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The Dnieper River
Dnieper River
(UK: /ˈdniːpər/,[1] US: /ˈniːpər/)[2], also known as: Dnepr (/ˈdnjɛpər/),[3] Dnyapro or Dnipro (/dniːˈproʊ/)[1]), is one of the major rivers of Europe, rising near Smolensk, Russia
Russia
and flowing through Russia, Belarus
Belarus
and Ukraine to the Black Sea. It is the longest river of Ukraine
Ukraine
and Belarus
Belarus
and the fourth-longest river in Europe. The total length is approximately 2,200 km (1,400 mi)[4] with a drainage basin of 504,000 square kilometres (195,000 sq mi). The river is noted for its dams and hydroelectric stations. The Dnieper
Dnieper
is an important navigable waterway for the economy of Ukraine
Ukraine
and is connected via the Dnieper–Bug Canal
Dnieper–Bug Canal
to other waterways in Europe. In antiquity, the river was known to the Greeks
Greeks
as the Borysthenes
Borysthenes
and was part of the Amber Road. Arheimar, a capital of the Goths, was located on the Dnieper, according to the Hervarar saga.

Contents

1 Etymology and name in various languages 2 Geography

2.1 Tributaries
Tributaries
of the Dnieper 2.2 Rapids 2.3 Channel 2.4 Fauna

3 Reservoirs and hydroelectric power 4 Regions and cities

4.1 Regions 4.2 Cities

5 Navigation 6 In the arts

6.1 Literature 6.2 Visual arts 6.3 Popular culture

7 Ecology 8 See also 9 References and footnotes 10 External links

Etymology and name in various languages[edit]

Human representation of the Dnepr river (known as Borysthenes) on an Ancient Greek coin of Pontic Olbia, 4th–3rd century BC

The name Dnieper
Dnieper
may be derived either from Sarmatian Dānu apara "the river on the far side" or from Scythian Dānu apr (Dānapr) "deep river." By way of contrast, the name Dniester
Dniester
either derives from "the close river" or from a combination of Scythian Dānu (river) and Ister, the Thracian name for the Dniester.[5] [6] In the three countries through which it flows it has essentially the same name, albeit pronounced differently:

Russian: Днепр (Dnepr, [dnʲepr]); Belarusian: Дняпро (Dnyapro, [dnʲaˈprɔ]) or Днепр[7] (Dnyepr, [dnʲɛpr]); Ukrainian: Днiпро (Dnipro, [dnʲiˈprɔ]) or Дніпер[8] (Dniper, [ˈdnʲiper]).

The late Greek and Roman authors called it Δάναπρις - Danapris and Danaper respectively. Its Old East Slavic name used at the time of Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
was Slavuta or Slavutych, the Huns
Huns
called it Var,[9] and Bulgars - Buri-Chai.[citation needed] The name in Crimean Tatar: Özü.[10] The river is mentioned both by the Ancient Greek historian Herodotus
Herodotus
in the 5th century BC and by Strabo
Strabo
as Borysthenes (Βορυσθένης), as well as by Strabo; this name is Scythian (cf. Iranian *varu-stāna) and translates as "wide land", referring most likely to the Ukrainian steppe.[citation needed] . Geography[edit]

satellite image of the Dnieper
Dnieper
river estuary, captured 8-Aug 2015

The total length of the river is variously given as 2,145 kilometres (1,333 mi)[4] or 2,201 km (1,368 mi),[11][12][13][14] of which 485 km (301 mi) are within Russia, 700 km (430 mi) are within Belarus,[4] and 1,095 km (680 mi) are within Ukraine. Its basin covers 504,000 square kilometres (195,000 sq mi), of which 289,000 km2 (112,000 sq mi) are within Ukraine,[15] 118,360 km2 (45,700 sq mi) are within Belarus.[4] The source of the Dnieper
Dnieper
is the sedge bogs (Akseninsky Mokh) of the Valdai Hills
Valdai Hills
in central Russia, at an elevation of 220 m (720 ft).[15] For 115 km (71 mi) of its length, it serves as the border between Belarus
Belarus
and Ukraine. Its estuary, or liman, used to be defended by the strong fortress of Ochakiv.[citation needed] On the Dnepr River to the south of Komarin urban-type settlement, Braghin District, Gomel Region
Gomel Region
the southern extreme point of Belarus is situated.[16] Tributaries
Tributaries
of the Dnieper[edit] The Dnieper
Dnieper
has many tributaries (up to 32,000) with 89 being rivers of 100+ km.[17] The main ones are, from its source to its mouth:

Dnieper
Dnieper
basin showing peoples in the ninth century

Drut (R) Berezina
Berezina
(R) Sozh (L) Prypiat (R) Teteriv (R)

Irpin (R) Desna (L) Stuhna
Stuhna
(R) Trubizh
Trubizh
(L) Ros (R)

Tiasmyn
Tiasmyn
(R) Supiy (L) Sula (L) Psyol
Psyol
(L) Vorskla
Vorskla
(L)

Samara (L) Konka (L) Bilozerka (L) Bazavluk (R) Inhulets (R)

Many small direct tributaries also exist, such as, in the Kiev
Kiev
area, the Syrets (right bank) in the north of the city, the historically significant Lybid (right bank) passing west of the centre, and the Borshahivka (right bank) to the south. The water resources of the Dnieper
Dnieper
basin compose around 80% out of all Ukraine.[17] Rapids[edit] Dnieper Rapids
Dnieper Rapids
were part of trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks, first mentioned in the Kiev
Kiev
Chronicle. The route was probably established in the late eighth and early ninth centuries and gained significant importance from the tenth until the first third of the eleventh century. On the Dnieper
Dnieper
the Varangians had to portage their ships round seven rapids, where they had to be on guard for Pecheneg nomads. Along this middle flow of the Dnieper, there were nine major rapids (although some sources cite a fewer number of them), obstructing almost the whole width of the river, about 30–40 smaller rapids, obstructing only part of the river, and about 60 islands and islets. After Dnieper Hydroelectric Station
Dnieper Hydroelectric Station
was built in 1932, they were inundated by Dnieper
Dnieper
Reservoir. Channel[edit] There are a number of channels: – The Dnieper– Donbas
Donbas
Canal; – The Dnieper– Kryvyi Rih
Kryvyi Rih
Canal; – The Kakhovka
Kakhovka
Canal (south-east of the Kherson
Kherson
region); – The Krasnoznamianka Irrigation System in the south-west of the Kherson
Kherson
region; – The North Crimean Canal—will largely solve the water problem of the peninsula, especially in the arid northern and eastern Crimea; – The Inhulets Irrigation System. Fauna[edit] The river is part of the Quagga mussel's native range.[18] The mussel has been accidentally introduced around the world where it has become an invasive species.[18] Reservoirs and hydroelectric power[edit] See also: Ukrhydroenerho From the mouth of the Prypiat River
Prypiat River
to the Kakhovka
Kakhovka
Hydroelectric Station, there are six sets of dams and hydroelectric stations, which produce 10% of Ukraine's electricity.[17] The first constructed was the Dnieper Hydroelectric Station
Dnieper Hydroelectric Station
(or DniproHES) near Zaporizhia, built in 1927–1932 with an output of 558 MW.[citation needed][19] It was destroyed during World War II, but was rebuilt in 1948 with an output of 750 MW.[citation needed]

Location Dam Reservoir area Hydroelection station Date of construction

Kiev Kiev
Kiev
Reservoir 922 km2 or 356 sq mi Kiev
Kiev
Hydroelectric Station 1960–1964

Kaniv Kaniv
Kaniv
Reservoir 675 km2 or 261 sq mi Kaniv
Kaniv
Hydroelectric Station 1963–1975

Kremenchuk Kremenchuk
Kremenchuk
Reservoir 2,250 km2 or 870 sq mi Kremenchuk
Kremenchuk
Hydroelectric Station 1954–1960

Kamianske Kamianske
Kamianske
Reservoir 567 km2 or 219 sq mi Middle Dnieper
Dnieper
Hydroelectric Power Plant 1956–1964

Zaporizhia Dnieper
Dnieper
Reservoir 420 km2 or 160 sq mi Dnieper
Dnieper
Hydroelectric Station 1927–1932; 1948

Kakhovka Kakhovka
Kakhovka
Reservoir 2,155 km2 or 832 sq mi Kakhovka
Kakhovka
Hydroelectric Station 1950–1956

[citation needed] Regions and cities[edit]

Satellite image of the Dnieper
Dnieper
and its tributaries

Regions[edit]

Smolensk
Smolensk
Oblast, Russia Vitebsk Region, Belarus Mogilev
Mogilev
Region, Belarus Gomel Region, Belarus

Chernihiv Oblast, Ukraine Kiev
Kiev
Oblast, Ukraine Cherkasy
Cherkasy
Oblast, Ukraine Kirovohrad Oblast, Ukraine

Poltava Oblast, Ukraine Dnipropetrovsk Oblast, Ukraine Zaporizhia
Zaporizhia
Oblast, Ukraine Kherson
Kherson
Oblast, Ukraine

The Dnieper River
Dnieper River
in different regions

The Dnieper River
Dnieper River
in Kherson, Ukraine

The Dnieper River
Dnieper River
in Dorogobuzh, Russian Empire, before 1917

The Dnieper River
Dnieper River
in Kremenchuk, Ukraine

Cities[edit] Major cities, over 100,000 in population, are in bold script. Cities and towns located on the Dnieper
Dnieper
are listed in order from the river's source (in Russia) to its mouth (in Ukraine):

Dorogobuzh, Russia Smolensk, Russia Orsha, Belarus Shklow, Belarus Mogilev, Belarus Bychaw, Belarus Rahachow, Belarus Zhlobin, Belarus Rechytsa, Belarus Kiev, Ukraine Ukrayinka, Ukraine Kaniv, Ukraine

Cherkasy, Ukraine Kremenchuk, Ukraine Horishni Plavni, Ukraine Kamianske, Ukraine Dnipro, Ukraine Zaporizhia, Ukraine Marhanets, Ukraine Nikopol, Ukraine Enerhodar, Ukraine Kamianka-Dniprovska, Ukraine Nova Kakhovka, Ukraine Kherson, Ukraine

Arheimar, a capital of the Goths, was located on the Dnieper, according to the Hervarar saga.[20] Navigation[edit] Almost 2,000 km (1,200 mi) of the river is navigational (to the city of Dorogobuzh).[17] The Dnieper
Dnieper
is important for the transport and economy of Ukraine[citation needed]: its reservoirs have large ship locks, allowing vessels of up to 270 by 18 metres (886 ft × 59 ft) to access as far as the port of Kiev and thus create an important transport corridor.[citation needed] The river is used by passenger vessels as well. Inland cruises on the rivers Danube
Danube
and Dnieper
Dnieper
have been a growing market in recent decades. Upstream from Kiev, the Dnieper
Dnieper
receives the water of the Pripyat River. This navigable river connects to the Dnieper-Bug canal, the link with the Bug River. Historically, a connection with the Western European waterways was possible, but a weir without a ship lock near the town of Brest has interrupted this international waterway. Poor political relations between Western Europe and Belarus
Belarus
mean there is little likelihood of re-opening this waterway in the near future.[21] Navigation is interrupted each year by freezing in winter, and severe winter storms. In the arts[edit] Literature[edit] The River Dnieper
Dnieper
has been a subject of chapter X of a story by Nikolai Gogol
Nikolai Gogol
A Terrible Vengeance (1831, published in 1832 as a part of the Evenings on a Farm Near Dikanka short stories collection). It is considered as a classical example of description of the nature in Russian literature. The river was also described in the works of Taras Shevchenko. Visual arts[edit] The River Dnieper
Dnieper
has been a subject for artists, great and minor, over the centuries. Major artists with works based on the Dnieper
Dnieper
are Arkhip Kuindzhi
Arkhip Kuindzhi
and Ivan Aivazovsky.

The Dnieper
Dnieper
in painting

Catherine II
Catherine II
leaving Kaniów in 1787 by Johann Gottlieb Plersch

Ice in the Dnepr by Ivan Aivazovsky, 1872

Moonlit Night on the Dniepr by Arkhip Kuindzhi, 1882

Dniepr by Arkhip Kuindzhi, 1881

Sapphire Dnieper
Dnieper
by Jan Stanisławski, 1904

Popular culture[edit]

The river is one of the symbols of the Ukrainian nation.[22] The river mentioned in the national anthem of Ukraine. There are several names that connect the name of the river with Ukraine: Overdnieper Ukraine, Right-bank Ukraine, Left-bank Ukraine, and others. Some of the cities on its banks — Dnipro, Dniprorudne, Kamianka-Dniprovska
Kamianka-Dniprovska
— are named after the river. The Zaporozhian Cossacks
Zaporozhian Cossacks
lived on the lower Dniepr and their name refers to their location "beyond the rapids".[23] The river is referred to as Dnipro, in the song "Hey, Dnipro, Dnipro".[24] The folk metal band Turisas
Turisas
have a song called "The Dnieper
Dnieper
Rapids" on their 2007 album The Varangian
Varangian
Way.[25] Leon Bolier featured a track called "Dnipro" in his debut 2-CD album Pictures. The track is said to be inspired by his visit to Kiev
Kiev
in May 2008.[citation needed] Briefly mentioned in the science fiction/adventure novel The Crisis Pendant by Charlie Patterson. Roberto Bolaño's novel 2666
2666
features the Dnieper
Dnieper
as a significant feature of the village of Hans Reiter. Beat laureate Spencer Hash spent childhood summers observing tide patterns in the Dnieper. It provides the backdrop for most of his 1998 novel Embassy.

Ecology[edit] Nowadays the Dnieper River
Dnieper River
suffer from anthropogenic influence and obtain numerous emissions of pollutants.[26] The Dnieper
Dnieper
is close to the Prydniprovsky Chemical Plant radioactive dumps (near Kamianske), and susceptible to leakages of radioactive waste. The river is also close to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station
Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station
(Chernobyl Exclusion Zone) that is located next to the mouth of the Prypiat River. See also[edit]

Threat of the Dnieper
Dnieper
reservoirs List of rivers of Russia List of rivers of Belarus List of rivers of Ukraine Trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks

References and footnotes[edit]

^ a b https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/dnieper ^ https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/Dnieper ^ https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/dnepr ^ a b c d "Main Geographic Characteristics of the Republic of Belarus. Main characteristics of the largest rivers of Belarus". Land of Ancestors. Data of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Protection of the Republic of Belarus. 2011. Retrieved 27 September 2013.  ^ Mallory, J.P. and Victor H. Mair. The Tarim Mummies: Ancient China and the Mystery of the Earliest Peoples from the West. London: Thames and Hudson, 2000. p. 106 ^ Абаев В. И. Осетинский язык и фольклор (Ossetian language and folklore). Moscow: Publishing house of Soviet Academy of Sciences, 1949. p. 236 ^ Блакітная кніга Беларусі: Энцыклапедыя. — Мінск: Беларуская Энцыклапедыя, 1994. — С. 144. — 415 с. — 10 000 экз. ^ Словарь української мови / Упор. з дод. влас. матеріалу Б. Грінченко : в 4-х т. — К. : Вид-во Академії наук Української РСР, 1958. Том 1, ст. 394. ^ Jordanes, Getica
Getica
269. ^ crh:Özü özeni ^ Zastavnyi, F.D. Physical Geography of Ukraine. Rivers of Ukraine. Dnieper. Kiev: "Forum", 2000 ^ Masliak, P., Shyshchenko, P. Geography of Ukraine. Kiev: "Zodiak-eko", 1998 ^ Website about Dnieper ^ Mishyna, Liliana. Hydrographic research of Dnieper
Dnieper
river Archived 2016-03-04 at the Wayback Machine.. Derzhhidrohrafiya. ^ a b Kubiyovych, Volodymyr; Ivan Teslia. " Dnieper
Dnieper
River". Encyclopedia of Ukraine. Retrieved January 19, 2007.  ^ "Main Geographic Characteristics of the Republic of Belarus. Coordinates of the extreme points of the state frontier". Land of Ancestors. The Scientific and Production State Republican Unitary Enterprise "National Cadastre Agency" of the State Property Committee of the Republic of Belarus. 2011. Retrieved 20 September 2013.  ^ a b c d Splendid Dnieper. There is no straighter river. Ukrinform. 4 July 2015 ^ a b Benson, AJ. "Dreissena rostriformis bugensis Andrusov, 1897". Nonindigenous Aquatic Species. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2 May 2014.  ^ Edward A. Hewett, Victor H. Winston (1991). Milestones in Glasnost and Perestroyka: Politics and people. Brookings Institution. p. 19. The importance of Chernobyl' for Soviet industry is best illustrated by comparing it to the key energy project of Stalin's industrialization, the famous Dnieper
Dnieper
hydroelectric station, completed in 1932. The largest European hydroelectric station of its time, it had a capacity of 560 MW.  ^ "An English translation of Hervar saga by Kershaw". Archived from the original on 2006-03-28. Retrieved 2006-03-28.  ^ NoorderSoft Waterways Database Archived November 9, 2005, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Work on the subject Ukrainian national symbols. Library of Ukrainian literature. ^ "...the Zaporohjans whose name meant 'those who live beyond the cataracts'...", Henryk Sienkiewicz, With Fire and Sword, chap. 7. ^ Hey, Dnipro, Dnipro
Dnipro
on YouTube[dead link] ^ Releases Turisas: The Official Battleground ^ V. Snytko, V. Shirokova, N. Ozerova, O. Romanova, A. Sobisevich Hydrological situation of the Upper Dnieper
Dnieper
// GeoConference SGEM. — 2017. — Vol. 17, no. 31. — P. 379–384.

External links[edit]

Find more about Dnieper
Dnieper
Riverat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Learning resources from Wikiversity

Volodymyr Kubijovyč, Ivan Teslia, Dnieper River
Dnieper River
at the Encyclopedia of Ukraine Site about Dnieper—objects over the river, photos, facts Dnieper
Dnieper
river charts

"Комсомольская правда" об угрозах плотины Киевской ГЭС и водохранилища [1] "Аргументы и факты" о реальных угрозах дамбы Киевского водохранилища и ГЭС [2] "Известия" о проблематике плотины Киевского водохранилища и ГЭС [3] Эксперт УНИАН об угрозах дамбы Киевского водохранилища [4]

v t e

Dnieper
Dnieper
River

Tributaries1

Drut Berezina Sozh Pripyat Horyn Sluch Ubort Teteriv Irpin Desna Stuhna Trubizh Ros Tiasmyn Supiy Sula Pslo Vorskla Samara Konka Bilozerka Bazavluk Inhulets Zolotonoshka River

Reservoirs

Chernobyl Reservoir Dnieper Kakhovka Kamianske Kaniv Kiev Kremenchuk

Hydroelectric stations

Dnieper Kakhovka Kaniv Kiev
Kiev
HPP Kiev
Kiev
PSP Kremenchuk Middle Dnieper

Canals

North Crimean Dnieper
Dnieper
- Donbas Main Kakhovka
Kakhovka
Magistrale Dnieper
Dnieper
- Kryvyi Rih Dnieper
Dnieper
- Inhulets

Cities

Dorogobuzh Smolensk Mahilyow Kiev Cherkasy Dnipro

1 Italics indicate left tributaries

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 244547785 GN

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