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Castor[a] and Pollux[b] (or in Greek, Polydeuces[c]) were twin brothers and demigods in Greek and Roman mythology, known together as the Dioscuri.[d] Their mother was Leda, but they had different fathers; Castor was the mortal son of Tyndareus, the king of Sparta, while Pollux was the divine son of Zeus, who seduced Leda in the guise of a swan. Though accounts of their birth are varied, they are sometimes said to have been born from an egg, along with their twin sisters or half-sisters Helen of Troy
Helen of Troy
and Clytemnestra. In Latin the twins are also known as the Gemini[e] (literally "twins") or Castores,[f] as well as the Tyndaridae[g] or Tyndarids.[h] When Castor was killed, Pollux asked Zeus
Zeus
to let him share his own immortality with his twin to keep them together, and they were transformed into the constellation Gemini. The pair were regarded as the patrons of sailors, to whom they appeared as St. Elmo's fire, and were also associated with horsemanship.

Contents

1 Birth and functions 2 Classical sources 3 Mythology

3.1 As Argonauts 3.2 Rescuing Helen 3.3 Leucippides, Lynceus and death

4 Iconography 5 Shrines and rites 6 Indo-European analogues 7 Italy and the Roman Empire

7.1 Etruscan Kastur and Pultuce 7.2 Christianization

8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Sources 12 External links

Birth and functions[edit]

Castor depicted on a calyx krater of c. 460–450 BC, holding a horse's reins and spears and wearing a pilos-style helmet

The best-known story of the twins' birth is that Zeus
Zeus
disguised himself as a swan and seduced Leda. Thus Leda's children are frequently said to have hatched from two eggs that she then produced. The Dioscuri can be recognized in vase-paintings by the skull-cap they wear, the pilos, which was explained in antiquity as the remnants of the egg. Whether the children are thus mortal or half-immortal is not consistent among accounts, nor is whether the twins hatched together from one egg. In some accounts, only Pollux was fathered by Zeus, while Leda and her husband Tyndareus
Tyndareus
conceived Castor. This explains why they were granted an alternate immortality. It is a common belief that one would live among the gods, while the other was among the dead.[citation needed] The figure of Tyndareus
Tyndareus
may have entered their tradition to explain their archaic name Tindaridai in Spartan inscriptions, or Tyndaridai in literature,[2] in turn occasioning incompatible accounts of their parentage. Castor and Pollux
Castor and Pollux
are sometimes both mortal, sometimes both divine. One consistent point is that if only one of them is immortal, it is Pollux. In Homer's Iliad, Helen looks down from the walls of Troy
Troy
and wonders why she does not see her brothers among the Achaeans. The narrator remarks that they are both already dead and buried back in their homeland of Lacedaemon, thus suggesting that at least in some early traditions, both were mortal. Their death and shared immortality offered by Zeus
Zeus
was material of the lost Cypria in the Epic cycle. The Dioscuri were regarded as helpers of humankind and held to be patrons of travellers and of sailors in particular, who invoked them to seek favourable winds.[3] Their role as horsemen and boxers also led to them being regarded as the patrons of athletes and athletic contests.[4] They characteristically intervened at the moment of crisis, aiding those who honoured or trusted them.[5] Classical sources[edit]

Pair of Roman statuettes (3rd century AD) depicting the Dioscuri as horsemen, with their characteristic skullcaps (Metropolitan Museum of Art)

Ancient Greek authors tell a number of versions of the story of Castor and Pollux. Homer
Homer
portrays them initially as ordinary mortals, treating them as dead in the Iliad
Iliad
("... there are two commanders I do not see, / Castor the horse breaker and the boxer / Polydeuces, my brothers ..." — Helen, Iliad
Iliad
3.253-255), but in the Odyssey
Odyssey
they are treated as alive even though "the corn-bearing earth holds them". The author describes them as "having honour equal to gods", living on alternate days because of the intervention of Zeus. In both the Odyssey
Odyssey
and in Hesiod, they are described as the sons of Tyndareus
Tyndareus
and Leda. In Pindar, Pollux is the son of Zeus
Zeus
while Castor is the son of the mortal Tyndareus. The theme of ambiguous parentage is not unique to Castor and Pollux; similar characterisations appear in the stories of Hercules
Hercules
and Theseus.[6] The Dioscuri are also invoked in Alcaeus' Fragment 34a,[7] though whether this poem antedates the Homeric Hymn to the twins[8] is unknown.[9] They appear together in two plays by Euripides, Helen and Elektra. Cicero
Cicero
tells the story of how Simonides of Ceos
Simonides of Ceos
was rebuked by Scopas, his patron, for devoting too much space to praising Castor and Pollux in an ode celebrating Scopas' victory in a chariot race. Shortly afterwards, Simonides was told that two young men wished to speak to him; after he had left the banqueting room, the roof fell in and crushed Scopas and his guests.[5] Mythology[edit] Both Dioscuri were excellent horsemen and hunters who participated in the hunting of the Calydonian Boar
Calydonian Boar
and later joined the crew of Jason's ship, the Argo. As Argonauts[edit] During the expedition of the Argonauts, Pollux took part in a boxing contest and defeated King Amycus
Amycus
of the Bebryces, a savage mythical people in Bithynia. After returning from the voyage, the Dioskouroi helped Jason
Jason
and Peleus
Peleus
to destroy the city of Iolcus
Iolcus
in revenge for the treachery of its king Pelias. Rescuing Helen[edit] When their sister Helen was abducted by Theseus, the half-brothers invaded his kingdom of Attica
Attica
to rescue her. In revenge they abducted Theseus's mother Aethra and took her to Sparta
Sparta
while setting his rival, Menestheus, on the throne of Athens. Aethra was then forced to become Helen's slave. She was ultimately returned to her home by her grandsons Demophon and Acamas after the fall of Troy. Leucippides, Lynceus and death[edit]

Roman sarcophagus (160 AD) depicting the rape of the Leucippides, Phoebe and Hilaeira
Hilaeira
(Vatican Museum)

Castor and Pollux
Castor and Pollux
aspired to marry the Leucippides ("daughters of the white horse"), Phoebe and Hilaeira, whose father was a brother of Leucippus ("white horse").[i] Both women were already betrothed to cousins of the Dioscuri, the twin brothers Lynceus and Idas
Idas
of Thebes, sons of Tyndareus's brother Aphareus. Castor and Pollux
Castor and Pollux
carried the women off to Sparta
Sparta
wherein each had a son; Phoebe bore Mnesileos to Pollux and Hilaeira
Hilaeira
bore Anogon to Castor. This began a family feud among the four sons of the brothers Tyndareus
Tyndareus
and Aphareus.

Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus by Rubens, ca. 1618

The cousins carried out a cattle-raid in Arcadia
Arcadia
together but fell out over the division of the meat. After stealing the herd, but before dividing it, the cousins butchered, quartered, and roasted a calf.[11] As they prepared to eat, the gigantic Idas
Idas
suggested that the herd be divided into two parts instead of four, based on which pair of cousins finished their meal first.[11] Castor and Pollux
Castor and Pollux
agreed.[11] Idas quickly ate both his portion and Lynceus' portion.[11] Castor and Pollux had been duped. They allowed their cousins to take the entire herd, but vowed to someday take revenge.[11] Some time later, Idas
Idas
and Lynceus visited their uncle's home in Sparta.[11] The uncle was on his way to Crete, so he left Helen in charge of entertaining the guests, which included both sets of cousins, as well as Paris, prince of Troy.[11] Castor and Pollux recognized the opportunity to exact revenge, made an excuse that justified leaving the feast, and set out to steal their cousins' herd.[11] Idas
Idas
and Lynceus eventually set out for home, leaving Helen alone with Paris, who then kidnapped her.[11] Thus, the four cousins helped set into motion the events that gave rise to the Trojan War. Meanwhile, Castor and Pollux
Castor and Pollux
had reached their destination. Castor climbed a tree to keep a watch as Pollux began to free the cattle. Far away, Idas
Idas
and Lynceus approached. Lynceus, named for the lynx because he could see in the dark, spied Castor hiding in the tree.[11] Idas and Lynceus immediately understood what was happening. Idas, furious, ambushed Castor, fatally wounding him with a blow from his spear—but not before Castor called out to warn Pollux.[11] In the ensuing brawl, Pollux killed Lynceus. As Idas
Idas
was about to kill Pollux, Zeus, who had been watching from Mt. Olympus, hurled a thunderbolt, killing Idas
Idas
and saving his son.[11] Returning to the dying Castor, Pollux was given the choice by Zeus
Zeus
of spending all his time on Mount Olympus
Mount Olympus
or giving half his immortality to his mortal brother. He opted for the latter, enabling the twins to alternate between Olympus and Hades.[12][13] The brothers became the two brightest stars in the constellation Gemini ("the twins"): Castor (Alpha Geminorum) and Pollux (Beta Geminorum). As emblems of immortality and death, the Dioskouroi, like Heracles, were said to have been initiated into the Eleusinian mysteries.[j] Iconography[edit]

Coin of Antiochus VII
Antiochus VII
with Dioskouroi

Castor and Pollux
Castor and Pollux
are consistently associated with horses in art and literature. They are widely depicted as helmeted horsemen carrying spears.[12] The Pseudo- Oppian manuscript depicts the brothers hunting, both on horseback and on foot.[15] On votive reliefs they are depicted with a variety of symbols representing the concept of twinhood, such as the dokana (δόκανα – two upright pieces of wood connected by two cross-beams), a pair of amphorae, a pair of shields, or a pair of snakes. They are also often shown wearing felt caps, sometimes with stars above. They are depicted on metopes from Delphi
Delphi
showing them on the voyage of the Argo (Ἀργώ) and rustling cattle with Idas. Greek vases regularly show them capturing Phoebe and Hilaeira, as Argonauts, as well as in religious ceremonies and at the delivery to Leda of the egg containing Helen.[6] They can be recognized in some vase-paintings by the skull-cap they wear, the pilos (πῖλος), which was already explained in antiquity as the remnants of the egg from which they hatched.[17] They were described by Dares Phrygius as "... blond haired, large eyed, fair complexioned, and wellbuilt with trim bodies".[18] Shrines and rites[edit]

Fragmentary remains of the Temple of Castor and Pollux
Temple of Castor and Pollux
in Rome.

The Dioskouroi were worshipped by the Greeks and Romans alike; there were temples to the twins in Athens, such as the Anakeion, and Rome, as well as shrines in many other locations in the ancient world.[19] The Dioskouroi and their sisters grew up in Sparta, in the royal household of Tyndareus; they were particularly important to the Spartans, who associated them with the Spartan tradition of dual kingship and appreciated that two princes of their ruling house were elevated to immortality. Their connection there was very ancient: a uniquely Spartan aniconic representation of the Tyndaridai was as two upright posts joined by a cross-bar;[20][21] as the protectors of the Spartan army the "beam figure" or dókana was carried in front of the army on campaign.[22] Sparta's unique dual kingship reflects the divine influence of the Dioscuri. When the Spartan army marched to war, one king remained behind at home, accompanied by one of the Twins. "In this way the real political order is secured in the realm of the Gods".[2] Their herōon or grave-shrine was on a mountain top at Therapne
Therapne
across the Eurotas
Eurotas
from Sparta, at a shrine known as the Meneláeion where Helen, Menelaus, Castor and Pollux
Castor and Pollux
were all said to be buried. Castor himself was also venerated in the region of Kastoria
Kastoria
in northern Greece.

Relief (2nd century BC) depicting the Dioskouroi galloping above a winged Victory, with a banquet (theoxenia) laid out for them below

They were commemorated both as gods on Olympus worthy of holocaust, and as deceased mortals in Hades, whose spirits had to be propitiated by libations. Lesser shrines to Castor, Pollux and Helen were also established at a number of other locations around Sparta.[23] The pear tree was regarded by the Spartans as sacred to Castor and Pollux, and images of the twins were hung in its branches.[24] The standard Spartan oath was to swear "by the two gods" (in Doric Greek: νά τώ θεὼ, ná tō theō, in the Dual number). The rite of theoxenia (θεοξενία), "god-entertaining", was particularly associated with Castor and Pollux. The two deities were summoned to a table laid with food, whether at individuals' own homes or in the public hearths or equivalent places controlled by states. They are sometimes shown arriving at a gallop over a food-laden table. Although such "table offerings" were a fairly common feature of Greek cult rituals, they were normally made in the shrines of the gods or heroes concerned. The domestic setting of the theoxenia was a characteristic distinction accorded to the Dioskouroi.[6] The image of the twins attending a goddess are widespread[k] and link the Dioskouroi with the male societies of initiates under the aegis of the Anatolian Great Goddess[2] and the great gods of Samothrace. The Dioscuri are the inventors of war dances, which characterize the Kuretes. Indo-European analogues[edit] Main article: Divine twins The heavenly twins also appear in the Indo-European tradition as the effulgent Vedic brother-horsemen the Ashvins,[2][5] the Lithuanian Ašvieniai, and the Germanic Alcis.[26][27] Italy and the Roman Empire[edit] From the fifth century BC onwards, the brothers were revered by the Romans, probably as the result of cultural transmission via the Greek colonies of Magna Graecia
Magna Graecia
in southern Italy. An archaic Latin inscription of the sixth or fifth century BC found at Lavinium, which reads Castorei Podlouqueique qurois ("To Castor and Pollux, the Dioskouroi"), suggests a direct transmission from the Greeks; the word "qurois" is virtually a transliteration of the Greek word κούροις, while "Podlouquei" is effectively a transliteration of the Greek Πολυδεύκης.[28] The construction of the Temple of Castor and Pollux, located in the Roman Forum
Roman Forum
at the heart of their city, was undertaken to fulfil a vow (votum) made by Aulus Postumius Albus Regillensis in gratitude at the Roman victory in the Battle of Lake Regillus in 495 BC. The establishing of the temple may also be a form of evocatio, the transferral of a tutelary deity from a defeated town to Rome, where cult would be offered in exchange for favor.[29] According to legend, the twins fought at the head of the Roman army and subsequently brought news of the victory back to Rome.[12] The Locrians of Magna Graecia
Magna Graecia
had attributed their success at a legendary battle on the banks of the Sagras to the intervention of the Twins. The Roman legend may in fact have had its origins in the Locrian account and possibly supplies further evidence of cultural transmission between Rome
Rome
and Magna Graecia.[30] The Romans believed that the twins aided them on the battlefield.[3] Their role as horsemen made them particularly attractive to the Roman equites and cavalry. Each year on July 15, the feast day of the Dioskouroi, the 1,800 equestrians would parade through the streets of Rome
Rome
in an elaborate spectacle in which each rider wore full military attire and whatever decorations he had earned.[31] In translations of comedies by Plautus, women generally swear by Castor, and men by Pollux; this is exemplified by the slave-woman character Staphyla in A Pot of Gold (act i, ll.67-71) where she swears by Castor in line 67, then the negative prefix in line 71 denotes a refutation against swearing by Pollux.[32] Etruscan Kastur and Pultuce[edit]

Etruscan inscription to the Dioskouroi as "sons of Zeus" on the bottom of an Attic red-figure kylix (ca. 515–510 BC)

The Etruscans
Etruscans
venerated the twins as Kastur and Pultuce, collectively the tinas cliniiaras, "sons of Tinia," the Etruscan counterpart of Zeus. They were often portrayed on Etruscan mirrors.[33] As was the fashion in Greece, they could also be portrayed symbolically; one example can be seen in the Tomb of the Funereal Bed at Tarquinia
Tarquinia
where a lectisternium for them is painted. They are symbolised in the painting by the presence of two pointed caps crowned with laurel, referring to the Phrygian caps they were often depicted wearing.[34] Christianization[edit]

Zeus, Hera, and Amor observe the birth of Helen and the Dioscuri (Dutch majolica, 1550).

Even after the rise of Christianity, the Dioskouroi continued to be venerated. The fifth-century pope Gelasius I attested to the presence of a "cult of Castores" that the people did not want to abandon. In some instances, the twins appear to have simply been absorbed into a Christian framework; thus fourth-century AD pottery and carvings from North Africa depict the Dioskouroi alongside the Twelve Apostles, the Raising of Lazarus
Raising of Lazarus
or with Saint Peter. The church took an ambivalent attitude, rejecting the immortality of the Dioskouroi but seeking to replace them with equivalent Christian pairs. Saints Peter and Paul were thus adopted in place of the Dioskouroi as patrons of travelers, and Saints Cosmas and Damian
Saints Cosmas and Damian
took over their function as healers. Some have also associated Saints Speusippus, Eleusippus, and Melapsippus with the Dioskouroi.[15] The New Testament scholar Dennis MacDonald identifies Castor and Pollux as basis characters for the appearance of James son of Zebedee and his brother John who appear in the narrative by Mark the Evangelist.[35] MacDonald cites the origin of this identification to 1913 when J. Rendel Harris published his work Boanerges,[36] a Greek version probably of an Aramaic name meaning "Sons of Thunder", thunder being associated with Zeus, father of Pollux, in what MacDonald calls a form of early Christian Dioscurism. More directly, the Acts of the Apostles
Acts of the Apostles
mentions the Dioskouroi in a neutral context, as the figurehead of an Alexandrian ship boarded by Paul in Malta (Acts 28:11). See also[edit]

Ashvins, the divine twins of Vedic mythology Heteropaternal superfecundation, when two males father fraternal twins

Notes[edit]

^ /ˈkæstər/; Latin: Castōr; Greek: Κάστωρ Kástōr "beaver" ^ /ˈpɒləks/; Latin: Pollūx ^ /ˌpɒlɪˈdjuːsiːz/; Greek: Πολυδεύκης Poludeúkēs "much sweet wine"[1] ^ /ˌdaɪəˈskjʊrˌaɪ, daɪˈɒskjəˌraɪ/; Latin: Dioscūrī; Greek: Διόσκουροι Dióskouroi, "sons of Zeus", from Dîos ("Zeus") and Koûroi ^ /ˈdʒɛmɪˌnaɪ/ ^ /ˈkæstəˌriːz/ ^ /tɪnˈdɛrɪdiː/ ^ /ˈtɪndərɪdz/; Τυνδαρίδαι, Tundarídai ^ Phoebe ("the pure") is a familiar epithet of the moon, Selene; her twin's name Hilaeira
Hilaeira
("the serene") is also a lunar attribute, their names "appropriate selectively to the new and the full moon".[10] ^ In the oration of the Athenian peace emissary sent to Sparta
Sparta
in 69, according to Xenophon
Xenophon
(Hellenica VI), it was asserted that "these three heroes were the first strangers upon whom this gift was bestowed."[14] ^ Kerenyi draws attention especially to the rock carvings in the town of Akrai, Sicily.[25]

References[edit]

^ Bloomsbury (1996), "Dioscuri", Dictionary of Myth, London: Bloomsbury Publishing  ^ a b c d Burkert 1985, p. 212. ^ a b Cotterell, Arthur (1997), "Dioscuri", A Dictionary of World Mythology, Oxford University Press . ^ Howatson, MC; Chilvers, Ian, eds. (1996), "Dioscūri", The Concise Oxford Companion to Classical Literature, Oxford University Press . ^ a b c Roberts, John, ed. (2007), "Dioscūri", Dictionary of the Classical World, Oxford: Oxford University Press . ^ a b c Parker, Robert Christopher Towneley (2003), "Dioscuri", in Hornblower, Simon; Spawforth, Anthony, The Oxford Classical Dictionary, Oxford University Press . ^ of Mytilene, Alcæus (May 2011), "Fragment 34a", Toutcoule (World Wide Web log), Google . ^ Homer, Hymn, Theoi . ^ Campbell, David (1967), Greek Lyric Poetry, Bristol: Classical Press . ^ Kerenyi 1959, p. 109. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Stratikis, Potis (1987), Greek Mythology, B, pp. 20–23 . ^ a b c "Dioscuri." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. ^ Routledge (2002), "Castor and Polydeuces", Who's Who in Classical Mythology, London: Routledge . ^ Kerenyi, Karl (1967), Eleusis: Archetypal Image of Mother and Daughter, Princeton: Bollingen, p. 122 . ^ a b Kazhdan, Alexander; Talbot, Alice-Mary (1991), "Dioskouroi", in Kazhdan, Alexander P, The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press . ^ Kerenyi 1959, p. 107 note 584. ^ Scholiast, Lycophron .[16] ^ Dares of Phrygia. History of the Fall of Troy
Troy
12. A short prose work which purports to be a first hand account of the Trojan War by Dares, a Trojan priest of Hephaestus in the Iliad. ^ Browning, W. R. F. (1997), "Dioscuri", A Dictionary of the Bible, Oxford University Press . ^ Burkert 1985. ^ Kerenyi 1959, p. 107. ^ Sekunda, Nicholas "Nick" Victor; Hook, Richard (1998), The Spartan Army, Osprey Publishing, p. 53, ISBN 1-85532-659-0 . ^ Pomeroy, Sarah B (2002), Spartan Women, US: Oxford University Press, p. 114, ISBN 0-19-513067-7 . ^ Davenport, Guy (1999), Objects on a Table: Harmonious Disarray in Art and Literature, Basic Books, p. 63, ISBN 1-58243-035-7 . ^ Kerenyi 1959, p. 111. ^ Tacitus, Germania 43. ^ Maier 1997, p. 96. ^ Beard, Mary; North, John; Price, Simon (1998), Religions of Rome, 1. A History, Cambridge University Press, p. 21, ISBN 0-521-45646-0 . ^ Smith, Christopher (2007), "The Religion of Archaic Rome", A Companion to Roman Religion, Blackwell, p. 37 . ^ Mommsen, Theodor (2004), The History of Rome, II, Kessinger Publishing, p. 191, ISBN 1-4191-6625-5 . ^ McDonnell, Myles Anthony (2006), Roman Manliness, Cambridge University Press, p. 187, ISBN 0-521-82788-4 . ^ "Plautus: Aulularia".  ^ Bonfante, Giuliano; Bonfante, Larissa (2002), The Etruscan Language, Manchester University Press, p. 204, ISBN 0-7190-5540-7 . ^ de Grummond, Nancy Thomson; Simon, Erika (2006), The Religion of the Etruscans, University of Texas Press, p. 60, ISBN 0-292-70687-1 . ^ MacDonald, Dennis (2000), "Sons of thunder", The Homeric Epics and the Gospel of Mark, Yale University Press, pp. 24–32, ISBN 0-300-08012-3  ^ Harris, J. Rendel (1913), Boanerges, Cambridge University Press, pp. 1–4 

Sources[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Castor and Pollux.

Burkert, Walter (1985), Greek Religion, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, pp. 212–13 . Kerényi, Karl (1959), The Heroes of the Greeks, Thames and Hundson, pp. 105–12 et passim . Maier, Bernhard (1997), Dictionary of Celtic Religion and Culture, Boydell & Brewer . Pindar, Tenth Nemean Ode . Ringleben, Joachim, "An Interpretation of the 10th Nemean Ode", Ars Disputandi, Douglas Hedley and Russell Manning, transl, archived from the original on 2013-04-14 . Pindar's themes of the unequal brothers and faithfulness and salvation, with the Christian parallels in the dual nature of Christ. Walker, Henry J. The Twin Horse Gods: The Dioskouroi in Mythologies of the Ancient World. London–NY: I.B. Tauris, 2015. "Dioskouroi", Ouranios, Theoi Project . Excerpts in English of classical sources.

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Castor and Pollux.

Images of the Castor and Pollux
Castor and Pollux
in the Warburg Institute Iconographic Database Short art film on Castor and Pollux
Castor and Pollux
[1]

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