk, Мало Преспанско Езеро, ''Malo Prespansko Ezero'') is a lake shared between Greece (138 km² drainage area; 42.5& ...
and also the tributaries, namely
Black Drin The Black Drin, or Black Drim ( sq, Drini i Zi, mk, , translit=Crn Drim) is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ...

Black Drin
,
White Drin The White Drin or White Drim ( sq, Drini i Bardhë, sr, Бели Дрим / ''Beli Drim'') is a river in Kosovo Kosovo, or ; sr-Cyrl, Косово officially the Republic of Kosovo,; sr, / is a partially recognised state in So ...

White Drin
and
Buna River The Bojana ( sq, Bunë or ''Buna''; sr, Бојана / Bojana) is a river in Albania and Montenegro which flows into the Adriatic Sea. An outflow of Lake Skadar, measured from the source of the lake's longest tributary, the Morača River, Mo ...
. All these subbasins and tributaries are home to numerous species of
mammal Mammals (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be i ...
s,
vascular plant Vascular plants (from Latin ''vasculum'': duct), also known as Tracheophyta (the tracheophytes , from Greek τραχεῖα ἀρτηρία ''trācheia artēria'' 'windpipe' + φυτά ''phutá'' 'plants'), form a large group of plants ( 300,000 ...
s, insects, amphibians, fish and birds. The Drin is extremely important for the Albanian economy, especially for its electrical production. Four hydropower facilities produce most of Albania's electricity (over 1200MW capacity). The artificial Lake Fierza (Albanian: ''Liqeni i Fierzës'') created by the dam at Fierzë is the largest artificial lake in Albania with its surface of 73 km². The second largest artificial lake is also built on this river. Vau i Dejës lake ( sq, Liqeni i Vaut të Dejës) has an area of 25 km². Construction of the Fierza power station caused some controversy in the 1980s. Without reaching any agreement, the Albanian government ordered the reservoir to be filled with water, which flooded some border areas of
Kosovo Kosovo, or ; sr-Cyrl, Косово officially the Republic of Kosovo,; sr, / is a partially recognised state in Southeast Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a ...

Kosovo
, then part of Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Yugoslavia. The Yugoslav government protested, but no solution was agreed on. Thus, today, Lake Fierza is shared by Albania and Kosovo.


Human history

The ancient name of the river was ''Drilon''. The valley of the river was inhabited by several Illyrians, Illyrian List of ancient Illyrian peoples and tribes, peoples. It was probably dominated at some point and to some extent by the Enchele. The tribal territory of the Taulantii and of the Labeatae was most likely located near the river.


See also

*
Gulf of Drin The Gulf of Drin or Bay of Drin ( sq, Gjiri i Drinit or ''Pellgu i Drinit'') is an oceanic basin, ocean basin of the Adriatic Sea within the Mediterranean Sea along the northern Albanian Adriatic Sea Coast, coast of Albania. Roughly scythe-shaped ...
* Geography of Albania * Central Mountain Range, Albania, Central Mountain Range * Rivers of Albania


Notes


Bibliography

* * *


Further reading

* ''Mala Prosvetina Enciklopedija'', Third edition (1985); Prosveta; * Jovan Đ. Marković (1990): ''Enciklopedijski geografski leksikon Jugoslavije''; Svjetlost-Sarajevo;


References

{{DEFAULTSORT:Drin (River) Drin basin, Rivers of Albania Rivers of Kosovo Rivers of North Macedonia Important Bird Areas of Albania Braided rivers in Albania International rivers of Europe Geography of Peja District