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v t e

Dnyaneshwar
Dnyaneshwar
(IAST: Jñāneśvar), also known as Dnyandev or Mauli (1275–1296)[2] was a 13th-century Marathi saint, poet, philosopher and yogi of the Nath
Nath
tradition whose Dnyaneshwari
Dnyaneshwari
(a commentary on the Bhagavad Gita) and Amrutanubhav
Amrutanubhav
are considered to be milestones in Marathi literature.

Contents

1 Biography

1.1 Background 1.2 Early life 1.3 Writings 1.4 Influences 1.5 Travel and samadhi 1.6 Miracles

2 Philosophy

2.1 Ontology and epistemology 2.2 Ethics

3 Reception and legacy 4 Works 5 Drushtanta and First Picture 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Biography[edit] Background[edit]

"Like a good farmer giving up his old business and beginning something new every day, the man overpowered by ignorance installs images of gods, often and again and worships them with the same intensity. He becomes the disciple of the guru who is surrounded by worldly pomp, gets initiated by him and is unwilling to see any other person who has got real spiritual dignity. He is cruel to every being, worships various stone images and has no consistency of heart."

—Dnyaneshwari[3]

Dnyaneshwar
Dnyaneshwar
was born in 1275 (on the auspicious day of Krishna Janmashtami) in Apegaon village on the bank of Godavari
Godavari
river near Paithan
Paithan
in Maharashtra
Maharashtra
during the reign of the Yadava
Yadava
king Ramadevarava.,[4][5] The kingdom enjoyed peace and stability until invasions from the Delhi Sultanate
Delhi Sultanate
started in 1296 CE.[6][7] Arts and sciences flourished under the patronage of the Yadava
Yadava
kings and Maharashtra
Maharashtra
attracted scholars from all over India.[8] However, this period also witnessed religious degeneration, sectarianism, superstition and ritualism which involved animal sacrifices to many local deities.[9] Dnyaneshwar
Dnyaneshwar
would later criticise the religious degeneration of the day in his magnum opus Dnyaneshwari.[10] According to B. P. Bahirat, Dnyaneshwar
Dnyaneshwar
emerged as the first original philosopher who wrote in the Marathi language, in this era.[11] Biographical details of Dnyaneshwar's life are preserved in the writings of his contemporary Namdev
Namdev
and his disciples Satyamalanath and Sachchidanand.[12] The various traditions give conflicting accounts of details of Dnyaneshwar's life. The date of composition of his work Dnyaneshwari
Dnyaneshwari
(1290 CE), however is undisputed.[13][4] According to the more accepted tradition on Dnyaneshwar's life, he was born in 1275 CE and he attained Sanjeewan(alive) samadhi in 1296 CE.[14] Early life[edit] Dnyaneshwar's father Vitthalapant was the kulkarni (hereditary accountant, usually Brahmin, who maintained land and tax records in villages)[15] of a village called Apegaon on the banks of the Godavari River in Maharashtra, a profession he had inherited from his ancestors.[16] He married Rakhumabai, the daughter of the kulkarni of Alandi. Even as a householder, Vitthalapant longed for spiritual learning.[17] His disillusionment with life grew as a result of the death of his father and because he had no children from his marriage. Eventually, with his wife's consent, he renounced worldly life and left for Varanasi
Varanasi
to become a sannyasin (renunciate).[16] Vitthalapant was initiated as a sannyasin by his spiritual teacher, Ramashrama,[18] who is also called Ramananda, Nrisimhashrama, Ramadvaya and Shripad in various sources. (He was not Ramananda, the founder of the Ramanandi Sampradaya.)[19] When Ramashrama discovered that Vitthalapant had left his family behind to become a monk, he instructed Vitthalapant to go back to his wife and perform his duties as a householder. After Vitthalapant returned to his wife and settled down in Alandi, Rakhumabai gave birth to four children—Nivruttinath (1273 CE), Dnyaneshwar
Dnyaneshwar
(1275 CE), Sopan
Sopan
(1277 CE) and Muktabai
Muktabai
(1279 CE).[20] Orthodox Brahmins of the day saw a renunciate returning to his life as a householder as heresy; Vitthalapant and his family were persecuted because of this.[21] Dnyaneshwar
Dnyaneshwar
and his brothers were denied the right to have the sacred thread ceremony,[22] which in Hinduism symbolises the right to read the Vedas.[23] Vitthalapant eventually left the town for Nashik
Nashik
with his family. One day while performing his daily rituals, Vitthalapant came face to face with a tiger. Vitthalapant and three of his four children escaped, but Nivruttinath
Nivruttinath
became separated from the family and hid in a cave. While hiding in the cave he met Gahaninath, who initiated Nivruttinath
Nivruttinath
into the wisdom of the Nath
Nath
yogis.[24][25] Later, Vitthalapant returned to Alandi
Alandi
and asked the Brahmins to suggest a means of atonement for his sins; they suggested giving up his life as penance. Vitthalapant and his wife gave up their lives, within a year of each other by jumping into the Ganges
Ganges
in the hope their children might be able to lead lives free of persecution.[24] Other sources and local folk tradition claim that the parents committed suicide by jumping in the Indrayani River.[26] However, orthodox Brahmins of the town still refused to accept the children as pure and suggested that they obtain a certification of atonement (śuddhi) from the pandits of Paithana, which was a centre of orthodox learning.[25] Writings[edit] The Pandits of Paithana were struck by the spiritual learning and intellect of the four siblings and awarded them the certificate of purification.[27] While returning to Alandi
Alandi
from the journey, the children halted at Nevase, where Dnyaneshwar
Dnyaneshwar
composed Dnyaneshwari
Dnyaneshwari
in the year 1290,[24][28] a commentary on Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
which later became a fundamental text of the Varkari
Varkari
sect.[29] His words were recorded by Sacchidananda, who agreed to become Dnyaneshwar's amanuensis.[25] Dnyaneshwari
Dnyaneshwari
was written using the Ovi; a metre, which was first used to compose women's songs in Maharashtra, of four lines where the first three or the first and third lines rhyme and the fourth line has a sharp and short ending.[30] According to W. B. Patwardhan, a scholar on Dnyaneshwar, with Dnyaneshwar
Dnyaneshwar
the ovi "trips, it gallops, it dances, it whirls, it ambles, it trots, it runs, it takes long leaps or short jumps, it halts or sweeps along, it evolves a hundred and one graces at the master's command".[31] Having experienced the rigidity of the caste system and the dogmatism of scriptural learning, Dnyaneshwar
Dnyaneshwar
was sympathetic towards issues of the common people.[22] He chose the new vernacular Marathi language, as opposed to the classical Sanskrit language, as a means of expression so that spiritual learning could reach the masses who weren't well versed in Sanskrit.[32] In the 13th century, his works presented a departure from the prevailing socio–cultural ethos of high–caste Hinduism, a trend which continued with other bhakti poets across India.[33] According to tradition, Nivruttinath
Nivruttinath
was not satisfied with the commentary and asked Dnyaneshwar
Dnyaneshwar
to write an independent philosophical work. This work later came to be known as Amrutanubhava.[34][35] Scholars differ on the chronology of the Dnyaneshwari
Dnyaneshwari
and Amrutanubhav. Patwardhan has argued that Amrutanubhav
Amrutanubhav
is an earlier text than Dnyaneshwari
Dnyaneshwari
because the latter is richer in use of metaphors and imagery, and displays greater familiarity with many different philosophical systems, such as Samkhya
Samkhya
and Yoga.[36] However, both Bahirat and Ranade disagree with this view pointing out that in Amrutanubhava, author displays familiarity with involved philosophical concepts such as Mayavada and Shunyavada, and while the text has simpler language, it reveals Dnyaneshwar's "philosophical depth".[37] Dnyaneshwar's devotional compositions called Abhangas are believed to have been formulated during his pilgrimage to Pandharpur
Pandharpur
and other holy places when he got initiated in to the Varkari
Varkari
tradition.[27] Influences[edit] The Mahanubhava sect and the Nath
Nath
Yogi
Yogi
tradition were two prominent movements during Dnyaneshwar's time that influenced his works. Mahanubhavas were devotees of Krishna who disregarded the caste system, the Vedas
Vedas
and the worship of the deity Vitthala.[38] Dnyaneshwar
Dnyaneshwar
differed significantly from Mahanubhava’s religious precepts.[38] His thought was founded on the philososphy of the later Vedic texts such as the Upanishads
Upanishads
and the Bhagavad Gita,[38] and devotion to Vitthala formed the cornerstone of the egalitarian Varkari sect founded by Dnyaneshwar.[39][40] However, the literary style adopted by Mahanubhava writers influenced Dnyaneshwar’s works. According to R. D. Ranade, Dnyaneshwar
Dnyaneshwar
"stands to Mahanubhavas just in the same relation which Shakespeare stood to Elizabethan writers".[41] Dnyaneshwar
Dnyaneshwar
was initiated into the Nath
Nath
Yogi
Yogi
tradition by his brother Nivruttinath,[42]sometime after the death of their parents;[25] Sopana and Muktabai
Muktabai
were initiated into the tradition by Dnyaneshwar himself.[20] Founded by Gorakshanath,[a] the Nath
Nath
Yogi
Yogi
sect had introduced the system of Hatha Yoga, which emphasised on yogic poses and physical fitness.[43] Gahaninath, a disciple of Gorakshanath, had initiated Nivruttinath
Nivruttinath
into the Nath
Nath
Yogi
Yogi
tradition.[44] Dnyaneshwar's non-dualistic philosophy, usage of a vernacular language in his writing and an emphasis on yoga and oneness of Vishnu
Vishnu
and Shiva
Shiva
were his inheritances from the Nath
Nath
Yogi
Yogi
tradition.[22] The values of Universal brotherhood and compassion espoused in his works came from his interactions with the devotional Vitthala sect, a tradition which was already in existence during Dnyaneshwar's time.[45] J. N. Farquhar
J. N. Farquhar
also notes the influence of Bhagavata Purana on Dnyaneshwar's poetry.[46] Travel and samadhi[edit] After Dnyaneshwar
Dnyaneshwar
had written Amrutanubhav, the siblings visited Pandharpur
Pandharpur
where they met Namdev, who became a close friend of Dnyaneshwar. Dnyaneshwar
Dnyaneshwar
and Namadev embarked on a pilgrimage to various holy centres across India where they initiated many people into the Varkari
Varkari
sect;[35] Dnyaneshwar's devotional compositions called Abhangas are believed to have been formulated during this period.[27] On their return to Pandharpur, Dnyaneshwar
Dnyaneshwar
and Namadev were honoured with a feast in which, according to Bahirat, many contemporary saints such as "Goroba the potter, Sanvata the gardener, Chokhoba the untouchable and Parisa Bhagwat the Brahmin" participated.[47] Some scholars accept the traditional view that Namdev
Namdev
and Dnyaneshwar
Dnyaneshwar
were contemporaries; however, others such as W. B. Patwardhan, R. G. Bhandarkar and R. Bharadvaj disagree with this view and date Namdev
Namdev
to the late 14th century instead.[48] After the feast, Dnyaneshwar
Dnyaneshwar
desired to enter into sanjeevan samadhi,[47] a practice to sum up the life after entering into a deep meditative state.[49] Preparations for the Sanjeevan Samadhi
Samadhi
were made by Namdev's sons.[47] Regarding Sanjeevan Samadhi, Dnyaneshwar
Dnyaneshwar
himself has emphatically talked about relation between higher awareness and light or pure energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation.[50] On the 13th day of the dark half of the Kartik month of the Hindu Calendar, in Alandi, Dnyaneshwar, then was twenty one year old entered into sanjeevan samadhi.[35] His samadhi lies in the Siddhesvara Temple complex in Alandi.[51] Namdev
Namdev
and other bystanders grieved his passing. According to tradition, Dnyaneshwar
Dnyaneshwar
was brought back to life to meet Namdev
Namdev
when the latter prayed to Vithoba
Vithoba
for his return. Dallmayr writes that this testifies to "the immortality of genuine friendship and companionship of noble and loving hearts".[47] Many Varkari
Varkari
devotees believe that Dnyaneshwar
Dnyaneshwar
is still alive.[52][53] They opposed a plan by archaeologists to insert a thin fiber optic camera into the chamber more than forty years ago.[citation needed] Miracles[edit]

The siblings Muktabai, Sopan, Dnyaneshwar
Dnyaneshwar
and Nivruttinath
Nivruttinath
seated on the flying wall greet Changdev
Changdev
seated on a tiger. In the centre, Changdev
Changdev
bows to Dnyaneshwar.

Many miracles came to be associated with Dnyaneshwar's life,[54] one of which was the revival of his disciple Sachchidanand's corpse.[55] During Dnyaneshwar's visit to Paithan, to obtain a certificate of purification, he was confronted with a man who violently lashed at an old buffalo. When Dnyaneshwar
Dnyaneshwar
expressed concern for the animal he was ridiculed by Brahmins for being more concerned about a beast than the teachings of the Vedas. Dnyaneshwar
Dnyaneshwar
retorted that the Vedas
Vedas
themselves held all life to be sacred and a manifestation of the brahman.[b] The outraged priests pointed out that his logic implied that beasts should be able to learn the Vedas
Vedas
as well. An undeterred Dnyaneshwar
Dnyaneshwar
then placed his hand on the buffalo's forehead and it started reciting a Vedic song.[57] According to Fred Dallmayr, the story signifies that "divine is not a property of the learned elite; rather, it is a spread out gift, a largesse, over all creation".[57] Dnyaneshwar
Dnyaneshwar
was challenged by Changdev, an accomplished yogi who rode on a tiger with his magical powers, to replicate this feat. Dnyaneshwar
Dnyaneshwar
humbled Changdev
Changdev
by riding on a moving wall.[58][59][c] Dnyaneshwar's advice to Changdev
Changdev
was given in 65 verses called the Changdev
Changdev
Pasasthi.[61] Changdev
Changdev
became a disciple of Dnyaneshwar's sister Muktabai.[62] Philosophy[edit] Ontology and epistemology[edit]

"The absolute does not prove or disprove itself with the help of any norems or methods of knowledge... The lamp light up at midday neither dispels darkness not spreads light."[63] "It is the pure knowledge itself that is not enlightened by any other knowledge or darkened by ignorance. But can the pure consciousness be conscious of itself? Can the eye–ball perceive itself? Can the sky enter into itself? Can the fire burn itself... Therefore, that which is pure consciousness itself, without the quality of being conscious is not conscious of itself.[64]

Amrutanubhava.

Dnyaneshwar
Dnyaneshwar
takes up the examination of being or brahman[d] in Amrutanubhava. He considers being to be the substratum of thought which enables thought and cognition. Since being is prior to thought and concepts, it is distinct from Kantian categories, and methods of thought such as epistemological analysis cannot be applied to it.[66] Dnyaneshwar
Dnyaneshwar
believes that reality is self–evident and does not require any proof.[67] It antedates dualistic divisions into knower and known, existence and nonexistence, subject and object, knowledge and ignorance.[63] Dnyaneshwar
Dnyaneshwar
highlights the limitations of the traditional epistemological methods (pramanas) used in Indian philosophy.[e] He points out that any perception is validated only by another deeper understanding, while in establishing the rationality of reason, reason itself is transcended. Dnyaneshwar
Dnyaneshwar
even cautions against reliance on scriptural testimony, which is accepted as a valid source of knowledge by philosophers of Vedanta
Vedanta
and Mīmāṃsā
Mīmāṃsā
schools of philosophy. Scriptural validity, to him, stems from its congruence with experiential truth and not vice versa.[66] Ethics[edit] Dnyaneshwar's moral philosophy comes out in his exposition of the 13th of Bhagavad Gita, in his commentary on the book Dnyaneshwari.[69] He considers humility; non–injury in action, thought and words; forbearance in the face of adversity; dispassion towards sensory pleasures; purity of heart and mind; love of solitude and devotion towards one's Guru and God as virtues; and their corresponding moral opposites as vices.[70] A pessimistic view of one's life is considered as a necessary condition for spiritual growth in Dnyaneshwari.[71] Dnyaneshwar
Dnyaneshwar
writes that saints do not perceive distinctions and are humble because they identify all objects, animate or inanimate, with their own Self.[72] Devotion to Guru occupies an important place throughout the commentary. Many of its chapters begin with an invocation to his Guru Nivruttinath, who is eulogised by Dnyaneshwar
Dnyaneshwar
as the person who helped him "cross the ocean of existence".[73] The discussion on virtue and vices continues in his elucidation of the 16th chapter of Bhagavad Gita, where virtues and vices are called divine heritages and demonic heritages respectively.[74] Divine heritage comprises fearlessness, which comes from a belief in unity of all objects; charity; sacrifice,[f] which comes from performing one's duties and compassion in addition to virtues already enumerated;[76] while demonic heritage consists of six vices— ignorance, anger, arrogance, hypocrisy, harshness and pride.[77] The doctrine of Karma Yoga
Yoga
in the Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
is resurrected in Dnyaneshwari
Dnyaneshwari
and its utility as a means of achieving actionlessness through action and in establishing a harmony between the two is examined.[78] In the fourth chapter, the ideal karma yogi's actions are compared to the apparent movement of the Sun, which while appearing to rise and set is actually stationary;[g] similarly, a karma yogi, though appears to act, doesn't really act.[79] Performance of one's duties, acting without egoism, renunciation of the fruits of one's actions and offering one's actions to God are four ways which, according to Dnyaneshwar, result in actionlessness and Self–realisation.[80] Dnyaneshwar's metaphysical conclusion that the world is a manifestation of the divine, and not an illusion, also creates an ethical framework which rejects renunciation and recommends performing one's duties and actions in the spirit of worship.[81] Traditional Indian scriptures see Ṛta, a Hindu theological term similar to dharma, as a natural law that governs both the cosmos and human society. Performance of one's duties to uphold social institutions, such as marriage and family, thus becomes imperative, and duty overrides individual freedom.[82] Dnyaneshwar
Dnyaneshwar
is in agreement with tradition; he believes that divine order and moral order are one and the same and are inherent in the universe itself. He, therefore, recommends that all social institutions be protected and preserved in their totality. However, when it comes to the institution of caste, his approach becomes more humanitarian and he advocates spiritual egalitarianism.[83] Reception and legacy[edit]

Dnyaneshwar's palkhi (palanquin), carrying the sandals of the saint, in silver cart pulled by Oxen on a journey from Alandi
Alandi
to Pandharpur.

Elements of Dnyaneshwar's life and writings, such as his criticism of parochialism of the priestly elite, celebration of the family life and spiritual egalitarianism, would shape the culture of the Varkari movement.[84][85] According to Dallmayr, Dnyaneshwar's life and writings have "developed into primary examplars of genuine religiosity for the Varkari
Varkari
movement, as well as crucial sources and focal points of bhakti devotion".[85] Devotees of the Varkari
Varkari
sect in the Hindu Shaka month of Ashadh join an annual pilgrimage called the Wari with symbolic Sandals (called Paduka in Marathi) of Dynaneshwar carried in a palkhi, ' from Dnyaneshwar's shrine in Alandi
Alandi
to the Vitthala temple in Pandharpur
Pandharpur
.[86] The Padukas (sandals) of Dnyaneshwar
Dnyaneshwar
are carried in a Palkhi
Palkhi
(palanquin) for the Dnyaneshwar
Dnyaneshwar
inspired works of later poet saints of the Varkari
Varkari
movement. His philosophy of chidvilas was adapted by Varkari
Varkari
writers, such as Namdev
Namdev
and Eknath, to their own works. Amrutanubhava's influence is visible in Eknath's Hastamalak and Swatmsukha. Tukaram's works imbibe and explain Dnyaneshwar's philosophical concepts such as the refutation of Mayavada.[87] Many writers, beginning with Eknath, wrote commentaries were written on Amrutanubhava.[88] However, prominent historians of Indian philosophy such as Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
and Surendranath Dasgupta
Surendranath Dasgupta
who were primarily focused on Sanskrit texts, ignored Dnyaneshwar
Dnyaneshwar
because his works were in Marathi.[89] Works[edit] Undisputed authorship[90][91]

Dnyaneshwari
Dnyaneshwari
or Bhavarthdipika (1290 CE) Amrutanubhava or Anubhavamrita (1292 CE) Changdev
Changdev
Pasashti (1294 CE) Haripath Abhangas

Works attributed to Dnyaneshwar[92]

Commentary on Yoga
Yoga
Vasistha Pavana-Vijaya Pancikarana

Drushtanta and First Picture[edit] Shri Sant Dnyaneshwar
Dnyaneshwar
Maharaj has given Drushtant to Sant Gulabrao Maharaj Gulabrao Maharaj when he was just 19 years old and given him mantra of his own name (Swanaam). After that Drushtant, the first ever photo picture of Sant Dnyaneshwar
Dnyaneshwar
Maharaj has been drawn by an artist based on the directions of Gulabrao Maharaj. Even today one can see the same photo-frame at Samadhi
Samadhi
Temple Alandi, Maharashtra. Sant Gulabrao Maharaj is also known as Pradnyachakshu Madhuradwaitacharya Pandhurangnath Maharaj. See also[edit]

Bhakti
Bhakti
movement Chokhamela Eknath Janabai Muktabai Namdev Nivruttinath Pandharpur
Pandharpur
Wari – the largest annual pilgrimage in Maharashtra
Maharashtra
that includes a ceremonial Palkhi
Palkhi
of Tukaram
Tukaram
and Dnyaneshwar. Sant Mat Sant Soyarabai Sopan Tukaram Sant Gulabrao Maharaj

References[edit] Notes

^ Matsyendranath
Matsyendranath
is often called the founder of the Nath
Nath
Yogi
Yogi
sect. However, his historicity is uncertain.[42] ^ According to Jeaneane D. Fowler, former Head of Philosophy and Religious Studies at the University of Wales, brahman is the "ultimate Reality, the Source from which all emanates, the unchanging absolute".[56] ^ The story of the holy man riding a tiger /lion and the other encountering him on a moving wall has been found in many other religions including Buddhism, islam and Sikhism[60] ^ Amrutanubhav
Amrutanubhav
doesn’t explicitly use the word brahman.[65] ^ Sense–perception (pratyaksha), inference (anumana), scriptural testimony (shabda), ananlogy (upamana), presumption (arthapatti) and non–apprehension (anupaladbdhi) are the six sources of knowledge accepted to varying degrees in various schools of Indian philosophy.[68] ^ According to Dnyaneshwar, true sacrifice is one in which there is no yearning for results of one's actions and in which the sattva dominates.[75] ^ Ranade is struck by the reference to the heliocentric model in Dnyaneshwari. He writes that, "It is a matter of great astronomic interest that this mystic philosopher should have put forth a heliocentric theory at a time when heliocentrism was hardly recognised in Europe. This is, however, by the bye.".[79]

Citations

^ Berntsen 1988, p. 143. ^ Mokashi 1987, p. 39. ^ Dallmayr 2007, p. 46. ^ a b Bahirat 2006, p. 1. ^ Karhadkar, K.S. (1976). " Dnyaneshwar
Dnyaneshwar
and Marathi Literature". Indian Literature. 19 (1): 90–96. JSTOR 24157251.  ^ Ranade 1933, p. 25. ^ Michell & George 1999, p. 5. ^ Bahirat 2006, p. 2. ^ Bahirat 2006, pp. 3–4. ^ Bahirat 2006, pp. 4–5. ^ Bahirat 2006, pp. 2–3. ^ Bahirat 2006, p. 8. ^ Ranade 1933, p. 31. ^ Ranade 1933, p. 31–2. ^ Attwood 1992, p. 333. ^ a b Ranade 1933, p. 30. ^ Bahirat 2006, p. 9. ^ Bahirat 2006, p. 11. ^ Bahirat 2006, p. 9–11. ^ a b Sundararajan & Mukerji 2003, p. 33. ^ Bahirat 2006, p. 12. ^ a b c Pawar 1997, p. 352. ^ De Smet & Malkovsky 2000, p. 123. ^ a b c Bahirat 2006, p. 13. ^ a b c d Ranade 1933, p. 33. ^ Glushkova 2014, p. 110-120. ^ a b c Bobde 1987, p. xxii. ^ Shri Jnāneshvar, (Writer, in Marathi); Pradhān, V.G.(translator); Lambert, H.M.(Editor and Introduction) (1987). Jnāneshvari : Bhāvārthadipikā. Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press. p. xvii. ISBN 978-0887064883.  ^ Schomer & McLeod 1987, p. 4. ^ Claus, Diamond & Mills 2003, pp. 454–5. ^ Ranade 1933, p. 36. ^ Balasubramanian 2000, p. 545. ^ Devy 2002, p. 74. ^ Bahirat 2006, p. 14. ^ a b c Ranade 1933, p. 34. ^ Bahirat 2006, p. 23–4. ^ Bahirat 2006, p. 24–6. ^ a b c Ranade 1933, p. 28. ^ Ganesh & Thakkar 2005, p. 168. ^ Dhongde & Wali 2009, p. 3. ^ Ranade 1933, p. 27. ^ a b Bahirat 2006, p. 6. ^ Kohn 2008, p. 18. ^ Bahirat 2006, pp. 5–6. ^ Pawar 1997, pp. 350–2. ^ Farquhar 1984, p. 235. ^ a b c d Dallmayr 2007, pp. 46–7. ^ Schomer & McLeod 1987, p. 218. ^ Sharma 1979, p. 13. ^ " Samadhi
Samadhi
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Vedānta, 2, Project of History of Indian Science Philosophy and Culture, ISBN 978-81-87586-04-3  Berntsen, Maxine (1988), The Experience of Hinduism: Essays on Religion in Maharashtra, SUNY Press, ISBN 978-0-88706-662-7  Bobde, P. V. (1987), Garland of Divine Flowers: Selected Devotional Lyrics of Saint
Saint
Jnanesvara, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0390-9  Cashman, Richard I. (1975), The Myth of the Lokamanya: Tilak and Mass Politics in Maharashtra, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0-520-02407-6  Claus, Peter J.; Diamond, Sarah; Mills, Margaret Ann (2003), South Asian Folklore: An Encyclopedia : Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 978-0-415-93919-5  Dallmayr, Fred (2007), In Search of the Good Life: A Pedogogy for Troubled Times, University Press of Kentucky, ISBN 0-8131-3858-2  Datta, Amaresh (1988), Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature, Sahitya Akademi, ISBN 978-81-260-1194-0  De Smet, Richard V.; Malkovsky, Bradley J. (2000), New Perspectives on Advaita
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Extracts from Amritanubhav Biography of Dnyaneshwar
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