The Diyala River, is a river and tributary of the Tigris. It is formed
by the confluence of Sirwan river and Tanjero river in Darbandikhan
Dam in the
Sulaymaniyah Governorate of Northern Iraq. It covers a
total distance of 445 km (277 mi).
4.1 Scarlet Ware
6 See also
It rises near Hamadan, in the
Zagros Mountains of Iran. It then
descends through the mountains, where for some 32 km it forms the
border between the two countries. It finally feeds into the Tigris
below Baghdad. Navigation of the upper reaches of the Diyala is not
possible because of its narrow defiles, but the river's valley
provides an important trade route between Iran and Iraq.
The river flows southwest of the Hamrin Mountains.
Its Aramaic origin is "Diyalas" and in Kurdish it is called "Sirwan",
meaning 'roaring sea' or 'shouting river'. In early Islamic period,
the lower course of the river formed part of the Nahrawan Canal. The
Diyala Governorate in
Iraq is named after the river.
Junction of the Bil And Sirwan Riv
The river is mentioned in Herodotus' Histories under the name Gyndes,
where it is stated that the king
Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great dispersed it by
digging 360 channels as punishment after a sacred white horse perished
there. The river returned to its former proportions after the channels
disappeared under the sand.
The Battle of Diyala
River took place in 693 BC between the forces of
the Assyrian empire and the Elamites of southern Iran.
In March 1917 the British Empire defeated the Ottoman Empire at the
confluence with the Tigris, leading to the Fall of Baghdad, part of
the Mesopotamian Campaign of World War I.
This area flourished already during the
Jemdet Nasr and Early Dynastic
periods, through to the Akkadian period. During the
Eshnunna especially became prominent.
Major excavations were done in the lower Diyala river basin in the
1930s. They were conducted by the University of Chicago Oriental
Institute (1930-1937) and by the University of Pennsylvania
(1938-1939). The sites such as Tell Agrab, Tell Asmar (ancient
Ishchali (ancient Neribtum), and Khafaje (ancient Tutub)
In Tell Asmar, the
Tell Asmar Hoard
Tell Asmar Hoard is particularly notable. Twelve
remarkable statues were found belonging to the Early Dynastic period
(2900 BC-2350 BC).
At that time, the Diyala was relatively unexplored compared to
southern and northern Mesopotamia. But looting of sites was already
underway. As the result, the professional excavations were launched.
James Breasted and
Henri Frankfort were leading these
These excavations provided very comprehensive data on Mesopotamian
archaeology and chronology. They covered the time between the late
Uruk period and the end of the
Old Babylonian period
Old Babylonian period (3000-1700 BC).
Subsequently, nine detailed monographs were published, but most of the
objects, numbering 12,000, remained unpublished. Launched in 1992, the
Diyala Database Project has been publishing a lot of this material.
Other scholars who worked there were
Thorkild Jacobsen as epigrapher,
Seton Lloyd, and Pinhas Delougaz.
More recently, the Diyala region was also explored intensively as part
Hamrin Dam Salvage Project.
The following sites were excavated from 1977 to 1981: Tell Yelkhi,
Tell Hassan, Tell Abu Husaini, Tell Kesaran, Tell Harbud, Tell
al-Sarah, and Tell Mahmud.
A type of pottery known as 'Scarlet Ware', a brightly coloured pottery
with pictorial representations, was typical of sites along the Diyala
River. It developed around 2800 BC, and is related to the Jemdet
Nasr ware in central Mesopotamia of the same period. The red colour
was achieved predominantly by using haematite paint.
Scarlet Ware is typical of Early Dynastic I and II periods. Along
the Diyala is located one of the most important trade routes linking
south Mesopotamia with the Iranian plateau. Thus, Scarlet ware was
also popular in Pusht-i Kuh, Luristan, and it was traded to Susa
Susa II period.
In Iran the
Daryan Dam is currently under construction near Daryan in
Kermanshah Province. The purpose of the dam is to divert a significant
portion of the river to Southwestern Iran for irrigation through the
48 km (30 mi) long Nosoud Water Conveyance Tunnel and to
produce hydroelectric power. In Iraq, the river first reaches
Darbandikhan Dam which generates hydroelectric power and stores
water for irrigation. It then flows down to the
Hemrin Dam for similar
purposes. In the lower Diyala Valley near
Baghdad the river is
controlled by the
Diyala Weir which controls floods and irrigates the
area northeast of Baghdad.
Darbandikhan Dam, Iraq
Bawanur Dam (under construction), Iraq
Hemrin Dam, Iraq
Diyala Weir, Iraq
Garan Dam, Iran
Daryan Dam, Iran
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Diyala River.
List of places in Iraq
^ Hussein, Haitham A. (June 2010). "Dependable Discharges of The Upper
and Middle Diyala Basins". Journal of Engineering. 16 (2):
4960–4969. Retrieved 20 May 2013.
^ Diyala Project oi.uchicago.edu
^ POTTERY FROM THE DIYALA REGION. By Pinhas Delougaz (The University
of Chicago, Oriental Institute Publications, vol. LXIII). XXII+182 pp.
+204 plates, Chicago 1952.
^ McGuire Gibson (ed.), Uch Tepe I: Tell Razuk, Tell Ahmed al-Mughir,
Tell Ajamat, Hamrin Reports 10, Copenhagen, 1981.
^ IRAQ - Hamrin Centro Ricerche Archeologiche e Scavi di Torino per il
Medio Oriente e l'Asia
^ Francesco Del Bravo, 'Scarlet Ware': Origins, Chronology and
Developments, in M. Lebeau - P. de Miroschedji (eds), ARCANE
Interregional Vol. I: Ceramics (ARCANE Interregional I), Turnhout
(Brepols), 2014: 131-147
^ Scarlet Ware jar britishmuseum.org
^ "Darian Dam" (in Persian). Iran Water Resources Management.
Retrieved 17 May 2013.
^ "Water Tunnel Nosoud" (in Persian). JTMA. Retrieved 17 May
Coordinates: 33°13′15″N 44°30′23″E / 33.2208°N
44.5064°E / 33.2