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Doris May Lessing CH OMG (née Tayler; 22 October 1919 – 17 November 2013) was a British-Zimbabwean (Rhodesian) novelist. She was born to British parents in Iran, where she lived until 1925. Her family then moved to Southern Rhodesia
Southern Rhodesia
(now Zimbabwe), where she remained until moving in 1949 to London, England. Her novels include The Grass Is Singing
The Grass Is Singing
(1950), the sequence of five novels collectively called Children of Violence (1952–1969), The Golden Notebook
The Golden Notebook
(1962), The Good Terrorist
The Good Terrorist
(1985), and five novels collectively known as Canopus in Argos: Archives (1979–1983). Lessing was awarded the 2007 Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature. In awarding the prize, the Swedish Academy
Swedish Academy
described her as "that epicist of the female experience, who with scepticism, fire and visionary power has subjected a divided civilisation to scrutiny".[2] Lessing was the oldest person ever to receive the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature.[3][4][5] In 2001, Lessing was awarded the David Cohen Prize for a lifetime's achievement in British literature. In 2008, The Times
The Times
ranked her fifth on a list of "The 50 greatest British writers since 1945".[6]

Contents

1 Life

1.1 Early life 1.2 Move to London; political views 1.3 Literary career 1.4 Illness and death

2 Fiction 3 Doris Lessing
Doris Lessing
Society 4 Archives 5 Awards 6 List of works 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

Life[edit] Early life[edit] Lessing was born Doris May Tayler in Kermanshah, Iran, on 22 October 1919, to Captain Alfred Tayler and Emily Maude Tayler (née McVeagh), both British subjects.[7] Her father, who had lost a leg during his service in World War I, met his future wife, a nurse, at the Royal Free Hospital
Royal Free Hospital
in London
London
where he was recovering from his amputation.[8][9] The couple moved to Iran, for Alfred to take a job as a clerk for the Imperial Bank of Persia.[10][11] In 1925, the family moved to the British colony of Southern Rhodesia
Southern Rhodesia
(now Zimbabwe) to farm maize and other crops on about 1,000 acres (400 ha) of bush that Alfred bought. In the rough environment, his wife Emily aspired to lead an Edwardian
Edwardian
lifestyle. It might have been possible had the family been wealthy; in reality, they were short of money and the farm delivered very little income.[12] As a girl Doris was educated first at the Dominican Convent
Convent
High School, a Roman Catholic convent all-girls school in the Southern Rhodesian capital of Salisbury (now Harare).[13] Then followed a year at Girls High School in Salisbury. [14] She left school at age 13 and was self-educated from then on. She left home at 15 and worked as a nursemaid. She started reading material that her employer gave her on politics and sociology[9] and began writing around this time. In 1937, Doris moved to Salisbury to work as a telephone operator, and she soon married her first husband, Frank Wisdom, with whom she had two children (John, born in 1940, and Jean, born in 1941), before the marriage ended in 1943.[9]

Move to London; political views[edit] After the divorce, Doris' interest was drawn to the community around the Left Book Club, an organisation she had joined the year before.[12][15] It was here that she met her future second husband, Gottfried Lessing. They married shortly after she joined the group, and had a child together (Peter, born in 1946), before they divorced in 1949. She did not marry again.[9] Lessing also had a love affair with RAF serviceman John Whitehorn (brother of journalist Katharine Whitehorn), who was stationed in Southern Rhodesia, and wrote him ninety letters between 1943 and 1949.[16] Lessing moved to London
London
in 1949 with her younger son, Peter, to pursue her writing career and socialist beliefs, but left the two older children with their father Frank Wisdom in South Africa. She later said that at the time she saw no choice: "For a long time I felt I had done a very brave thing. There is nothing more boring for an intelligent woman than to spend endless amounts of time with small children. I felt I wasn't the best person to bring them up. I would have ended up an alcoholic or a frustrated intellectual like my mother."[17] As well as campaigning against nuclear arms, she was an active opponent of apartheid, which led her to being banned from South Africa and Rhodesia in 1956 for many years.[18] In the same year, following the Soviet invasion of Hungary, she left the British Communist Party.[19] In the 1980s, when Lessing was vocal in her opposition to Soviet actions in Afghanistan,[20] she gave her views on feminism, communism and science fiction in an interview with The New York Times.[10] A 2010 BBC
BBC
radio documentary listed Doris Lessing
Doris Lessing
and several other prominent British writers as Vladimir Lenin's "useful idiots"; a 2014 article in The Zimbabwean quoted her admission of naivete when she discovered that Russian News Agency TASS
Russian News Agency TASS
had edited articles that she wrote for them during the pre-independence era.[21][22] On 21 August 2015 a five-volume secret file on Lessing built up by the British intelligence agencies, MI5
MI5
and MI6, was made public[23] and placed in The National Archives. The file, which contains documents that are redacted in parts, shows Lessing was under surveillance by British spies for around twenty years, from the early 1940s onwards. Her associations with Communism and her anti-racist activism are reported[24] to be the reasons for the secret service interest in Lessing.

Literary career[edit] At the age of 15, Lessing began to sell her stories to magazines.[25] Her first novel, The Grass Is Singing, was published in 1950.[12] The work that gained her international attention, The Golden Notebook, was published in 1962.[11] By the time of her death, she had issued more than 50 novels, some under a pseudonym.[26] In 1982, Lessing published two novels under the literary pseudonym Jane Somers to show the difficulty new authors face in trying to get their work printed. The novels were rejected by Lessing's UK publisher, but later accepted by another English publisher, Michael Joseph, and in the US by Alfred A. Knopf. The Diary of a Good Neighbour[27] was published in Britain and the US in 1983, and If the Old Could in both countries in 1984,[28] both as written by Jane Somers. In 1984, both novels were re-published in both countries ( Viking Books publishing in the US), this time under one cover, with the title The Diaries of Jane Somers: The Diary of a Good Neighbour and If the Old Could, listing Doris Lessing
Doris Lessing
as author.[29] Lessing declined a damehood (DBE) in 1992 as an honour linked to a non-existent Empire; she had declined an OBE in 1977.[30] Later she accepted appointment as a Companion of Honour
Companion of Honour
at the end of 1999 for "conspicuous national service".[31] She was also made a Companion of Literature by the Royal Society of Literature.[32] In 2007, Lessing was awarded the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature.[33] She received the prize at the age of 88 years 52 days, making her the oldest winner of the literature prize at the time of the award and the third-oldest Nobel laureate in any category (after Leonid Hurwicz
Leonid Hurwicz
and Raymond Davis Jr.).[34][35] She also was only the 11th woman to be awarded the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
for Literature by the Swedish Academy
Swedish Academy
in its 106-year history.[36] in 2017, just 10 years later, her Nobel medal was put up for auction.[37][38] Previously only one Nobel medal for literature was sold at auction, for André Gide
André Gide
in 2016.[38] Lessing was out shopping for groceries when the Nobel Prize announcement came. Arriving home to a gathering of reporters, she exclaimed, "Oh Christ!"[39] "I've won all the prizes in Europe, every bloody one, so I'm delighted to win them all. It's a royal flush."[40] She titled her Nobel Lecture On Not Winning the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
and used it to draw attention to global inequality of opportunity, and to suggest that fiction writers can be involved in redressing those inequalities. Lessing wrote that "it is our imaginations which shape us, keep us, create us – for good and for ill. It is our stories that will recreate us, when we are torn, hurt, even destroyed."[41] The lecture was later published in a limited edition to raise money for children made vulnerable by HIV/AIDS. In a 2008 interview for the BBC's Front Row, she stated that increased media interest after the award had left her without time or energy for writing.[42] Her final book, Alfred and Emily, appeared in 2008.

Illness and death[edit] During the late 1990s, Lessing suffered a stroke[43] which stopped her from travelling during her later years.[44] She was still able to attend the theatre and opera.[43] She began to focus her mind on death, for example asking herself if she would have time to finish a new book.[18][43] She died on 17 November 2013, aged 94, at her home in London, predeceased by her two sons, but survived by her daughter, Jean, who lives in South Africa.[45]

Fiction[edit] Idries Shah, who introduced Lessing to Sufism[46] Lessing's fiction is commonly divided into three distinct phases. During her Communist phase (1944–56) she wrote radically about social issues, a theme to which she returned in The Good Terrorist (1985). Doris Lessing's first novel, The Grass Is Singing, as well as the collection of short stories African Stories, are set in Southern Rhodesia (today Zimbabwe) where she was then living. This was followed by a psychological phase from 1956 to 1969, including the Golden Notebook and the "Children of Violence" quartet. Third came the Sufi
Sufi
phase, explored in the Canopus in Argos
Canopus in Argos
sequence of science fiction (or as she preferred to put it "space fiction") novels and novellas. Lessing's Canopus sequence was not popular with many mainstream literary critics. For example, in The New York Times
The New York Times
in 1982 John Leonard wrote in reference to The Making of the Representative for Planet 8 that "[o]ne of the many sins for which the 20th century will be held accountable is that it has discouraged Mrs. Lessing... She now propagandises on behalf of our insignificance in the cosmic razzmatazz,"[47] to which Lessing replied: "What they didn't realise was that in science fiction is some of the best social fiction of our time. I also admire the classic sort of science fiction, like Blood Music, by Greg Bear. He's a great writer."[48] She attended the 1987 World Science Fiction Convention as its Writer Guest of Honor. Here she made a speech in which she described her dystopian novel Memoirs of a Survivor
Memoirs of a Survivor
as "an attempt at an autobiography."[49] The Canopus in Argos
Canopus in Argos
novels present an advanced interstellar society's efforts to accelerate the evolution of other worlds, including Earth. Using Sufi
Sufi
concepts, to which Lessing had been introduced in the mid-1960s by her "good friend and teacher" Idries Shah,[46] the series of novels also uses an approach similar to that employed by the early 20th century mystic G. I. Gurdjieff
G. I. Gurdjieff
in his work All and Everything. Earlier works of "inner space" fiction like Briefing for a Descent into Hell (1971) and Memoirs of a Survivor
Memoirs of a Survivor
(1974) also connect to this theme. Lessing's interest had turned to Sufism
Sufism
after coming to the realisation that Marxism ignored spiritual matters, leaving her disillusioned.[50] Lessing's novel The Golden Notebook
The Golden Notebook
is considered a feminist classic by some scholars,[51] but notably not by the author herself, who later wrote that its theme of mental breakdowns as a means of healing and freeing one's self from illusions had been overlooked by critics. She also regretted that critics failed to appreciate the exceptional structure of the novel. She explained in Walking in the Shade that she modelled Molly partly on her good friend Joan Rodker, the daughter of the modernist poet and publisher John Rodker.[52]

Lessing did not like being pigeon-holed as a feminist author. When asked why, she explained: .mw-parser-output .templatequote overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px .mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0 What the feminists want of me is something they haven't examined because it comes from religion. They want me to bear witness. What they would really like me to say is, 'Ha, sisters, I stand with you side by side in your struggle toward the golden dawn where all those beastly men are no more.' Do they really want people to make oversimplified statements about men and women? In fact, they do. I've come with great regret to this conclusion.— Doris Lessing, The New York Times, 25 July 1982[10]

Doris Lessing
Doris Lessing
Society[edit] The Doris Lessing
Doris Lessing
Society is dedicated to supporting the scholarly study of Lessing's work. The formal structure of the Society dates from January 1977, when the first issue of the Doris Lessing Newsletter was published. In 2002 the Newsletter became the academic journal Doris Lessing
Doris Lessing
Studies. The Society also organises panels at the Modern Languages Association (MLA) annual Conventions and has held two international conferences in New Orleans
New Orleans
in 2004 and Leeds
Leeds
in 2007.[53]

Archives[edit] Lessing's literary archive is held by the Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, at the University of Texas at Austin. The 45 archival boxes of Lessing's materials at the Ransom Center contain nearly all of her extant manuscripts and typescripts up to 1999. Original material for Lessing's early books is assumed not to exist because she kept none of her early manuscripts.[54] The McFarlin Library at the University of Tulsa, holds a smaller collection.[55] The University of East Anglia's British Archive for Contemporary Writing holds Doris Lessing's personal archive: a vast collection of professional and personal correspondence, including the Whitehorn letters, a collection of love letters from the 1940s, written when Lessing was still living in Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
(then Southern Rhodesia). The collection also includes forty years of personal diaries. Some of the archive remains embargoed during the writing of Lessing's official biography.[56]

Awards[edit]

Somerset Maugham Award (1954) Prix Médicis étranger (1976) Austrian State Prize for European Literature (1981) Shakespeare-Preis der Alfred Toepfer Stiftung F. V. S., Hamburg (1982) WH Smith Literary Award (1986) Palermo Prize (1987) Premio Internazionale Mondello (1987) Premio Grinzane Cavour (1989) James Tait Black Memorial Prize for biography (1995) Los Angeles Times Book Prize
Los Angeles Times Book Prize
(1995) Premi Internacional Catalunya (1999)[57] Order of the Companions of Honour
Order of the Companions of Honour
(1999) Companion of Literature of the Royal Society of Literature
Royal Society of Literature
(2000) David Cohen Prize (2001) Premio Príncipe de Asturias (2001) S.T. Dupont Golden PEN Award (2002)[58] Nobel Prize in Literature
Nobel Prize in Literature
(2007) Order of Mapungubwe: Category II Gold (2008)[59]

List of works[edit]

Novels The Grass Is Singing
The Grass Is Singing
(1950) (filmed as Killing Heat (1981)) Retreat to Innocence (1956) The Golden Notebook
The Golden Notebook
(1962) Briefing for a Descent into Hell
Briefing for a Descent into Hell
(1971) The Summer Before the Dark (1973) Memoirs of a Survivor
Memoirs of a Survivor
(1974) The Diary of a Good Neighbour (as Jane Somers, 1983) If the Old Could... (as Jane Somers, 1984) The Good Terrorist
The Good Terrorist
(1985) The Fifth Child
The Fifth Child
(1988) Love, Again (1996) Mara and Dann (1999) Ben, in the World
Ben, in the World
(2000) – sequel to The Fifth Child The Sweetest Dream
The Sweetest Dream
(2001) The Story of General Dann and Mara's Daughter, Griot and the Snow Dog (2005) – sequel to Mara and Dann The Cleft
The Cleft
(2007) Children of Violence series (1952–1969) Martha Quest
Martha Quest
(1952) A Proper Marriage
A Proper Marriage
(1954) A Ripple from the Storm
A Ripple from the Storm
(1958) Landlocked (1965) The Four-Gated City
The Four-Gated City
(1969) The Canopus in Argos: Archives series (1979–1983) Shikasta
Shikasta
(1979) The Marriages Between Zones Three, Four and Five
The Marriages Between Zones Three, Four and Five
(1980) The Sirian Experiments
The Sirian Experiments
(1980) The Making of the Representative for Planet 8
The Making of the Representative for Planet 8
(1982) The Sentimental Agents in the Volyen Empire
The Sentimental Agents in the Volyen Empire
(1983) Opera libretti The Making of the Representative for Planet 8
The Making of the Representative for Planet 8
(music by Philip Glass, 1986) The Marriages Between Zones Three, Four and Five
The Marriages Between Zones Three, Four and Five
(music by Philip Glass, 1997) Comics Playing the Game (graphic novel illustrated by Charlie Adlard, 1995) Drama Each His Own Wilderness (three plays, 1959) Play with a Tiger (1962) Poetry collections Fourteen Poems (1959) The Wolf People – INPOPA Anthology 2002 (poems by Lessing, Robert Twigger and T.H. Benson, 2002)

Short story collections This Was the Old Chief's Country (1951) Five Short Novels (1953) The Habit of Loving (1957) A Man and Two Women (1963) African Stories (1964) Winter in July (1966) The Black Madonna (1966) The Story of a Non-Marrying Man (1972) This Was the Old Chief's Country: Collected African Stories, Vol. 1 (1973) The Sun Between Their Feet: Collected African Stories, Vol. 2 (1973) To Room Nineteen: Collected Stories, Vol. 1 (1978) The Temptation of Jack Orkney: Collected Stories, Vol. 2 (1978) Stories (1978) Through the Tunnel
Through the Tunnel
(1990) London
London
Observed: Stories and Sketches (1992) The Real Thing: Stories and Sketches (1992) Spies I Have Known (1995) The Pit (1996) The Grandmothers: Four Short Novels (2003) (filmed as Two Mothers) Cat Tales Particularly Cats (stories and nonfiction, 1967) Particularly Cats and Rufus the Survivor (stories and nonfiction, 1993) The Old Age of El Magnifico (stories and nonfiction, 2000) On Cats (2002) – omnibus edition containing the above three books Autobiography and memoirs Going Home (memoir, 1957) African Laughter: Four Visits to Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
(memoir, 1992) Under My Skin: Volume One of My Autobiography, to 1949 (1994) Walking in the Shade: Volume Two of My Autobiography, 1949 to 1962 (1997) Alfred and Emily
Alfred and Emily
(memoir/fiction hybrid, 2008) Other non-fiction In Pursuit of the English (1960) Prisons We Choose to Live Inside
Prisons We Choose to Live Inside
(essays, 1987) The Wind Blows Away Our Words (1987) A Small Personal Voice (essays, 1994) Conversations (interviews, edited by Earl G. Ingersoll, 1994) Putting the Questions Differently (interviews, edited by Earl G. Ingersoll, 1996) Time Bites: Views and Reviews (essays, 2004) On Not Winning the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
(Nobel Lecture, 2007, published 2008)

See also[edit] List of female Nobel laureates Declining a British honour References[edit]

^ Stanford, Peter (22 November 2013). "Doris Lessing: A mother much misunderstood". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 27 June 2017..mw-parser-output cite.citation font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'" .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95% .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em

^ "NobelPrize.org". Retrieved 11 October 2007.

^ Crown, Sarah." Doris Lessing
Doris Lessing
wins Nobel prize", The Guardian, 11 October 2013. Retrieved 12 October 2007.

^ Editors at BBC. "Author Lessing wins Nobel honour", BBC
BBC
News, 23 October 2007. Retrieved 12 October 2007.

^ Marchand, Philip. " Doris Lessing
Doris Lessing
oldest to win literature award". Toronto Star, 12 October 2007. Retrieved 13 October 2007.

^ (5 January 2008). "The 50 greatest British writers since 1945". Archived from the original on 25 April 2011. Retrieved 17 April 2008.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link). The Times. Retrieved 25 April 2011.

^ Hazelton, Lesley (11 October 2007). "Golden Notebook' Author Lessing Wins Nobel Prize". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 24 October 2013. Retrieved 11 October 2007.

^ Carole Klein. "Doris Lessing". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 October 2007.

^ a b c d Liukkonen, Petri. "Doris Lessing". Books and Writers (kirjasto.sci.fi). Finland: Kuusankoski
Kuusankoski
Public Library. Archived from the original on 8 June 2008.

^ a b c Hazelton, Lesley (25 July 1982). " Doris Lessing
Doris Lessing
on Feminism, Communism and 'Space Fiction'". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 October 2007.

^ a b "Author Lessing wins Nobel honour". BBC
BBC
News. 11 October 2007. Retrieved 11 October 2007.

^ a b c "Biography". A Reader's Guide to The Golden Notebook
The Golden Notebook
and Under My Skin. HarperCollins. 1995. Retrieved 11 October 2007.

^ Carol Simpson Stern. Doris Lessing
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Biography. biography.jrank.org. Retrieved 11 October 2007.

^ Lessing, Doris (1994). Under My Skin: Volume One of My Autobiography, to 1949. London: Harper Collins. p. 147. ISBN 000255545X.

^ "Brief Chronology". A Home for the Highland Cattle & The Antheap. Broadview Press. 2003. Retrieved 29 December 2010.

^ Flood, Alison (22 October 2008). " Doris Lessing
Doris Lessing
donates revelatory letters to university". The Guardian.

^ "Lowering the Bar. When bad mothers give us hope" Archived 30 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Newsweek, 6 May 2010. Retrieved 9 May 2010.

^ a b Peter Guttridge (17 November 2013). "Doris Lessing: Nobel Prize-winning author whose work ranged from social and political realism to science fiction". The Independent. Retrieved 17 November 2013.

^ Miller, Stephen (17 November 2013). "Nobel Author Doris Lessing
Doris Lessing
Dies at 94". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 23 November 2013.

^ " Doris Lessing
Doris Lessing
blows the veil of romanticism off Afghanistan", The Christian Science Monitor, 14 January 1988.

^ Useful Idiots – Part One. BBC

^ Lives Remembered: Doris Lessing

^ Shirbon, Estelle, "British spies reveal file on Nobel-winner Doris Lessing", Reuters, 21 August 2015.

^ Norton-Taylor, Richard, " MI5
MI5
spied on Doris Lessing
Doris Lessing
for 20 years, declassified documents reveal", The Guardian, 21 August 2015.

^ Lessing, Doris. "Biography (From the pamphlet: A Reader's Guide to The Golden Notebook
The Golden Notebook
& Under My Skin, HarperPerennial, 1995)".

^ Kennedy, Maev (17 November 2013). " Doris Lessing
Doris Lessing
dies aged 94". The Guardian.

^ "The Diary of a Good Neighbour by Doris Lessing". Doris Lessing. Retrieved 13 August 2012.

^ "If the Old Could by Doris Lessing". www.dorislessing.org.

^ Hanft, Adam. "When Doris Lessing
Doris Lessing
Became Jane Somers and Tricked the Publishing World (And Possibly Herself In the Process)". The Huffington Post, 10 November 2007. Updated May 25, 2011. Retrieved 7 September 2017.

^ Flood, Alison (22 October 2008). " Doris Lessing
Doris Lessing
donates revelatory letters to university". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 October 2012.

^ " Doris Lessing
Doris Lessing
interview". BBC
BBC
Radio. Archived from the original (Audio) on 14 October 2007. Retrieved 11 October 2007.

^ "Companions of Literature list". Archived from the original on 7 July 2007. Retrieved 11 October 2007.

^ Rich, Motoko and Lyall, Sarah. " Doris Lessing
Doris Lessing
Wins Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 October 2007.

^ Hurwicz won the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Science in 2007 aged 90. Davis received the 2002 Physics Prize at 88 years 57 days. Their birth dates are shown in their biographies at the Nobel Prize web site, which states that the awards are given annually on 10 December.

^ Pierre-Henry Deshayes. " Doris Lessing
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wins Nobel Literature Prize". Herald Sun. Retrieved 16 October 2007.

^ Reynolds, Nigel. " Doris Lessing
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^ "Valuable Books and Manuscripts". Cristies. 13 December 2017. Retrieved 7 December 2017.

^ a b Alison Flood (7 December 2017). "Doris Lessing's Nobel medal goes up for auction". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 December 2017.

^ "Lessing's Legacy of Political Literature", CBS News, 12 October 2007.

^ Hinckley, David. " Doris Lessing
Doris Lessing
wins Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
for Literature". Daily News (New York). Retrieved 15 October 2007.

^ "The Nobel Prize in Literature
Nobel Prize in Literature
2007". NobelPrize.org. Retrieved 24 April 2019.

^ "Lessing: Nobel win a 'disaster'". BBC
BBC
News. 11 May 2008. Retrieved 11 May 2008.

^ a b c Raskin, Jonah (June 1999). "The Progressive Interview: Doris Lessing". The Progressive (reprint). dorislessing.org. Retrieved 17 November 2013.

^ Helen T. Verongos (17 November 2013). "Doris Lessing, Novelist Who Won 2007 Nobel, is Dead at 94". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 November 2013.

^ "Author Doris Lessing
Doris Lessing
dies aged 94", BBC. Retrieved 17 November 2013.

^ a b Lessing, Doris. "On the Death of Idries Shah
Idries Shah
(excerpt from Shah's obituary in the London
London
The Daily Telegraph)". dorislessing.org. Retrieved 3 October 2008.

^ Leonard, John (7 February 1982). "The Spacing Out of Doris Lessing". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 October 2008.

^ Doris Lessing: Hot Dawns, interview by Harvey Blume in Boston Book Review

^ "Guest of Honor Speech", in Worldcon Guest of Honor Speeches, edited by Mike Resnick and Joe Siclari (Deerfield, IL: ISFIC Press, 2006), p. 192.

^ "Postcolonial Nostalgias: Writing, Representation and Memory", Volume 31 of Routledge research in postcolonial literatures, Dennis Walder, Taylor & Francis ltd, 2010, p92. ISBN 9780203840382.

^ "Fresh Air Remembers 'Golden Notebook' Author Doris Lessing". NPR. 18 November 2013. Retrieved 19 November 2013.

^ Scott, Lynda, "Lessing's Early and Transitional Novels: The Beginnings of a Sense of Selfhood", Deepsouth, vol. 4, no. 1 (Autumn 1998). Retrieved 17 October 2007.

^ " Doris Lessing
Doris Lessing
Society". Doris Lessing
Doris Lessing
Society.

^ "Harry Ransom Center Holds Archive of Nobel Laureate Doris Lessing". hrc.utexas.edu. Retrieved 17 March 2008.

^ " Doris Lessing
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manuscripts". lib.utulsa.edu. Retrieved 17 October 2007.

^ " Doris Lessing
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Archive". University of Tulsa. Retrieved 5 July 2016.

^ "Memòria del Departament de Cultura 1999" (PDF) (in Catalan). Generalitat de Catalunya. 1999. p. 38. Retrieved 17 November 2013.

^ "Golden Pen Award, official website". English PEN. Retrieved 3 December 2012.

^ "National Orders Recipients 2008". South African History Online. 28 October 2008. Retrieved 6 August 2018.

Further reading[edit] Fahim, Shadia S. (1995). Doris Lessing: Sufi
Sufi
Equilibrium and the Form of the Novel. Basingstoke, UK/New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan/St. Martins Press. ISBN 0-312-10293-3. Galin, Müge (1997). Between East and West: Sufism
Sufism
in the Novels of Doris Lessing. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-3383-8. Raschke, Debrah; Sternberg Perrakis, Phyllis; Singer, Sandra (2010). Doris Lessing: Interrogating the Times. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press. ISBN 978-0-8142-1136-6. Ridout, Alice (2010). Contemporary Women Writers Look Back: From Irony to Nostalgia. London: Continuum International Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4411-3023-5. Ridout, Alice; Watkins, Susan (2009). Doris Lessing: Border Crossings. London: Continuum International Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4411-0416-8. Skille, Nan Bentzen (1977). Fragmentation and Integration. A Critical Study of Doris Lessing, The Golden Notebook. University of Bergen. Watkins, Susan (2010). Doris Lessing. Manchester UP. ISBN 978-0-7190-7481-3. Wolfe, Graham (2019). Theatre-Fiction in Britain from Henry James to Doris Lessing: Writing in the Wings. Routledge. External links[edit]

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Transcript of Doris Lessing's "Dame" rejection letter to the John Major Government Doris Lessing, Excerpts 'On Cats' Doris Lessing
Doris Lessing
homepage created by Jan Hanford Doris Lessing
Doris Lessing
on IMDb Doris Lessing
Doris Lessing
at Curlie "The shadow of the fifth": patterns of exclusion in Doris Lessing’s The Fifth Child
The Fifth Child
(Anne-Laure Brevet) Works by Doris Lessing
Doris Lessing
at Open Library
Open Library
Doris Lessing
Doris Lessing
at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database Doris Lessing
Doris Lessing
at British Council: Literature Lessing Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
Lecture Doris Lessing
Doris Lessing
at Web of Stories
Web of Stories
(videos) Joyce Carol Oates on Doris Lessing Thomas Frick (Spring 1988). "Doris Lessing, The Art of Fiction No. 102". The Paris Review. Doris Lessing's papers at the Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center at the University of Texas at Austin Doris Lessing
Doris Lessing
Archive, University of East Anglia University of Tulsa
University of Tulsa
McFarlin Library's inventory of Doris Lessing manuscripts housed in Special
Special
Collections Doris Lessing
Doris Lessing
Page at Guardian Unlimited Doris Lessing
Doris Lessing
Society Doris Lessing, Author Who Swept Aside Convention, Is Dead at 94, by Helen T Virongos & Emma G. Fitzsimmons, New York Times, 2013-11-18. (Page A1, 2013-11-17). Appearances on C-SPAN Cats in Literature – Doris Lessing vteWorks by Doris LessingNovels The Grass Is Singing Martha Quest A Proper Marriage The Golden Notebook A Ripple from the Storm Landlocked The Four-Gated City Memoirs of a Survivor Shikasta The Marriages Between Zones Three, Four and Five The Sirian Experiments The Making of the Representative for Planet 8 The Sentimental Agents in the Volyen Empire The Good Terrorist The Fifth Child Ben, in the World The Sweetest Dream The Cleft Short stories "Through the Tunnel" "Flight" Collections Prisons We Choose to Live Inside The Grandmothers: Four Short Novels Autobiography/memoirs Under My Skin Alfred and Emily Related Canopus in Argos The Making of the Representative for Planet 8

vteLaureates of the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature1901–1925 1901: Sully Prudhomme 1902: Theodor Mommsen 1903: Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson 1904: Frédéric Mistral
Frédéric Mistral
/ José Echegaray 1905: Henryk Sienkiewicz 1906: Giosuè Carducci 1907: Rudyard Kipling 1908: Rudolf Eucken 1909: Selma Lagerlöf 1910: Paul Heyse 1911: Maurice Maeterlinck 1912: Gerhart Hauptmann 1913: Rabindranath Tagore 1914 1915: Romain Rolland 1916: Verner von Heidenstam 1917: Karl Gjellerup / Henrik Pontoppidan 1918 1919: Carl Spitteler 1920: Knut Hamsun 1921: Anatole France 1922: Jacinto Benavente 1923: W. B. Yeats 1924: Władysław Reymont 1925: George Bernard Shaw 1926–1950 1926: Grazia Deledda 1927: Henri Bergson 1928: Sigrid Undset 1929: Thomas Mann 1930: Sinclair Lewis 1931: Erik Axel Karlfeldt 1932: John Galsworthy 1933: Ivan Bunin 1934: Luigi Pirandello 1935 1936: Eugene O'Neill 1937: Roger Martin du Gard 1938: Pearl S. Buck 1939: Frans Eemil Sillanpää 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944: Johannes V. Jensen 1945: Gabriela Mistral 1946: Hermann Hesse 1947: André Gide 1948: T. S. Eliot 1949: William Faulkner 1950: Bertrand Russell 1951–1975 1951: Pär Lagerkvist 1952: François Mauriac 1953: Winston Churchill 1954: Ernest Hemingway 1955: Halldór Laxness 1956: Juan Ramón Jiménez 1957: Albert Camus 1958: Boris Pasternak 1959: Salvatore Quasimodo 1960: Saint-John Perse 1961: Ivo Andrić 1962: John Steinbeck 1963: Giorgos Seferis 1964: Jean-Paul Sartre
Jean-Paul Sartre
(declined award) 1965: Mikhail Sholokhov 1966: Shmuel Yosef Agnon
Shmuel Yosef Agnon
/ Nelly Sachs 1967: Miguel Ángel Asturias 1968: Yasunari Kawabata 1969: Samuel Beckett 1970: Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn 1971: Pablo Neruda 1972: Heinrich Böll 1973: Patrick White 1974: Eyvind Johnson
Eyvind Johnson
/ Harry Martinson 1975: Eugenio Montale 1976–2000 1976: Saul Bellow 1977: Vicente Aleixandre 1978: Isaac Bashevis Singer 1979: Odysseas Elytis 1980: Czesław Miłosz 1981: Elias Canetti 1982: Gabriel García Márquez 1983: William Golding 1984: Jaroslav Seifert 1985: Claude Simon 1986: Wole Soyinka 1987: Joseph Brodsky 1988: Naguib Mahfouz 1989: Camilo José Cela 1990: Octavio Paz 1991: Nadine Gordimer 1992: Derek Walcott 1993: Toni Morrison 1994: Kenzaburō Ōe 1995: Seamus Heaney 1996: Wisława Szymborska 1997: Dario Fo 1998: José Saramago 1999: Günter Grass 2000: Gao Xingjian 2001–present 2001: V. S. Naipaul 2002: Imre Kertész 2003: J. M. Coetzee 2004: Elfriede Jelinek 2005: Harold Pinter 2006: Orhan Pamuk 2007: Doris Lessing 2008: J. M. G. Le Clézio 2009: Herta Müller 2010: Mario Vargas Llosa 2011: Tomas Tranströmer 2012: Mo Yan 2013: Alice Munro 2014: Patrick Modiano 2015: Svetlana Alexievich 2016: Bob Dylan 2017: Kazuo Ishiguro 2018

vte2007 Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
laureatesChemistry Gerhard Ertl
Gerhard Ertl
(Germany)Literature Doris Lessing
Doris Lessing
(Zimbabwe, United Kingdom) Peace Al Gore
Al Gore
(United States) Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Physics Albert Fert
Albert Fert
(France) Peter Grünberg
Peter Grünberg
(Germany) Physiology or Medicine Mario Capecchi
Mario Capecchi
(United States) Martin Evans
Martin Evans
(United Kingdom) Oliver Smithies
Oliver Smithies
(United States) Economic Sciences Leonid Hurwicz
Leonid Hurwicz
(United States) Eric Maskin
Eric Maskin
(United States) Roger Myerson (United States)

.mw-parser-output .nobold font-weight:normal Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
recipients 1990 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 2000 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

Awards received by Doris Lessing vteRecipients of the Austrian State Prize for European Literature Zbigniew Herbert
Zbigniew Herbert
(1965) W. H. Auden
W. H. Auden
(1966) Vasko Popa
Vasko Popa
(1967) Václav Havel
Václav Havel
(1968) Not given (1969) Eugène Ionesco
Eugène Ionesco
(1970) Peter Huchel
Peter Huchel
(1971) Sławomir Mrożek
Sławomir Mrożek
(1972) Harold Pinter
Harold Pinter
(1973) Sándor Weöres
Sándor Weöres
(1974) Miroslav Krleža
Miroslav Krleža
(1975) Italo Calvino
Italo Calvino
(1976) Pavel Kohout
Pavel Kohout
(1977) Fulvio Tomizza
Fulvio Tomizza
(1977) Simone de Beauvoir
Simone de Beauvoir
(1978) Fulvio Tomizza
Fulvio Tomizza
(1979) Sarah Kirsch
Sarah Kirsch
(1980) Doris Lessing
Doris Lessing
(1981) Tadeusz Różewicz
Tadeusz Różewicz
(1982) Friedrich Dürrenmatt
Friedrich Dürrenmatt
(1983) Christa Wolf
Christa Wolf
(1984) Stanisław Lem
Stanisław Lem
(1985) Giorgio Manganelli (1986) Milan Kundera
Milan Kundera
(1987) Andrzej Szczypiorski
Andrzej Szczypiorski
(1988) Marguerite Duras (1989) Helmut Heissenbüttel (1990) Péter Nádas
Péter Nádas
(1991) Salman Rushdie
Salman Rushdie
(1992) Chinghiz Aitmatov
Chinghiz Aitmatov
(1993) Inger Christensen
Inger Christensen
(1994) Aleksandar Tišma (1995) Jürg Laederach (1996) Antonio Tabucchi
Antonio Tabucchi
(1997) Dubravka Ugrešić
Dubravka Ugrešić
(1998) Péter Esterházy
Péter Esterházy
(1999) António Lobo Antunes
António Lobo Antunes
(2000) Umberto Eco
Umberto Eco
(2001) Christoph Hein
Christoph Hein
(2002) Cees Nooteboom
Cees Nooteboom
(2003) Julian Barnes (2004) Claudio Magris
Claudio Magris
(2005) Jorge Semprún
Jorge Semprún
(2006) A. L. Kennedy
A. L. Kennedy
(2007) Agota Kristof (2008) Per Olov Enquist
Per Olov Enquist
(2009) Paul Nizon (2010) Javier Marías
Javier Marías
(2011) Patrick Modiano
Patrick Modiano
(2012) John Banville
John Banville
(2013) Lyudmila Ulitskaya
Lyudmila Ulitskaya
(2014) Mircea Cărtărescu
Mircea Cărtărescu
(2015) Andrzej Stasiuk
Andrzej Stasiuk
(2016) Karl Ove Knausgård
Karl Ove Knausgård
(2017)

vteRecipients of the Mondello PrizeSingle Prize for Literature: Bartolo Cattafi (1975) • Achille Campanile
Achille Campanile
(1976) • Günter Grass (1977) Special
Special
Jury Prize: Denise McSmith (1975) • Stefano D'Arrigo (1977) • Jurij Trifonov (1978) • Jarosław Iwaszkiewicz
Jarosław Iwaszkiewicz
(1979) • Pietro Consagra
Pietro Consagra
(1980) • Ignazio Buttitta, Angelo Maria e Ela Ripellino (1983) • Leonardo Sciascia
Leonardo Sciascia
(1985) • Wang Meng (1987) • Mikhail Gorbaciov (1988) • Peter Carey, José Donoso, Northrop Frye, Jorge Semprún, Wole Soyinka, Lu Tongliu (1990) • Fernanda Pivano (1992) • Associazione Scrittori Cinesi (1993) • Dong Baoucum, Fan Boaci, Wang Huanbao, Shi Peide, Chen Yuanbin (1995) • Xu Huainzhong, Xiao Xue, Yu Yougqnan, Qin Weinjung (1996) • Khushwant Singh
Khushwant Singh
(1997) • Javier Marías
Javier Marías
(1998) • Francesco Burdin (2001) • Luciano Erba (2002) • Isabella Quarantotti De Filippo (2003) • Marina Rullo (2006) • Andrea Ceccherini (2007) • Enrique Vila-Matas
Enrique Vila-Matas
(2009) • Francesco Forgione (2010)First narrative work: Carmelo Samonà (1978) • Fausta Garavini (1979)First poetic work: Giovanni Giuga (1978) • Gilberto Sacerdoti (1979)Prize for foreign literature: Milan Kundera
Milan Kundera
(1978) • N. Scott Momaday
N. Scott Momaday
(1979) • Juan Carlos Onetti (1980) • Tadeusz Konwicki
Tadeusz Konwicki
(1981)Prize for foreign poetry: Jannis Ritsos (1978) • Josif Brodskij (1979) • Juan Gelman
Juan Gelman
(1980) • Gyula Illyés (1981)First work: Valerio Magrelli
Valerio Magrelli
(1980) • Ferruccio Benzoni, Stefano Simoncelli, Walter Valeri, Laura Mancinelli
Laura Mancinelli
(1981) • Jolanda Insana (1982) • Daniele Del Giudice (1983) • Aldo Busi
Aldo Busi
(1984) • Elisabetta Rasy, Dario Villa (1985) • Marco Lodoli, Angelo Mainardi (1986) • Marco Ceriani, Giovanni Giudice (1987) • Edoardo Albinati, Silvana La Spina (1988) • Andrea Canobbio, Romana Petri (1990) • Anna Cascella (1991) • Marco Caporali, Nelida Milani (1992) • Silvana Grasso, Giulio Mozzi (1993) • Ernesto Franco (1994) • Roberto Deidier (1995) • Giuseppe Quatriglio, Tiziano Scarpa (1996) • Fabrizio Rondolino (1997) • Alba Donati (1998) • Paolo Febbraro (1999) • Evelina Santangelo (2000) • Giuseppe Lupo (2001) • Giovanni Bergamini, Simona Corso (2003) • Adriano Lo Monaco (2004) • Piercarlo Rizzi (2005) • Francesco Fontana (2006) • Paolo Fallai (2007) • Luca Giachi (2008) • Carlo Carabba (2009) • Gabriele Pedullà (2010)Foreign author: Alain Robbe-Grillet (1982) • Thomas Bernhard
Thomas Bernhard
(1983) • Adolfo Bioy Casares
Adolfo Bioy Casares
(1984) • Bernard Malamud
Bernard Malamud
(1985) • Friedrich Dürrenmatt
Friedrich Dürrenmatt
(1986) • Doris Lessing (1987) • V. S. Naipaul
V. S. Naipaul
(1988) • Octavio Paz
Octavio Paz
(1989) • Christa Wolf
Christa Wolf
(1990) • Kurt Vonnegut
Kurt Vonnegut
(1991) • Bohumil Hrabal
Bohumil Hrabal
(1992) • Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
(1993) • J. M. Coetzee
J. M. Coetzee
(1994) • Vladimir Vojnovič (1995) • David Grossman
David Grossman
(1996) • Philippe Jaccottet (1998) • Don DeLillo
Don DeLillo
(1999) • Aleksandar Tišma (2000) • Nuruddin Farah
Nuruddin Farah
(2001) • Per Olov Enquist
Per Olov Enquist
(2002) • Adunis
Adunis
(2003) • Les Murray (2004) • Magda Szabó
Magda Szabó
(2005) • Uwe Timm
Uwe Timm
(2006) • Bapsi Sidhwa
Bapsi Sidhwa
(2007) • Viktor Erofeev (2009) • Edmund White
Edmund White
(2010) • Javier Cercas
Javier Cercas
(2011) • Elizabeth Strout
Elizabeth Strout
(2012) • Péter Esterházy (2013) • Joe R. Lansdale
Joe R. Lansdale
(2014) • Emmanuel Carrère (2015) • Marilynne Robinson
Marilynne Robinson
(2016) • Cees Nooteboom
Cees Nooteboom
(2017)Italian Author: Alberto Moravia
Alberto Moravia
(1982) • Vittorio Sereni
Vittorio Sereni
alla memoria (1983) • Italo Calvino
Italo Calvino
(1984) • Mario Luzi (1985) • Paolo Volponi (1986) • Luigi Malerba (1987) • Oreste del Buono (1988) • Giovanni Macchia (1989) • Gianni Celati, Emilio Villa (1990) • Andrea Zanzotto (1991) • Ottiero Ottieri (1992) • Attilio Bertolucci (1993) • Luigi Meneghello (1994) • Fernando Bandini, Michele Perriera (1995) • Nico Orengo (1996) • Giuseppe Bonaviri, Giovanni Raboni
Giovanni Raboni
(1997) • Carlo Ginzburg
Carlo Ginzburg
(1998) • Alessandro Parronchi (1999) • Elio Bartolini (2000) • Roberto Alajmo (2001) • Andrea Camilleri
Andrea Camilleri
(2002) • Andrea Carraro, Antonio Franchini, Giorgio Pressburger
Giorgio Pressburger
(2003) • Maurizio Bettini, Giorgio Montefoschi, Nelo Risi
Nelo Risi
(2004) • pr. Raffaele Nigro, sec. Maurizio Cucchi, ter. Giuseppe Conte
Giuseppe Conte
(2005) • pr. Paolo Di Stefano, sec. Giulio Angioni (2006) • pr. Mario Fortunato, sec. Toni Maraini, ter. Andrea Di Consoli (2007) • pr. Andrea Bajani, sec. Antonio Scurati, ter. Flavio Soriga (2008) • pr. Mario Desiati, sec. Osvaldo Guerrieri, ter. Gregorio Scalise (2009) • pr. Lorenzo Pavolini, sec. Roberto Cazzola, ter. (2010) • pr. Eugenio Baroncelli, sec. Milo De Angelis, ter. Igiaba Scego
Igiaba Scego
(2011) • pr. Edoardo Albinati, sec. Paolo Di Paolo, ter. Davide Orecchio (2012) • pr. Andrea Canobbio, sec. Valerio Magrelli, ter. Walter Siti (2013) • pr. Irene Chias, sec. Giorgio Falco, ter. Francesco Pecoraro (2014) • pr. Nicola Lagioia, sec. Letizia Muratori, ter. Marco Missiroli (2015) • pr. Marcello Fois, sec. Emanuele Tonon, ter. Romana Petri (2016) • pr. Stefano Massini, sec. Alessandro Zaccuri, ter. Alessandra Sarchi (2017)"Five Continents" Award: Kōbō Abe, Tahar Ben Jelloun, Germaine Greer, Wilson Harris, José Saramago
José Saramago
(1992) • Kenzaburō Ōe
Kenzaburō Ōe
(1993) • Stephen Spender
Stephen Spender
(1994) • Thomas Keneally, Alberto Arbasino
Alberto Arbasino
(1996) • Margaret Atwood, André Brink, David Malouf, Romesh Gunesekera, Christoph Ransmayr
Christoph Ransmayr
(1997)"Palermo bridge for Europe" Award: Dacia Maraini (1999), Premio Palermo ponte per il Mediterraneo Alberto Arbasino (2000)"Ignazio Buttitta" Award: Nino De Vita (2003) • Attilio Lolini (2005) • Roberto Rossi Precerotti (2006) • Silvia Bre (2007)Supermondello Tiziano Scarpa (2009) • Michela Murgia (2010) • Eugenio Baroncelli (2011) • Davide Orecchio (2012) • Valerio Magrelli
Valerio Magrelli
(2013) • Giorgio Falco (2014) • Marco Missiroli (2015) • Romana Petri (2016) • Stefano Massini (2017) Special
Special
award of the President: Ibrahim al-Koni (2009) • Emmanuele Maria Emanuele (2010) • Antonio Calabrò (2011)Poetry prize: Antonio Riccardi (2010)Translation Award: Evgenij Solonovic (2010)Identity and dialectal literatures award: Gialuigi Beccaria e Marco Paolini (2010)Essays Prize: Marzio Barbagli (2010)Mondello for Multiculturality Award: Kim Thúy
Kim Thúy
(2011)Mondello Youths Award: Claudia Durastanti (2011) • Edoardo Albinati (2012) • Alessandro Zaccuri (2017)"Targa Archimede", Premio all'Intelligenza d'Impresa: Enzo Sellerio (2011)Prize for Literary Criticism: Salvatore Silvano Nigro (2012) • Maurizio Bettini (2013) • Enrico Testa (2014) • Ermanno Cavazzoni (2015) • Serena Vitale (2016) • Antonio Prete (2017)Award for best motivation: Simona Gioè (2012) Special
Special
award for travel literature: Marina Valensise (2013) Special
Special
Award 40 Years of Mondello: Gipi
Gipi
(2014) vteDavid Cohen Prize1990s V. S. Naipaul
V. S. Naipaul
(1993) Harold Pinter
Harold Pinter
(1995) Muriel Spark
Muriel Spark
(1997) William Trevor (1999) 2000s Doris Lessing
Doris Lessing
(2001) Beryl Bainbridge
Beryl Bainbridge
and Thom Gunn (2003) Michael Holroyd (2005) Derek Mahon
Derek Mahon
(2007) Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
(2009) 2010s Julian Barnes (2011) Hilary Mantel (2013) Tony Harrison (2015) Tom Stoppard
Tom Stoppard
(2017)

vteOrder of Mapungubwe 2002: Nelson Mandela, Allan Cormack, FW de Klerk, Basil Schonland, Peter Beighton, Hamilton Naki 2004: Sydney Brenner, Tshilidzi Marwala, Batmanathan Dayanand Reddy 2005: John Maxwell Coetzee, Aaron Klug, Frank Nabarro, Tebello Nyokong, Himladevi Soodyall 2006: Selig Percy Amoils, George Ellis, Lionel Opie, Patricia Berjak 2007: Claire Penn, Sibusiso Sibisi, Valerie Mizrahi 2008: Doris Lessing, Wieland Gevers, Phuti Ngoepe, Tim Noakes, Pragasen Pillay 2009: Bongani Mayosi 2010: Johann Lutjeharms, Monique Zaahl, Douglas Butterworth 2011: Pieter Steyn 2012: Oliver Reginald Tambo 2014: Malegapuru Makgoba, Glenda Gray, George Ekama, Bernie Fanaroff, Quarraisha Abdool Karim

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