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A dhimmī (Arabic: ذمي‎ ḏimmī, IPA: [ˈðɪmmiː], collectively أهل الذمة ahl ul-ḏimmah/dhimmah "the people of the dhimma") is a historical[1] term referring to non-Muslims living in an Islamic state
Islamic state
with legal protection.[1][2]:470 The word literally means "protected person".[3] According to scholars, dhimmis had their rights fully protected in their communities, but as citizens in the Islamic state, had certain restrictions,[4] and it was obligatory for them to pay the jizya tax, which complemented the zakat, or alms, paid by the Muslim
Muslim
subjects.[5] Dhimmis were exempt from certain duties assigned specifically to Muslims, and did not enjoy certain political rights reserved for Muslims, but were otherwise equal under the laws of property, contract, and obligation.[6][7][8] Under sharia, the dhimmi communities were usually subjected to their own special laws, and exempt from some laws applicable to the Muslim community. For example, the Jewish community in Medina
Medina
was allowed to have its own Halakhic courts,[9] and the Ottoman millet system allowed its various dhimmi communities to rule themselves under separate legal courts. These courts did not cover cases that involved religious groups outside of their own community, or capital offences. Dhimmi communities were also allowed to engage in certain practices that were usually forbidden for the Muslim
Muslim
community, such as the consumption of alcohol and pork.[10][11][12] Historically, dhimmi status was originally applied to Jews, Christians, and Sabians. This status later also came to be applied to Zoroastrians, Hindus, Jains and Buddhists.[13][14][15] Moderate Muslims generally reject the dhimma system as inappropriate for the age of nation-states and democracies.[16] There is a range of opinions among 20th century and contemporary theologians about whether the notion of dhimma is appropriate for modern times, and, if so, what form it should take in an Islamic state.

Contents

1 The "dhimma contract"

1.1 The dhimma contract and sharia law 1.2 The end of the dhimma contract 1.3 Views of modern Islamic scholars on the status of non-Muslims in an Islamic society

2 Dhimmi communities

2.1 Christians 2.2 Jews 2.3 Hindus and Buddhists

3 Restrictions

3.1 Jizya
Jizya
tax 3.2 Administration of law

4 Relevant texts

4.1 Quranic verses as a basis for Islamic policies toward dhimmis 4.2 Hadith 4.3 Constitution of Medina 4.4 Pact of Umar

5 Cultural interactions and cultural differences 6 In modern times 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

The "dhimma contract"[edit] Based on Quranic verses and Islamic traditions, classical sharia distinguishes between Muslims, followers of other Abrahamic religions, and pagans or people belonging to other polytheistic religions. As monotheists, Jews
Jews
and Christians have traditionally been considered "People of the Book," and afforded a special status known as dhimmi derived from a theoretical contract—"dhimma" or "residence in return for taxes". In Yemenite Jewish sources, a treaty was drafted between Muhammad
Muhammad
and his Jewish subjects, known as kitāb ḏimmat al-nabi, written in the 17th year of the Hijra (638 CE), and which gave express liberty unto Jews
Jews
living in Arabia to observe the Sabbath
Sabbath
and to grow-out their side-locks, but were required to pay the jizya (poll-tax) annually for their protection by their patrons.[17] There are parallels for this in Roman and Jewish law.[18] Muslim
Muslim
governments in the Indus basin readily extended the dhimmi status to the Hindus and Buddhists of India.[19] Eventually, the largest school of Islamic scholarship applied this term to all non-Muslims living in Islamic lands outside the sacred area surrounding Mecca, Saudi Arabia.[20] Classical sharia incorporated the religious laws and courts of Christians, Jews
Jews
and Hindus, as seen in the early caliphate, Al-Andalus, Indian subcontinent, and the Ottoman Millet system.[21][22][page needed] Quoting the Qur'anic statement, "Let Christians judge according to what We have revealed in the Gospel",[23] Muhammad Hamidullah
Muhammad Hamidullah
writes that Islam
Islam
has decentralized and "communalized" law and justice.[24] In medieval Islamic societies, the qadi (Islamic judge) usually could not interfere in the matters of non-Muslims unless the parties voluntarily chose to be judged according to Islamic law, thus the dhimmi communities living in Islamic states usually had their own laws independent from the sharia law, as with the Jews
Jews
who would have their own rabbinical courts.[9] These courts did not cover cases that involved other religious groups, or capital offences or threats to public order. By the 18th century, however, dhimmis frequently attended the Ottoman Muslim
Muslim
courts, where cases were taken against them by Muslims, or they took cases against Muslims or other dhimmis. Oaths sworn by dhimmis in these courts were tailored to their beliefs.[25] Non-Muslims were allowed to engage in certain practices (such as the consumption of alcohol and pork) that were usually forbidden by Islamic law,[26] in point of fact, any Muslim
Muslim
who pours away their wine or forcibly appropriates it is liable to pay compensation.[27] Zoroastrian "self-marriages", that were considered incestuous under sharia, were also tolerated. Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya
Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya
(1292–1350) opined that non-Muslims were entitled to such practices since they could not be presented to sharia courts and the religious minorities in question held it permissible. This ruling was based on the precedent that the Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
did not forbid such self-marriages among Zoroastrians
Zoroastrians
despite coming into contact with Zoroastrians
Zoroastrians
and knowing about this practice.[28] Religious minorities were also free to do as they wished in their own homes, provided they did not publicly engage in illicit sexual activity in ways that could threaten public morals.[29] However, the classical dhimma contract is no longer enforced. Western influence has been instrumental in eliminating the restrictions and protections of the dhimma contract.[30] According to law professor H. Patrick Glenn of McGill University, "[t]oday it is said that the dhimmi are 'excluded from the specifically Muslim
Muslim
privileges, but on the other hand they are excluded from the specifically Muslim
Muslim
duties' while (and here there are clear parallels with western public and private law treatment of aliens—Fremdenrecht, la condition de estrangers), '[f]or the rest, the Muslim
Muslim
and the dhimmi are equal in practically the whole of the law of property and of contracts and obligations'."[31] The dhimma contract and sharia law[edit] Main article: Sharia The dhimma contract is an integral part of traditional Islamic sharia. From the 9th century AD, the power to interpret and refine law in traditional Islamic societies was in the hands of the scholars (ulama). This separation of powers served to limit the range of actions available to the ruler, who could not easily decree or reinterpret law independently and expect the continued support of the community.[32] Through succeeding centuries and empires, the balance between the ulema and the rulers shifted and reformed, but the balance of power was never decisively changed.[33] At the beginning of the 19th century, the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
and the French Revolution introduced an era of European world hegemony that included the domination of most of the lands of Islam.[34][35] At the end of the Second World War, the European powers found themselves too weakened to maintain their empires.[36] The wide variety in forms of government, systems of law, attitudes toward modernity and interpretations of sharia are a result of the ensuing drives for independence and modernity in the Muslim
Muslim
world.[37][38] Muslim
Muslim
states, sects, schools of thought and individuals differ as to exactly what sharia law entails.[39] In addition, Muslim
Muslim
states today utilize a spectrum of legal systems. Most states have a mixed system that implements certain aspects of sharia while acknowledging the supremacy of a constitution. A few, such as Turkey, have declared themselves secular.[40] Local and customary laws may take precedence in certain matters, as well.[41] Islamic law is therefore polynormative,[42] and despite several cases of regression in recent years, the trend is towards modernization and liberalization.[43] Questions of human rights and the status of minorities cannot be generalized with regards to the Muslim
Muslim
world. They must instead be examined on a case-by-case basis, within specific political and cultural contexts, using perspectives drawn from the historical framework.[44] The end of the dhimma contract[edit] The status of the dhimmi "was for long accepted with resignation by the Christians and with gratitude by the Jews" but the rising power of Christendom and the radical ideas of the French Revolution
French Revolution
caused a wave of discontent among Christian
Christian
dhimmis.[45] The continuing and growing pressure from the European powers combined with pressure from Muslim
Muslim
reformers gradually relaxed the inequalities between Muslims and non-Muslims.[46] On February 18, 1856, the Ottoman Reform Edict of 1856 (Hatt-i Humayan) was issued, building upon the 1839 edict. It came about partly as a result of pressure from and the efforts of the ambassadors of Great Britain, France, and Austria, whose respective countries were needed as allies in the Crimean War. It again proclaimed the principle of equality between Muslims and non-Muslims, and produced many specific reforms to this end. For example, the jizya tax was abolished and non-Muslims were allowed to join the army.[47][48] Views of modern Islamic scholars on the status of non-Muslims in an Islamic society[edit]

The Iranian Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini
Ruhollah Khomeini
indicates in his book Islamic Government: Governance of the Jurist that non-Muslims should be required to pay the poll tax, in return for which they would profit from the protection and services of the state; they would, however, be excluded from all participation in the political process.[49] Bernard Lewis remarks about Khomeini that one of his main grievances against the Shah, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, was that his legislation allowed the theoretical possibility of non-Muslims exercising political or judicial authority over Muslims.[50] The Egyptian theologian Yusuf al-Qaradawi, chairman of the International Union of Muslim
Muslim
Scholars,[51] has stated in his Al Jazeera program Sharia
Sharia
and Life, which has an estimated audience of 35 to 60 million viewers:[52] "When we say dhimmis (ahl al-dhimma) it means that [...] they are under the covenant of God
God
and His Messenger and the Muslim
Muslim
community and their responsibility (ḍamān), and it is everyone's duty to protect them, and this is what is intended by the word. At present many of our brethren are offended by the word dhimmis, and I have stated in what I wrote in my books that I don't see anything to prevent contemporary Islamic ijtihad from discarding this word dhimmis and calling them non- Muslim
Muslim
citizens."[53] Muhammad
Muhammad
Husayn Tabataba'i, a 20th-century Shia scholar, commenting on a hadith that says that the Quranic verse 9:29[54] enjoining Muslims to fight dhimmis "until they give the jizyah willingly" had "abrogated" other verses asking for good behaviour toward dhimmis, states that "abrogation" could be understood either in its terminological sense or its literal sense. If "abrogation" is understood in its terminological sense, Muslims should deal with dhimmis strictly in a good and decent manner. If "abrogation" is understood in its literal sense, then it is not in conflict with the verse of fighting. He then points out that uses of words in their literal sense (as opposed to their terminological ones) are common in the "traditions of the Imams".[55] Javed Ahmad
Ahmad
Ghamidi, a Pakistani theologian, writes in Mizan
Mizan
that certain directives of the Quran
Quran
were specific only to Muhammad
Muhammad
against peoples of his times, besides other directives, the campaign involved asking the polytheists of Arabia for submission to Islam
Islam
as a condition for exoneration and the others for jizya and submission to the political authority of the Muslims for exemption from death punishment and for military protection as the dhimmis of the Muslims. Therefore, after Muhammad
Muhammad
and his companions, there is no concept in Islam
Islam
obliging Muslims to wage war for propagation or implementation of Islam.[56][57] The Iranian Shia jurist Grand Ayatollah Naser Makarem Shirazi
Naser Makarem Shirazi
states in Selection of the Tafsir Nemooneh that the main philosophy of jizya is that it is only a financial aid to those Muslims who are in the charge of safeguarding the security of the state and dhimmis' lives and properties on their behalf.[58] Legal scholar L. Ali Khan points to the Constitution of Medina
Medina
as a way forward for Islamic states in his 2006 paper titled The Medina Constitution. He suggests this ancient document, which governed the status of religions and races in the first Islamic state, in which Jewish tribes are "placed on an equal footing with [...] Muslims" and granted "the freedom of religion," can serve as a basis for the protection of minority rights, equality, and religious freedom in the modern Islamic state.[59][60] Tariq Ramadan, Professor of Islamic Studies at the University of Oxford, advocates the inclusion of academic disciplines and Islamic society, along with traditional Islamic scholars, in an effort to reform Islamic law and address modern conditions. He speaks of remaining faithful to the higher objectives of sharia law. He posits universal rights of dignity, welfare, freedom, equality and justice in a religiously and culturally pluralistic Islamic (or other) society, and proposes a dialogue regarding the modern term "citizenship," although it has no clear precedent in classical fiqh. He further includes the terms "non-citizen", "foreigner", "resident" and "immigrant" in this dialogue, and challenges not only Islam, but modern civilization as a whole, to come to terms with these concepts in a meaningful way with regards to problems of racism, discrimination and oppression.[61]

Dhimmi communities[edit] Jews
Jews
and Christians living under early Muslim
Muslim
rule were considered dhimmis, a status that was later also extended to other non-Muslims like Hindus. They were allowed to "practise their religion, subject to certain conditions, and to enjoy a measure of communal autonomy" and guaranteed their personal safety and security of property, in return for paying tribute and acknowledging Muslim
Muslim
rule.[62] Islamic law and custom prohibited the enslavement of free dhimmis within lands under Islamic rule.[63] Taxation from the perspective of dhimmis who came under the Muslim
Muslim
rule, was "a concrete continuation of the taxes paid to earlier regimes"[64] (but lower under the Muslim
Muslim
rule[65][66]). They were also exempted from the zakat tax paid by Muslims. The dhimmi communities living in Islamic states had their own laws independent from the Sharia
Sharia
law, such as the Jews
Jews
who had their own Halakhic courts.[67] The dhimmi communities had their own leaders, courts, personal and religious laws,[68][69] and "generally speaking, Muslim tolerance of unbelievers was far better than anything available in Christendom, until the rise of secularism in the 17th century".[70] "Muslims guaranteed freedom of worship and livelihood, provided that they remained loyal to the Muslim
Muslim
state and paid a poll tax".[71] " Muslim
Muslim
governments appointed Christian
Christian
and Jewish professionals to their bureaucracies",[71] and thus, Christians and Jews
Jews
"contributed to the making of the Islamic civilization".[71] However, dhimmis faced social and symbolic restrictions,[72] and a pattern of stricter, then more lax, enforcement developed over time.[73] Marshall Hodgson, a historian of Islam, writes that during the era of the High Caliphate
Caliphate
(7th–13th Centuries), zealous Shariah-minded Muslims gladly elaborated their code of symbolic restrictions on the dhimmis.[74] From an Islamic legal perspective, the pledge of protection granted dhimmis the freedom to practice their religion and spared them forced conversions. The dhimmis also served a variety of useful purposes, mostly economic, which was another point of concern to jurists.[75][page needed] Religious minorities were free to do whatever they wished in their own homes, but could not "publicly engage in illicit sex in ways that threaten public morals".[76] In some cases, religious practices that Muslims found repugnant were allowed. One example was the Zoroastrian practice of incestuous "self-marriage" where a man could marry his mother, sister or daughter. According to the famous Islamic legal scholar Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya (1292–1350), non-Muslims had the right to engage in such religious practices even if it offended Muslims, under the conditions that such cases not be presented to Islamic Sharia
Sharia
courts and that these religious minorities believed that the practice in question is permissible according to their religion. This ruling was based on the precedent that Muhammad
Muhammad
did not forbid such self-marriages among Zoroastrians
Zoroastrians
despite coming in contact with them and having knowledge of their practices.[77] The Arabs generally established garrisons outside towns in the conquered territories, and had little interaction with the local dhimmi populations for purposes other than the collection of taxes. The conquered Christian, Jewish, Mazdean and Buddhist communities were otherwise left to lead their lives as before.[78] Christians[edit] According to historians Lewis and Stillman, local Christians in Syria, Iraq, and Egypt
Egypt
were non-Chalcedonians and many may have felt better off under early Muslim
Muslim
rule than under that of the Byzantine Orthodox of Constantinople.[79] In 1095, Pope Urban II
Pope Urban II
urged western European Christians to come to the aid of the Christians of Palestine. The subsequent Crusades
Crusades
brought Roman Catholic Christians into contact with Orthodox Christians whose beliefs they discovered to differ from their own perhaps more than they had realized, and whose position under the rule of the Muslim
Muslim
Fatimid Caliphate
Caliphate
was less uncomfortable than had been supposed. Consequently, the Eastern Christians provided perhaps less support to the Crusaders than had been expected.[80] When the Arab
Arab
East came under Ottoman rule in the 16th century, Christian populations and fortunes rebounded significantly. The Ottomans had long experience dealing with Christian
Christian
and Jewish minorities, and were more tolerant towards religious minorities than the former Muslim rulers, the Mamluks of Egypt.[81] However, Christians living under Islamic rule have suffered certain legal disadvantages and at times persecution. In the Ottoman Empire, in accordance with the dhimmi system implemented in Muslim
Muslim
countries, they, like all other Christians and also Jews, were accorded certain freedoms. The dhimmi system in the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
was largely based upon the Pact of Umar. The client status established the rights of the non-Muslims to property, livelihood and freedom of worship but they were in essence treated as second-class citizens in the empire and referred to in Turkish as gavours, a pejorative word meaning "infidel" or "unbeliever". The clause of the Pact of Umar which prohibited non-Muslims from building new places of worship was historically imposed on some communities of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and ignored in other cases, at discretion of the local authorities. Although there were no laws mandating religious ghettos, this led to non- Muslim
Muslim
communities being clustered around existing houses of worship.[82][83] In addition to other legal limitations, Christians were not considered equals to Muslims and several prohibitions were placed on them. Their testimony against Muslims by Christians and Jews
Jews
was inadmissible in courts of law wherein a Muslim
Muslim
could be punished; this meant that their testimony could only be considered in commercial cases. They were forbidden to carry weapons or ride atop horses and camels. Their houses could not overlook those of Muslims; and their religious practices were severely circumscribed (e.g., the ringing of church bells was strictly forbidden).[82][84] Jews[edit] Because the early Islamic conquests initially preserved much of the existing administrative machinery and culture, in many territories they amounted to little more than a change of rulers for the subject populations, which "brought peace to peoples demoralized and disaffected by the casualties and heavy taxation that resulted from the years of Byzantine-Persian warfare".[69] María Rosa Menocal, argues that the Jewish dhimmis living under the caliphate, while allowed fewer rights than Muslims, were still better off than in the Christian
Christian
parts of Europe. Jews
Jews
from other parts of Europe made their way to al-Andalus, where in parallel to Christian sects regarded as heretical by Catholic Europe, they were not just tolerated, but where opportunities to practice faith and trade were open without restriction save for the prohibitions on proselytization.[85] Bernard Lewis
Bernard Lewis
states:

Generally, the Jewish people were allowed to practice their religion and live according to the laws and scriptures of their community. Furthermore, the restrictions to which they were subject were social and symbolic rather than tangible and practical in character. That is to say, these regulations served to define the relationship between the two communities, and not to oppress the Jewish population.[86]

Professor of Jewish medieval history at Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Hayim Hillel Ben-Sasson, notes:

The legal and security situation of the Jews
Jews
in the Muslim
Muslim
world was generally better than in Christendom, because in the former, Jews
Jews
were not the sole "infidels", because in comparison to the Christians, Jews were less dangerous and more loyal to the Muslim
Muslim
regime, and because the rapidity and the territorial scope of the Muslim
Muslim
conquests imposed upon them a reduction in persecution and a granting of better possibility for the survival of members of other faiths in their lands.[87]

According to the French historian Claude Cahen, Islam
Islam
has "shown more toleration than Europe towards the Jews
Jews
who remained in Muslim lands."[88] Comparing the treatment of Jews
Jews
in the medieval Islamic world and medieval Christian
Christian
Europe, Mark R. Cohen notes that, in contrast to Jews
Jews
in Christian
Christian
Europe, the " Jews
Jews
in Islam
Islam
were well integrated into the economic life of the larger society",[89] and that they were allowed to practice their religion more freely than they could do in Christian
Christian
Europe.[89] According to the scholar Mordechai Zaken, tribal chieftains (also known as aghas) in tribal Muslim
Muslim
societies such as the Kurdish society in Kurdistan
Kurdistan
would tax their Jewish subjects. The Jews
Jews
were in fact civilians protected by their chieftains in and around their communities; in return they paid part of their harvest as dues, and contributed their skills and services to their patron chieftain.[90] Hindus and Buddhists[edit] By the 10th century, the Turks of Central Asia
Central Asia
had brought Islam
Islam
to the mountains north of the Indic plains.[91] At the end of the 12th century, the Muslims advanced quickly into the Ganges Plain.[92] In one decade, a Muslim
Muslim
army led by Turkic slaves consolidated resistance around Lahore
Lahore
and brought northern India, as far as Bengal, under Muslim
Muslim
rule.[93] From these Turkic slaves would come sultans, including the founder of the sultanate of Delhi. Muslims and dhimmis alike participated in urbanization and urban prosperity.[94] By the 15th century, Islamic and Hindu
Hindu
civilization had evolved in a complementary manner, with the Muslims taking the role of a ruling caste in Hindu
Hindu
society. Nevertheless, the Muslims retained their Islamic identities, and were in some ways regarded by Hindus in much the same light as their own lowest castes.[95] In the 16th century, India came under the influence of the Mughals (Mongols). Babur, a ruler of the Mongol Timuri empire, established a foothold in the north which paved the way for further expansion by his successors.[96] Until it was eclipsed by European hegemony in the 18th century, the Timuri Moghul emperors oversaw a period of coexistence and tolerance between Hindus and Muslims. The emperor Akbar
Akbar
has been described as a universalist. He sought to establish tolerance and equality between all communities and religions, and instituted far reaching social and religious reforms.[97] Not all the Mughal emperors endorsed the ideals espoused by Akbar, indeed Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
was inclined towards a more fundamentalist approach.[98] Restrictions[edit] There were a number of restrictions on dhimmis. In a modern sense the dhimmis would be described as second-class citizens.[99] Although dhimmis were allowed to perform their religious rituals, they were obliged to do so in a manner not conspicuous to Muslims. Display of non- Muslim
Muslim
religious symbols, such as crosses or icons, was prohibited on buildings and on clothing (unless mandated as part of distinctive clothing). Loud prayers were forbidden, as were the ringing of church bells and the blowing of the shofar.[100] They were also not allowed to build or repair churches without Muslim consent.[71] Moreover, dhimmis were not allowed to seek converts among Muslims.[101][page needed] In the Mamluk
Mamluk
Egypt, where non-Mamluk Muslims were not allowed to ride horses and camels, dhimmis were prohibited even from riding donkeys inside cities.[102] Sometimes, Muslim
Muslim
rulers issued regulations requiring dhimmis to attach distinctive signs to their houses.[103] Most of the restrictions were social and symbolic in nature,[72] and a pattern of stricter, then more lax, enforcement developed over time.[73] The major financial disabilities of the dhimmi were the jizya poll tax and the fact dhimmis and Muslims could not inherit from each other.[72] That would create an incentive to convert if someone from the family had already converted.[71] Ira M. Lapidus states that the "payment of the poll tax seems to have been regular, but other obligations were inconsistently enforced and did not prevent many non-Muslims from being important political, business, and scholarly figures. In the late ninth and early tenth centuries, Jewish bankers and financiers were important at the ' Abbasid
Abbasid
court."[104] The jurists and scholars of Islamic sharia law called for humane treatment of the dhimmis.[105] Jizya
Jizya
tax[edit] Main article: Jizya Payment of the jizya obligated Muslim
Muslim
authorities to protect dhimmis in civil and military matters. Sura
Sura
9 (At-Tawba), verse 29 stipulates that jizya be exacted from non-Muslims as a condition required for jihad to cease. Failure to pay the jizya could result in the pledge of protection of a dhimmi's life and property becoming void, with the dhimmi facing the alternatives of conversion, enslavement, death or imprisonment, as advocated by Abu Yusuf, the chief qadi (Islamic judge) of Abbasid
Abbasid
caliph Harun al-Rashid
Harun al-Rashid
who ruled over much of modern-day Iraq.[106] Lewis states there are varying opinions among scholars as to how much of a burden jizya was.[106] According to Norman Stillman: "jizya and kharaj were a "crushing burden for the non- Muslim
Muslim
peasantry who eked out a bare living in a subsistence economy."[107] Both agree that ultimately, the additional taxation on non-Muslims was a critical factor that drove many dhimmis to leave their religion and accept Islam.[108] However, in some regions the jizya on populations was significantly lower than the zakat, meaning dhimmi populations maintained an economic advantage.[109] According to Cohen, taxation, from the perspective of dhimmis who came under Muslim
Muslim
rule, was "a concrete continuation of the taxes paid to earlier regimes".[64][page needed] Lewis observes that the change from Byzantine to Arab
Arab
rule was welcomed by many among the dhimmis who found the new yoke far lighter than the old, both in taxation and in other matters, and that some, even among the Christians of Syria and Egypt, preferred the rule of Islam
Islam
to that of Byzantines.[66] Montgomery Watt states, "the Christians were probably better off as dhimmis under Muslim- Arab
Arab
rulers than they had been under the Byzantine Greeks."[110] In some places, for example Egypt, the jizya was a tax incentive for Christians to convert to Islam.[71] The importance of dhimmis as a source of revenue for the Rashidun Caliphate
Caliphate
is illustrated in a letter ascribed to Umar
Umar
I and cited by Abu Yusuf: "if we take dhimmis and share them out, what will be left for the Muslims who come after us? By God, Muslims would not find a man to talk to and profit from his labors."[111] Islamic jurists required adult, free, healthy males among the dhimma community to pay the jizya, while exempting women, children, the elderly, slaves, those affected by mental or physical handicaps, and travelers who did not settle in Muslim
Muslim
lands.[112][113] The early Islamic scholars took a relatively humane and practical attitude towards the collection of jizya, compared to the 11th century commentators writing when Islam
Islam
was under threat both at home and abroad.[114] The jurist Abu Yusuf, the chief judge of the caliph Harun al-Rashid, rules as follows regarding the manner of collecting the jizya [114]

No one of the people of the dhimma should be beaten in order to exact payment of the jizya, nor made to stand in the hot sun, nor should hateful things be inflicted upon their bodies, or anything of that sort. Rather they should be treated with leniency.

In the border provinces, dhimmis were sometimes recruited for military operations. In such cases, they were exempted from jizya for the year of service.[115] Administration of law[edit] Religious pluralism
Religious pluralism
existed in medieval Islamic law and ethics. The religious laws and courts of other religions, including Christianity, Judaism
Judaism
and Hinduism, were usually accommodated within the Islamic legal framework, as exemplified in the Caliphate, Al-Andalus, Ottoman Empire and Indian subcontinent.[116][117] In medieval Islamic societies, the qadi (Islamic judge) usually could not interfere in the matters of non-Muslims unless the parties voluntarily chose to be judged according to Islamic law. The dhimmi communities living in Islamic states usually had their own laws independent from the Sharia law, such as the Jews
Jews
who had their own Halakha courts.[118] Dhimmis were allowed to operate their own courts following their own legal systems. However, dhimmis frequently attended the Muslim
Muslim
courts in order to record property and business transactions within their own communities. Cases were taken out against Muslims, against other dhimmis and even against members of the dhimmi's own family. Dhimmis often took cases relating to marriage, divorce or inheritance to the Muslim
Muslim
courts so these cases would be decided under sharia law. Oaths sworn by dhimmis in the Muslim
Muslim
courts were sometimes the same as the oaths taken by Muslims, sometimes tailored to the dhimmis' beliefs.[119] Muslim
Muslim
men could generally marry dhimmi women who are considered People of the Book, however Islamic jurists rejected the possibility any non- Muslim
Muslim
man might marry a Muslim
Muslim
woman.[120] Bernard Lewis notes that "similar position existed under the laws of Byzantine Empire, according to which a Christian
Christian
could marry a Jewish woman, but a Jew could not marry a Christian
Christian
woman under pain of death".[68] Relevant texts[edit] Quranic verses as a basis for Islamic policies toward dhimmis[edit] Lewis states

The phrase "Let there be no compulsion in religion: ...", from sura 2 (Al-Baqara), ayah 256,[121] has sometimes been interpreted in the Islamic legal and theological traditions to mean followers of other religions should not be forced to adopt Islam
Islam
[122] The phrase "Unto you your religion, and unto me my religion.", from sura 109 (Al-Kafirun), ayah 6,[123] has been used as a "proof-text for pluralism and coexistence".[122] Sura
Sura
2 (Al-Baqara), ayah 62[124] has served to justify the tolerated position accorded to the followers of Christianity, Judaism, and Sabianism under Muslim
Muslim
rule.[122]

Hadith[edit] A hadith by Muhammad, "Whoever killed a Mu'ahid (a person who is granted the pledge of protection by the Muslims) shall not smell the fragrance of Paradise
Paradise
though its fragrance can be smelt at a distance of forty years (of traveling).",[125][126][127] is considered to be a foundation for the protection of the People of the Book in Muslim ruled countries.[128] Anwar Shah Kashmiri writes in his commentary on Sahih al-Bukhari
Sahih al-Bukhari
Fayd al-Bari on this hadith: "You know the gravity of sin for killing a Muslim, for its odiousness has reached the point of disbelief, and it necessitates that [the killer abides in Hell] forever. As for killing a non- Muslim
Muslim
citizen [mu'ahid], it is similarly no small matter, for the one who does it will not smell the fragrance of Paradise."[126] A similar hadith in regard to the status of the dhimmis: "Whoever wrongs one with whom a compact (treaty) has been made [i.e., a dhimmi] and lays on him a burden beyond his strength, I will be his accuser."[129][130] Constitution of Medina[edit] A precedent for the dhimma contract was established with the agreement between Muhammad
Muhammad
and the Jews
Jews
after the Battle of Khaybar, an oasis near Medina. Khaybar
Khaybar
was the first territory attacked and conquered by Muslims. When the Jews
Jews
of Khaybar
Khaybar
surrendered to Muhammad
Muhammad
after a siege, Muhammad
Muhammad
allowed them to remain in Khaybar
Khaybar
in return for handing over to the Muslims one half their annual produce.[131] After Mecca
Mecca
was brought under Islamic rule, deputations from tribes across Arabia came to make terms with Muhammad
Muhammad
and the Muslims. The Constitution of Medina, a formal agreement between Muhammad
Muhammad
and all the significant tribes and families of Medina
Medina
(including Muslims, Jews and pagans), declared that non-Muslims in the Ummah
Ummah
had the following rights:[132]

The security (dhimma) of God
God
is equal for all groups,[133] Non- Muslim
Muslim
members have equal political and cultural rights as Muslims. They will have autonomy and freedom of religion.[134] Non-Muslims will take up arms against the enemy of the Ummah
Ummah
and share the cost of war. There is to be no treachery between the two.[135] Non-Muslims will not be obliged to take part in religious wars of the Muslims.[136]

Pact of Umar[edit] Main article: Pact of Umar The Pact of Umar, traditionally believed to be between caliph Umar
Umar
and the conquered Jerusalem Christians in the seventh century, was another source of regulations pertaining to dhimmis. However, Western orientalists doubt the authenticity of the pact, arguing it is usually the victors and not the vanquished who impose rather than propose, the terms of peace, and that it is highly unlikely that the people who spoke no Arabic and knew nothing of Islam
Islam
could draft such a document. Academic historians believe the Pact of Umar in the form it is known today was a product of later jurists who attributed it to Umar
Umar
in order to lend greater authority to their own opinions. The similarities between the Pact of Umar and the Theodosian and Justinian Codes of the Eastern Roman Empire suggest that perhaps much of the Pact of Umar was borrowed from these earlier codes by later Islamic jurists. At least some of the clauses of the pact mirror the measures first introduced by the Umayyad caliph Umar
Umar
II or by the early Abbasid caliphs.[137] Cultural interactions and cultural differences[edit] During the Middle Ages, local associations known as futuwwa clubs developed across the Islamic lands. There were usually several futuwwah in each town. These clubs catered to varying interests, primarily sports, and might involve distinctive manners of dress and custom. They were known for their hospitality, idealism and loyalty to the group. They often had a militaristic aspect, purportedly for the mutual protection of the membership. These clubs commonly crossed social strata, including among their membership local notables, dhimmi and slaves – to the exclusion of those associated with the local ruler, or amir.[138] Muslims and Jews
Jews
were sometimes partners in trade, with the Muslim taking days off on Fridays and Jews
Jews
taking off on Saturdays.[139] Andrew Wheatcroft describes how some social customs such as different conceptions of dirt and cleanliness made it difficult for the religious communities to live close to each other, either under Muslim or under Christian
Christian
rule.[140] In modern times[edit] The dhimma and the jizya poll tax are no longer imposed in Muslim majority countries.[16][141] In the 21st century, jizya is widely regarded as being at odds with contemporary secular conceptions of citizen's civil rights and equality before the law, although there have been occasional reports of religious minorities in conflict zones and areas subject to political instability being forced to pay jizya.[142] In 2009 it was claimed that a group of militants that referred to themselves as the Taliban
Taliban
imposed the jizya on Pakistan's minority Sikh community after occupying some of their homes and kidnapping a Sikh leader.[143] As late as 2013, in Egypt
Egypt
jizya was reportedly being imposed by the Muslim
Muslim
Brotherhood on 15,000 Christian
Christian
Copts
Copts
of Dalga village.[144][145] In February 2014, the Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and the Levant (ISIL) announced that it intended to extract jizya from Christians in the city of Raqqa, Syria, which it controls. Christians who refused to accept the dhimma contract and pay the tax would have to either convert to Islam
Islam
or die. Wealthy Christians would have to pay half an ounce of gold, the equivalent of USD 664 twice a year; middle-class Christians would have to pay half that amount and poorer ones would be charged one-fourth that amount.[146] In June, the Institute for the Study of War reported that ISIL claims to have collected jizya and fay.[147] On July 18, 2014 the ISIL ordered the Christians in Mosul
Mosul
to accept the dhimma contract and pay the Jizya
Jizya
or convert to Islam. If they refused to accept either of the options they would be killed.[148] See also[edit]

Islam
Islam
portal

Ger toshav, in Judaism, a non-Jewish resident alien of a theocratic Jewish state Millet (Ottoman Empire) Gentile Dhimmitude, a derogatory political term for the status of dhimmis

Notes[edit]

^ a b Juan Eduardo Campo, ed. (2010-05-12). "dhimmi". Encyclopedia of Islam. Infobase Publishing. pp. 194–195. Dhimmis are non-Muslims who live within Islamdom and have a regulated and protected status. ... In the modern period, this term has generally has occasionally been resuscitated, but it is generally obsolete.  ^ Mohammad Taqi al-Modarresi
Mohammad Taqi al-Modarresi
(26 March 2016). The Laws of Islam
Islam
(PDF). Enlight Press. ISBN 978-0994240989. Retrieved 22 December 2017.  ^ "Definition of DHIMMI". www.merriam-webster.com.  ^ Clinton Bennett
Clinton Bennett
(2005). Muslims and Modernity: An Introduction to the Issues and Debates. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 163. ISBN 082645481X. Retrieved 2012-07-07.  ^ Glenn, H. Patrick (2007). Legal Traditions of the World. Oxford University Press. pp. 218–219. A Dhimmi is a non- Muslim
Muslim
subject of a state governed in accordance to sharia law. The term connotes an obligation of the state to protect the individual, including the individual's life, property, and freedom of religion and worship, and required loyalty to the empire, and a poll tax known as the jizya, which complemented the Islamic tax paid by the Muslim
Muslim
subjects, called Zakat.  ^ H. Patrick Glenn, Legal Traditions of the World. Oxford University Press, 2007, p. 219. ^ The French scholar Gustave Le Bon (the author of La civilisation des Arabes) writes "that despite the fact that the incidence of taxation fell more heavily on a Muslim
Muslim
than a non-Muslim, the non- Muslim
Muslim
was free to enjoy equally well with every Muslim
Muslim
all the privileges afforded to the citizens of the state. The only privilege that was reserved for the Muslims was the seat of the caliphate, and this, because of certain religious functions attached to it, which could not naturally be discharged by a non-Muslim." Mun'im Sirry (2014), Scriptural Polemics: The Qur'an and Other Religions, p.179. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0199359363. ^ Abou El Fadl, Khaled (2007). The Great Theft: Wrestling Islam
Islam
from the Extremists. HarperOne. p. 204. ISBN 978-0061189036. According the dhimma status system, non-Muslims must pay a poll tax in return for Muslim
Muslim
protection and the privilege of living in Muslim territory. Per this system, non-Muslims are exempt from military service, but they are excluded from occupying high positions that involve dealing with high state interests, like being the president or prime minister of the country. In Islamic history, non-Muslims did occupy high positions, especially in matters that related to fiscal policies or tax collection.  ^ a b Cohen, Mark R. (1995). Under Crescent and Cross: The Jews
Jews
in the Middle Ages. Princeton University Press. p. 74. ISBN 0-691-01082-X. Retrieved April 10, 2010.  ^ Al-Misri, Reliance of the Traveler (edited and translated by Nuh Ha Mim Keller), p. 608. Amana Publications, 1994. ^ Al-Misri, Reliance of the Traveler (ed. and trans. Nuh Ha Mim Keller), pp. 977, 986. Amana Publications, 1994. ^ Ghazi, Kalin & Kamali 2013, pp. 240–1. ^ Wael B. Hallaq (2009). Sharī'a: Theory, Practice, Transformations. Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press
(Kindle edition). p. 327.  ^ Annemarie Schimmel
Annemarie Schimmel
(2004). The Empire of the Great Mughals: History, Art and Culture. p. 107. ISBN 978-1861891853. The conqueror Muhammad
Muhammad
Ibn Al Qasem gave both Hindus and Buddhists the same status as the Christians, Jews
Jews
and Sabaeans
Sabaeans
the Middle East. They were all "dhimmi" ('protected people')  ^ Michael Bonner (2008). Jihad
Jihad
in Islamic History. Princeton University Press (Kindle edition). p. 89.  ^ a b "[…] the overwhelming majority of moderate Muslims reject the dhimma system as ahistorical, in the sense that it is inappropriate for the age of nation-states and democracies." Abou El Fadl, Khaled (January 23, 2007). The Great Theft: Wrestling Islam
Islam
from the Extremists. HarperOne. p. 214. ISBN 978-0061189036.  ^ Shelomo Dov Goitein, The Yemenites – History, Communal Organization, Spiritual Life (Selected Studies), editor: Menahem Ben-Sasson, Jerusalem 1983, pp. 288–299. ISBN 965-235-011-7 ^ Glenn, H. Patrick (2007). Legal Traditions of the World: Sustainable Diversity in Law (3rd edition). New York City; Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-920541-7. pp. 217–219. ^ Marshall Hodgson, The Venture of Islam
Islam
Conscience and History in a World Civilization Vol 2. University of Chicago, 1958, p. 278. ^ al-Misri, Ahmad
Ahmad
ibn Naqib (edited and translated from Arabic (with commentary) by Nuh Ha Mim Keller) (1994 revised edition), p. 603. ^ Weeramantry 1997, p. 138 ^ Sachedina, Abdulaziz Abdulhussein (2001). The Islamic Roots of Democratic Pluralism. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-513991-7.  ^ [Quran 5:47] ^ Hamidullah, Muhammad
Muhammad
(1986). "Relations of Muslims with non‐Muslims". Institute of Muslim
Muslim
Minority Affairs. Journal. 7 (1): 9. doi:10.1080/13602008608715960. ISSN 0266-6952.  ^ al-Qattan, Najwa (1999). "Dhimmis in the Muslim
Muslim
Court: Legal Autonomy and Religious Discrimination". International Journal of Middle East Studies. University of Cambridge. 31 (3): 429–444. doi:10.1017/S0020743800055501. ISSN 0020-7438.  ^ Hamidullah, Muhammad
Muhammad
(1970). Introduction to Islam. International Islamic Federation of Student Organizations. p. 180.  ^ Abdel-Haleem 2012, p. 73. ^ Jackson, Sherman A. (2005). p. 144 (via Google Books). Retrieved September 19, 2011. ^ Jackson, Sherman A. (2005). p. 145 (via Google Books). Retrieved September 19, 2011. ^ Lewis, Bernard (1984). The Jews
Jews
of Islam. Princeton University Press. p. 184. ISBN 978-0-691-00807-3.  ^ Glenn, H. Patrick (2007). Legal Traditions of the World&: Sustainable Diversity in Law (3rd edition). New York City; Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-920541-7. p. 219. ^ Basim Musallam, The Cambridge Illustrated History of the Islamic World, edited by Francis Robinson. Cambridge University Press, 1996, p. 176. ^ Hodgson, The Venture of Islam
Islam
Vol 3, 1961, pp. 105–108. ^ Hodgson, The Venture of Islam
Islam
Vol 3, 1961, pp. 176–177. ^ Sarah Ansari, The Cambridge Illustrated History of the Islamic World edited by Francis Robinson. Cambridge University Press, 1996, p. 90. ^ Hodgson, The Venture of Islam
Islam
Vol 3, 1961, pp. 366–367. ^ Sarah Ansari, The Cambridge Illustrated History of the Islamic World edited by Francis Robinson. Cambridge University Press, 1996, pp. 103–111. ^ Marshall Hodgson, The Venture of Islam
Islam
Conscience and History in a World Civilization Vol 3. The University of Chicago, 1961, pp. 384–386. ^ Otto, Jan Michiel. Sharia
Sharia
and National Law in Muslim
Muslim
Countries: Tensions and Opportunities for Dutch and EU Foreign Policy . Amsterdam University Press, 2008, p. 7. ^ Otto, Sharia
Sharia
and National Law in Muslim
Muslim
Countries, 2008, pp. 8–9. ^ Otto, Sharia
Sharia
and National Law in Muslim
Muslim
Countries, 2008, p. 29. ^ Otto, Sharia
Sharia
and National Law in Muslim
Muslim
Countries, 2008, p. 10. ^ Otto, Sharia
Sharia
and National Law in Muslim
Muslim
Countries, 2008, p. 18. ^ Otto, Sharia
Sharia
and National Law in Muslim
Muslim
Countries, 2008, pp. 37–39. ^ Lewis, Bernard (1984). The Jews
Jews
of Islam. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-00807-3.  p. 62 ^ Lewis, Bernard (1984). The Jews
Jews
of Islam. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-00807-3.  summary of pp. 62–66. See p. 62 (second paragraph), p. 65 (third paragraph) ^ Lapidus (1988), p. 599 ^ Lapidus (2002), p. 495 ^ Hukuma Islamiyya, n.p. (Beirut), n.d., pp. 30ff.; Vilayat-i Faqih, n.p., n.d., pp. 35ff.; English version (from the Arabic), Islamic Government (U.S. Joint Publications Research Service 72663, 1979), pp. 22ff.; French version (from the Persian), Pour un gouvernement islamique (Paris, 1979), pp. 31ff. Another version in Hamid Algar, Islam
Islam
and Revolution: Writings and Declarations of Imam Khomeini (Berkeley, 1981), pp. 45ff. ^ Bernard Lewis, The Jews
Jews
of Islam
Islam
notes on page 3 ^ AFP (news agency) (11 May 2014). "Qatar-based cleric calls for Egypt vote boycott". Yahoo News. Archived from the original on 16 June 2014.  ^ Gilbert Achcar (2013). The People Want: A Radical Exploration of the Arab
Arab
Uprising. University of California Press. p. 112.  ^ لما نقول أهل الذمة يعني أهل ذمة الله يعني هم في عهد الله وعهد رسوله وعهد جماعة المسلمين وضمانهم، الجميع عليه أن يحميهم، فهذا هو المقصود من الكلمة. الآن يتأذى منها الكثير من أخواننا كلمة أهل الذمة، وأنا ذكرت فيما كتبت في كتبي أنني أنا لا أرى أي مانع أمام الاجتهاد الإسلامي المعاصر أن يحذف كلمة أهل الذمة هذه ونسميهم المواطنون من غير المسلمين Transcript of the 5-6-2008 " Sharia
Sharia
and Life" episode on Al Jazeera's website ^ Quran
Quran
9:29—"Fight those who do not believe in Allah
Allah
or in the Last Day and who do not consider unlawful what Allah
Allah
and His Messenger have made unlawful and who do not adopt the religion of truth from those who were given the Scripture—fight until they give the jizyah willingly while they are humbled." ^ Muhammad
Muhammad
Husayn Tabataba'i. "Surah Al-Baqarah, verses 83-88". almizan.org (in Arabic and English). Retrieved 1 January 2016. as-Sadiq (a.s) said: "Verily Allah
Allah
sent Muhammad
Muhammad
(s.a.w.) with five swords: So (there is) a sword against a dhimmi (free non-Muslim subject of an Islamic country). Allah
Allah
said: and speak to men good (words); it was revealed about the dhimmis, then it was abrogated by another verse, Fight those who do not believe in Allah... (9:29) (al-'Ayyashi) The author says: In this tradition the Imam has taken the "speech" to mean behavior. We say: Do not speak to him but good; what we mean is: Do not deal with him but in a good and decent manner. This meaning will apply only if we take the word, "abrogated" in its terminological sense. But it may also be taken in its literal sense (as we shall explain under the verse: Whatever signs We abrogate or cause to be forgotten ...2:106); and in that case this verse will not be in conflict with that of the fighting. It should be pointed out that such uses of words in their literal meanings (as against their terminological ones) are not infrequent in the traditions of the Imams.  ^ Javed Ahmed Ghamidi, Mizan, Chapter: The Islamic Law of Jihad, Dar ul-Ishraq, 2001. OCLC: 52901690 [1] ^ "Misplaced Directives", Renaissance Archived 2006-08-13 at the Wayback Machine., Al-Mawrid Institute, Vol. 12, No. 3, March 2002."Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-11-15. Retrieved 2006-10-05.  ^ Selection of Tafsir
Tafsir
Nemooneh, Grand Ayatollah Makarim Shirazi, p. 10, volume 2, on verse 9:29 Archived November 18, 2006, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Khan, Ali, Commentary on the Constitution of Medina
Medina
in Understanding Islamic Law: From Classical to Contemporary, Edited by Aminah Beverly McCloud and Hisham Ramadan, Alta Mira Press, 2006, pp. 205–208. ^ Khan, Ali (17 November 2006). "The Medina
Medina
Constitution" – via papers.ssrn.com.  ^ Ramadan, Tariq, Radical Reform: Islamic Ethics and Liberation, Oxford University Press, 2009, pp. 268–271. ^ Lewis (1984), pp. 10, 20. ^ Lewis (2002), p.92 ^ a b Cl. Cahen in Encyclopedia of Islam, Jizya
Jizya
article ^ Lewis 1984 p.18 ^ a b Lewis (2002) p. 57 ^ Mark R. Cohen (1995). Under Crescent and Cross: The Jews
Jews
in the Middle Ages. Princeton University Press. p. 74. ISBN 0-691-01082-X. Retrieved 2010-04-10.  ^ a b Lewis (1984), p. 27 ^ a b Esposito 1998, p. 34. "They replaced the conquered countries, indigenous rulers and armies, but preserved much of their government, bureaucracy, and culture. For many in the conquered territories, it was no more than an exchange of masters, one that brought peace to peoples demoralized and disaffected by the casualties and heavy taxation that resulted from the years of Byzantine-Persian warfare. Local communities were free to continue to follow their own way of life in internal, domestic affairs. In many ways, local populations found Muslim
Muslim
rule more flexible and tolerant than that of Byzantium and Persia. Religious communities were free to practice their faith to worship and be governed by their religious leaders and laws in such areas as marriage, divorce, and inheritance. In exchange, they were required to pay tribute, a poll tax (jizya) that entitled them to Muslim
Muslim
protection from outside aggression and exempted them from military service. Thus, they were called the "protected ones" (dhimmi). In effect, this often meant lower taxes, greater local autonomy, rule by fellow Semites with closer linguistic and cultural ties than the hellenized, Greco-Roman élites of Byzantium, and greater religious freedom for Jews
Jews
and indigenous Christians." ^ Bernard Lewis
Bernard Lewis
and Buntzie Ellis Churchill, Islam: The Religion and the People, Wharton School Publishing, 2008, p. 146. ^ a b c d e f Heather J. Sharkey (2012). Introducing World Christianity. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 10. ISBN 978-1-4443-4454-7.  ^ a b c Lewis (1984), p. 26 ^ a b Lewis (1984) pp. 49–51. ^ Marshall G.S. Hodgson (1977). The Venture of Islam: The classical age of Islam. University of Chicago
University of Chicago
Press. p. 448. ISBN 0226346838. Retrieved 2012-07-07.  ^ Lewis (1984) ^ Sherman A. Jackson (2005). Islam
Islam
and the Blackamerican: Looking Toward the Third Resurrection. Oxford University Press. p. 145. ISBN 0-19-518081-X. Retrieved 2010-04-10.  ^ Jackson, p. 144 ^ Hodgson, The Venture of Islam
Islam
Vol 1, 1958, pp. 227–229. ^ Lewis (1984), pp. 17–18; Stillman (1979), p. 27. ^ Courbage and Fargues (1995), pp. 44–46. ^ Courbage and Fargues (1995), pp. 57–58. ^ a b A ́goston, Ga ́bor; Alan Masters, Bruce (2010). Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. Infobase Publishing. pp. 185–6. ISBN 978-1-4381-1025-7. Retrieved 15 April 2016.  ^ Balakian, Peter (2003). The Burning Tigris: The Armenian Genocide and America's Response. New York: HarperCollins. pp. 25, 445. ISBN 0-06-019840-0.  ^ Akçam, Taner (2006). A Shameful Act: The Armenian Genocide and the Question of Turkish Responsibility. New York: Metropolitan Books. ISBN 0-8050-7932-7.  ^ "The Ornament of the World by María Rosa Menocal". Archived from the original on 2005-11-09.  ^ Lewis, Bernard W (1984). The Jews
Jews
of Islam ^ Ben-Sasson, Haim Hillel (1969). On Jewish History in the Middle Ages. Tel Aviv. p. 36.  Quoted in Mark R. Cohen's Under Crescent and Cross: The Jews
Jews
in the Middle Ages, Princeton University Press (1995), pp. xvii–xviii (Cohen's translation). ^ Cahen, Claude. "Dhimma". In P. J. Bearman; Th. Bianquis; C.E. Bosworth; E. van Donzel; W. P. Heinrichs; B. Lewis; Ch. Pellat; J. Schacht; J. Burton-Page; C. Dumont; V.L. Ménage. Encyclopaedia of Islam. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill Academic Publishers. pp. 227–231. ISBN 90-04-07026-5.  ^ a b Cohen, Mark (1995). Under Crescent and Cross: The Jews
Jews
in the Middle Ages. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01082-X.  ^ Mordechai Zaken, Jewish Subjects and their tribal chieftains in Kurdistan: A Study in Survival, Brill: Leiden and Boston, 2007. ^ Hodgson, The Venture of Islam
Islam
Vol 2, 1961, p. 275. ^ Hodgson, The Venture of Islam
Islam
Vol 2, 1961, p. 276. ^ Hodgson, The Venture of Islam
Islam
Vol 2, 1961, p. 278. ^ Hodgson, The Venture of Islam
Islam
Vol 2, 1961, p. 279. ^ Hodgson, The Venture of Islam
Islam
Vol 2, 1961, pp. 555–556. ^ MHodgson, The Venture of Islam
Islam
Vol 3, 1961, pp. 24–25. ^ Hodgson, The Venture of Islam
Islam
Vol 3, 1961, pp. 65–67. ^ Hodgson, The Venture of Islam
Islam
Vol 3, 1961, p. 60. ^ Khadduri, Majid (2010). War and Peace in the Law of Islam. pp. 196–198. ISBN 9781616190484.  ^ Karsh 29. ^ Sidney H. Griffith (2010). The Church in the Shadow of the Mosque: Christians and Muslims in the World of Islam. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691146284.  ^ Stillman (1979), p. 471 ^ Al-Tabari, Ta'rikh al-Rusul wa 'l-Muluk, translated in Stillman (1979), p. 167. ^ Lapidus, Ira M. (2014). A History of Islamic societes. Cambridge University Press. pp. 155–6.  ^ Lewis (1984), p. 16. ^ a b Lewis (1984), pp. 14–15. ^ Stillman (1979), p. 28 ^ Lewis (1984), p. 17–18; Stillman (1979), p. 18 ^ Klorman (2007), p. 94 ^ William Montgomery Watt, Islamic Political Thought: The Basic Concepts, p. 51. Quote: "The Christians were probably better off as dhimmis under Muslim- Arab
Arab
rulers than they had been under the Byzantine Greeks." ^ Lewis (1984), pp. 30–31. ^ Mirza, editor, Gerhard Bowering ; associate editors, Patricia Crone ... [et al.] ; assistant editor, Mahan (2013). The Princeton encyclopedia of Islamic political thought. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. p. 283. ISBN 0691134847. Free adult males who were not afflicted by any physical or mental illness were required to pay the jizya. Women, children, handicapped, the mentally ill, the elderly, and slaves were exempt, as were all travelers and foreigners who did not settle in Muslim
Muslim
lands. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Alshech, Eli (2003). "Islamic Law, Practice, and Legal Doctrine: Exempting the Poor from the Jizya
Jizya
under the Ayyubids (1171-1250)". Islamic Law and Society. 10 (3). ...jurists divided the dhimma community into two major groups. The first group consists of all adult, free, sane males among the dhimma community, while the second includes all other dhimmas (i.e., women, slaves, minors, and the insane). Jurists generally agree that members of the second group are to be granted a "blanket" exemption from jizya payment.  ^ a b Lewis (1984), p. 15. ^ "Djizya (i)", Encyclopaedia of Islam
Islam
Online ^ Weeramantry, Judge Christopher G. (1997). Justice Without Frontiers: Furthering Human Rights. Brill Publishers. p. 138. ISBN 90-411-0241-8.  ^ Sachedina, Abdulaziz Abdulhussein (2001). The Islamic Roots of Democratic Pluralism. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-513991-7.  ^ Mark R. Cohen (1995). Under Crescent and Cross: The Jews
Jews
in the Middle Ages. Princeton University Press. p. 74. ISBN 0-691-01082-X. Retrieved 2010-04-10.  ^ al-Qattan (1999) ^ Al-Mawardi (2000), p. 161; Friedmann (2003), p. 161; Lewis (1984), p. 27. ^ Quran 2:256 ^ a b c Lewis (1984) p. 13 ^ Quran 109:6 ^ Quran 2:62 ^ Sahih al-Bukhari, 9:83:49 ^ a b Tahir-ul-Qadri, Muhammad
Muhammad
(2011). Fatwa on Terrorism
Fatwa on Terrorism
and Suicide Bombings. London: Minhaj-ul-Quran. p. 99. ISBN 978-0-9551888-9-3.  ^ Ellethy, Yaser (2014). Islam, Context, Pluralism and Democracy: Classical and Modern Interpretations (Islamic Studies Series). Routledge. pp. 124–5. ISBN 1138800309.  ^ "Kingroot скачать на андроид - Скачать kingroot 5 0 6 rus на android - imtalk info". khilaafah.com.  ^ Majid Khadduri: War and Peace in the Law of Islam, p. 175 ^ al-Zuḥaylī, Wahbah (1998). ʾĀthar al-ḥarb fī l-fiqh al-Islāmī : dirāsah muqārinah. Damascus: Dār al-Fikr. p. 708. ISBN 1-57547-453-0.  Quote: «» Translation: ^ Lewis (1984), pp. 10–11 ^ Ahmed (1979), pp. 46–7. ^ Article 15, as quoted in Ahmed (1979), pp. 46–47. ^ Article 25, as quoted in Ahmed (1979), pp. 46–47. ^ Article 37, as quoted in Ahmed (1979), pp. 46–47. ^ Article 45, as quoted in Ahmed (1979), pp. 46–47. ^ Lewis (1984), pp. 24–25. ^ Marshall Hodgson, The Venture of Islam
Islam
Conscience and History in a World Civilization Vol 2. The University of Chicago, 1961, pp. 126–127. ^ Marshall Hodgson, The Venture of Islam
Islam
Conscience and History in a World Civilization Vol. 1. The University of Chicago, 1961, p. 302. ^ Wheatcroft (2003) p. 73. ^ Werner Ende; Udo Steinbach (2010). Islam
Islam
in the World Today. Cornell University Press. p. 738. ISBN 978-0801445712.  ^ Matthew Long (jizya entry author) (2012). The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought. Princeton University Press. pp. 283–284. ISBN 978-0691134840.  ^ "The Tribune, Chandigarh, India - World". www.tribuneindia.com.  ^ http://www.washingtontimes.com, The Washington Times. "Egypt's Muslim
Muslim
Brotherhood to Coptic Christians: Convert to Islam, or pay 'jizya' tax".  ^ "Two Christians Murdered in Egypt
Egypt
for Refusing to Pay Jizya
Jizya
to Muslims". www.aina.org.  ^ "Al-Qaeda Rebels in Syria Tell Christians to Pay Up or Die".  ^ Caris, Charlie. "The Islamic State Announces Caliphate". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 1 July 2014.  ^ "Iraqi Christians flee after Isis issue Mosul
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ultimatum". BBC. July 18, 2014. Archived from the original on July 24, 2014. Retrieved December 30, 2014. 

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Converting to Islam. Jewish Social Studies: History, Culture, Society. 14.  Cohen, Mark (1995). Under Crescent and Cross: The Jews
Jews
in the Middle Ages. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01082-X.  Courbage, Youssef; Fargues, Philippe (1995). Christians and Jews
Jews
under Islam. London: I.B. Tauris Publishers. ISBN 1-86064-285-3.  Friedmann, Yohanan (2003). Tolerance and Coercion in Islam: Interfaith Relations in the Muslim
Muslim
Tradition. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-82703-5.  Goddard, Hugh (2000). A History of Christian- Muslim
Muslim
Relations. Chicago: New Amsterdam Books. ISBN 1-56663-340-0.  Eraqi-Klorman, Bat-Zion; Reeva Spector Simon; Michael Menachem Laskier; et al., eds. (2003). The Jews
Jews
of the Middle East and North Africa in Modern Times. Columbia, NY: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-10796-X.  Karsh, Ephraim (2006). Islamic Imperialism: A History. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-10603-3.  Lapidus, Ira M. (2002). A History of Islamic Societies (2nd Edition). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-77933-2.  Lewis, Bernard (2002). The Arabs in History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280310-7.  Lewis, Bernard (1984). The Jews
Jews
of Islam. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-00807-8.  Esposito, John L. (1998). Islam: The Straight Path. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-511233-4.  Littman, David
David
(1979). " Jews
Jews
Under Muslim
Muslim
Rule: The Case Of Persia". The Wiener Library Bulletin. XXXII (New series 49/50).  Al-Mawardi (2000). The Ordnances of Government (Al-Ahkam al-Sultaniyya w'al-Wilayat al-Diniyya). Lebanon: Garnet Publishing. ISBN 1-85964-140-7.  Parfitt, Tudor (2000). Israel and Ishmael : Studies in Muslim-Jewish Relations. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-22228-9.  Power, Samantha (2002). A Problem from Hell: America and the Age of Genocide. New York: Harper Perennial. ISBN 0-06-054164-4.  al-Qattan, Najwa (1999). "Dhimmis in the Muslim
Muslim
Court: Legal Autonomy and Religious Discrimination". International Journal of Middle East Studies. University of Cambridge. 31 (3): 429–444. doi:10.1017/S0020743800055501. ISSN 0020-7438.  H.R.H. Prince, Ghazi Muhammad; Ibrahim, Kalin; Mohammad Hashim, Kamali (2013). War and Peace in Islam: The Uses and Abuses of Jihad
Jihad
(PDF). The Islamic Texts Society Cambridge. ISBN 978-1-903682-83-8.  Stillman, Norman (1979). The Jews
Jews
of Arab
Arab
Lands: A History and Source Book. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America. ISBN 1-82760-198-1.  Tritton, Arthur S. (1930). The Caliphs and their non- Muslim
Muslim
Subjects: a Critical Study of the Covenant of Umar. London: Humphrey Milford/Oxford University Press.  Viré, F. "Kird". In P.J. Bearman; Th. Bianquis; C.E. Bosworth; E. van Donzel; W.P. Heinrichs. Encyclopaedia of Islam
Islam
Online. Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 1573-3912.  Waines, David
David
(2003). An Introduction to Islam. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-53906-4.  Wehr, Hans (1976). J. Milton Cowan, ed., eds. A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic. Ithaca, New York: Spoken Language Services, Inc. ISBN 0-87950-001-8. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) Wheatcroft, Andrew (2003). Infidels: A History of the Conflict between Christendom and Islam. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-025738-1. 

Further reading[edit]

Nabil Luka Babawi: Les droits et les devoirs des chrétiens dans l'état islamique et leurs conséquences sur la sécurité nationale, thèse de doctorat. Binswanger, Karl (1977). "Untersuchungen zum Status der Nichtmuslime im Osmanischen Reich des 16. Jahrhunderts". Diss. phil. (in German). München. ISBN 3-87828-108-0.  Choksy, Jamsheed (1997). Conflict and Cooperation: Zoroastrian Subalterns and Muslim
Muslim
Elites in Medieval Iranian Society. New York.  Mark. R. Cohen: Under Crescent and Cross: The Jews
Jews
in the Middle Ages. Princeton University Press, 1994. Fattal, Antoine (1958). Le statut légal des non-musulmans en pays d' Islam
Islam
(in French). Beirut.  Maribel Fierro and John Tolan, eds, The legal status of ḏimmī-s in the Islamic West (second/eighth-ninth/fifteenth centuries) (Turnhoult, 2013). Friedmann, Yohanan (1998). "Classification of Unbelievers in Sunnī Muslim
Muslim
Law and Tradition". Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam (22).  Goitein, S. D. (1967–71). The Mediterranean Society: The Jewish Communities of the Arab
Arab
World as Portrayed in the Documents of the Cairo Geniza (4 vols.). Berkeley and Los Angeles.  Gilbert, Martin (2010). In Ishmael's house: a History of Jews
Jews
in Muslim
Muslim
Lands. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0300167153.  Nicola Melis, "Il concetto di ğihād", in P. Manduchi (a cura di), Dalla penna al mouse. Gli strumenti di diffusione del concetto di ğihād, Angeli, Milano 2006, pp. 23–54. Nicola Melis, "Lo statuto giuridico degli ebrei dell'Impero Ottomano", in M. Contu – N. Melis – G. Pinna (a cura di), Ebraismo e rapporti con le culture del Mediterraneo nei secoli XVIII–XX, Giuntina, Firenze 2003. Nicola Melis, Trattato sulla guerra. Il Kitāb al-ğihād di Molla Hüsrev, Aipsa, Cagliari 2002. Mohammad Amin Al-Midani: "La question des minorités et le statut des non-musulmans en Islam." In: La religion est-elle un obstacle à l'application des droits de l'homme?. colloque tenu les 10–11 décembre 2004 à Lyon. M. Levy-Rubin: "Shurut ' Umar
Umar
and its alternatives: the legal debate on the status of the dhimmis." In: Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam. 30/2005 Pessah Shinar: "Some remarks regarding the colours of male Jewish dress in North Africa and their Arabic-Islamic context." In: Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam. 24/2000, pp. 380–395

External links[edit]

Islamic and Christian
Christian
Spain in the early Middle Ages. Thomas F. Glick: Chapter 5: Ethnic relations Islam
Islam
and its tolerance level Islamic Teaching On Dhimmi Status Creates An Atmosphere Of Intolerance from the Religious Freedom Packet of the Order of Saint Andrew the Apostle Bernard Lewis, Race and Slavery in the Middle East Jihad, the Arab
Arab
Conquests and the Position of Non- Muslim
Muslim
Subjects

v t e

People and things in the Quran

Characters

Non-humans

Allâh ("The God")

Names of Allah
Allah
found in the Quran

Beings in Paradise

Ghilmān or Wildān Ḥūr

Animals

Related

The baqarah (cow) of Israelites The dhi’b (wolf) that Jacob
Jacob
feared could attack Joseph The fīl (elephant) of the Abyssinians) Ḥimār (Domesticated donkey) The hud-hud (hoopoe) of Solomon The kalb (dog) of the sleepers of the cave The nāqaṫ (she-camel) of Saleh The nūn (fish or whale) of Jonah

Non-related

Ḥimār (Wild ass) Qaswarah
Qaswarah
('Lion', 'Beast of prey' or 'Hunter')

Jinns

‘Ifrîṫ ("Strong one") Mârid ("Rebellious one")

Iblīs the Shayṭān (Devil)

Qarīn

Prophets

Mentioned

Ādam (Adam) Al-Yasa‘ (Elisha) Ayyūb (Job) Dāwūd (David) Dhūl-Kifl (Ezekiel?) Hārūn (Aaron) Hūd (Eber?) Idrīs (Enoch?) Ilyās (Elijah) ‘Imrān (Joachim the father of Maryam) Is-ḥāq (Isaac) Ismā‘īl (Ishmael)

Dhabih Ullah

Isma'il Ṣādiq al-Wa‘d (Fulfiller of the Promise) Lūṭ (Lot) Ṣāliḥ Shu‘ayb (Jethro, Reuel or Hobab?) Sulaymān ibn Dāwūd ( Solomon
Solomon
son of David) ‘ Uzair
Uzair
(Ezra?) Yaḥyā ibn Zakariyyā ( John the Baptist
John the Baptist
the son of Zechariah) Ya‘qūb (Jacob)

Isrâ’îl (Israel)

Yūnus (Jonah)

Dhūn-Nūn ("He of the Fish
Fish
(or Whale)" or "Owner of the Fish
Fish
(or Whale)") Ṣāḥib al-Ḥūṫ ("Companion of the Whale")

Yūsuf ibn Ya‘qūb ( Joseph
Joseph
son of Jacob) Zakariyyā (Zechariah)

Ulu-l-‘Azm

Muḥammad

Aḥmad Other names and titles of Muhammad

ʿĪsā (Jesus)

Al-Masīḥ (The Messiah) Ibn Maryam (Son of Mary)

Mūsā Kalīmullāh ( Moses
Moses
He who spoke to God) Ibrāhīm Khalīlullāh ( Abraham
Abraham
Friend of God) Nūḥ (Noah)

Debatable ones

Dhūl-Qarnain (Cyrus the Great?) Luqmân Maryam (Mary) Ṭâlûṫ (Saul or Gideon?)

Implied

Irmiyā (Jeremiah) Ṣamû’îl (Samuel) Yūsha‘ ibn Nūn (Joshua, companion and successor of Moses)

People of Prophets

Evil ones

Āzar (possibly Terah) Fir‘awn ( Pharaoh
Pharaoh
of Moses' time) Hāmān Jâlûṫ (Goliath) Qārūn (Korah, cousin of Moses) As-Sāmirī Abî Lahab Slayers of Saleh's she-camel (Qaddar ibn Salif and Musda' ibn Dahr)

Good ones

Adam's immediate relatives

Martyred son Wife

Believer of Ya-Sin Family of Noah

Father Lamech Mother Shamkhah bint Anush or Betenos

Luqman's son People of Aaron and Moses

Believer of Fir'aun Family (Hizbil/Hizqil ibn Sabura) Imra’aṫ Fir‘awn (Âsiyá bint Muzâḥim or Bithiah) Khidr Magicians of the Pharaoh Moses' wife Moses' sister-in-law Mother Sister

People of Abraham

Mother Abiona or Amtelai the daughter of Karnebo Ishmael's mother Isaac's mother

People of Jesus

Disciples (including Peter) Mary's mother Zechariah's wife

People of Joseph

Brothers (including Binyāmin (Benjamin) and Simeon) Egyptians

‘Azîz (Potiphar, Qatafir or Qittin) Malik (King Ar-Rayyân ibn Al-Walîd)) Wife of ‘Azîz (Zulaykhah)

Mother

People of Solomon

Mother Queen of Sheba Vizier

Zayd

Implied or not specified

Abrahah Bal'am/Balaam Barsisa Caleb or Kaleb the companion of Joshua Luqman's son Nebuchadnezzar II Nimrod Rahmah the wife of Ayyub Shaddad

Groups

Mentioned

Aş-ḥāb al-Jannah

People of Paradise People of the Burnt Garden

Aş-ḥāb as-Sabṫ (Companions of the Sabbath) Christian
Christian
apostles

Ḥawāriyyūn (Disciples of Jesus)

Companions of Noah's Ark Aş-ḥāb al-Kahf war-Raqīm (Companions of the Cave and Al-Raqaim? Companions of the Elephant People of al-Ukhdūd People of a township in Surah Ya-Sin People of Yathrib or Medina Qawm Lûṭ (People of Sodom and Gomorrah) Nation of Noah

Tribes, ethnicities or families

A‘rāb (Arabs or Bedouins)

ʿĀd (people of Hud) Companions of the Rass Qawm Ṫubba‘ (People of Tubba')

People of Saba’ or Sheba

Quraysh Thamûd (people of Saleh)

Aṣ-ḥâb al-Ḥijr ("Companions of the Stoneland")

Ajam Ar- Rûm (literally "The Romans") Banî Isrâ’îl (Children of Israel) Mu’ṫafikāṫ (The overthrown cities of Sodom and Gomorrah) People of Ibrahim People of Ilyas People of Nuh People of Shuaib

Ahl Madyan People of Madyan) Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
("Companions of the Wood")

Qawm Yûnus (People of Jonah) Ya'juj and Ma'juj/Gog and Magog Ahl al-Bayṫ ("People of the Household")

Household of Abraham

Brothers of Yūsuf Daughters of Abraham's nephew Lot (Ritha, Za'ura, et al.) Progeny of Imran Household of Moses Household of Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib ibn Hashim

Daughters of Muhammad Wives of Muhammad

Household of Salih

People of Fir'aun Current Ummah
Ummah
of Islam
Islam
( Ummah
Ummah
of Muhammad)

Aṣ-ḥāb Muḥammad (Companions of Muhammad)

Muhajirun (Emigrants) Anṣār Muslims of Medina
Medina
who helped Muhammad
Muhammad
and his Meccan followers, literally 'Helpers')

People of Mecca

Umm Jamil (wife of Abu Lahab)

Children of Ayyub Dead son of Sulaiman Qabil/Cain (son of Adam) Wali'ah or Wa'ilah/Waala (wife of Nuh) Walihah or Wahilah (wife of Lut) Ya’jūj wa Ma’jūj (Gog and Magog) Yam or Kan'an (son of Nuh)

Implicitly mentioned

Amalek Ahl al-Suffa (People of the Verandah) Banu Nadir Banu Qaynuqa Banu Qurayza Iranian people Umayyad Dynasty Aus & Khazraj People of Quba

Religious groups

Ahl al-dhimmah (Dhimmi) Kâfirûn (Infidels) Zoroastrians Munāfiqūn (Hypocrites) Muslims People of the Book (Ahl al-Kiṫāb)

Naṣārā (Christian(s) or People of the Injil)

Ruhban ( Christian
Christian
monks) Qissis ( Christian
Christian
priest)

Yahūd (Jews)

Ahbār (Jewish scholars) Rabbani/Rabbi

Sabians

Polytheists

Meccan polytheists at the time of Muhammad Mesopotamian polytheists at the time of Abraham
Abraham
and Lot

Locations

Mentioned

Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
("The Land The Blessed")

Al-Arḍ Al-Muqaddasah ("The Land The Holy")

In the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
(excluding Madyan)

Al-Aḥqāf ("The Sandy Plains," or "the Wind-curved Sand-hills")

Iram dhāṫ al-‘Imād (Iram of the Pillars)

Al-Madīnah (formerly Yathrib) ‘Arafāṫ Al-Ḥijr (Hegra) Badr Ḥunayn Makkah (Mecca)

Bakkah Ka‘bah (Kaaba) Maqām Ibrāhīm (Station of Abraham) Safa and Marwah

Saba’ (Sheba)

‘Arim Saba’ (Dam of Sheba)

Rass

Jahannam
Jahannam
(Hell) Jannah
Jannah
(Paradise, literally 'Garden') In Mesopotamia:

Al-Jūdiyy

Munzalanm-Mubārakan ("Place-of-Landing Blessed")

Bābil (Babylon) Qaryaṫ Yūnus ("Township of Jonah," that is Nineveh)

Door of Hittah Madyan (Midian) Majma' al-Bahrain Miṣr (Mainland Egypt) Salsabîl (A river in Paradise) Sinai Region or Tīh Desert

Al-Wād Al-Muqaddas Ṭuwan (The Holy Valley of Tuwa)

Al-Wādil-Ayman (The valley on the 'righthand' side of the Valley of Tuwa and Mount Sinai)

Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
or Mount Tabor

Implied

Antioch

Antakya

Arabia Ayla Barrier of Dhul-Qarnayn Bayt al-Muqaddas
Bayt al-Muqaddas
& 'Ariha Bilād ar-Rāfidayn (Mesopotamia) Canaan Cave of Seven Sleepers Dār al-Nadwa Al-Ḥijāz (literally "The Barrier")

Black Stone
Black Stone
(Al-Ḥajar al-Aswad) & Al-Hijr of Isma'il Cave of Hira
Hira
& Ghar al-Thawr (Cave of the Bull) Ta'if

Hudaybiyyah Jordan River Nile
Nile
River Palestine River Paradise
Paradise
of Shaddad

Religious locations

Bay'a (Church) Mihrab Monastery Masjid (Mosque, literally "Place of Prostration")

Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
("The Monument the Sacred") Al-Masjid Al-Aqṣā (Al-Aqsa Mosque, literally "The Place-of-Prostration The Farthest") Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque
Mosque
of Mecca) Masjid al-Dirar A Mosque
Mosque
in the area of Medina, possibly:

Masjid Qubâ’ (Quba Mosque) The Prophet's Mosque

Salat (Synagogue)

Plant
Plant
matter

Fruits

Ḥabb dhul-‘aṣf (Corn of the husk) Rummān (Pomegranate) Ṫīn (Fig) Ukul khamṭ (Bitter fruit or food of Sheba) Zayṫūn (Olive) In Paradise

Forbidden fruit of Adam

Bushes, trees or plants

Plants of Sheba

Athl (Tamarisk) Sidr (lote-tree)

Līnah (Tender palm tree) Nakhl (date palm) Rayḥān (Scented plant) Sidraṫ al-Munṫahā Zaqqūm

Texts

Al-Injîl (The Gospel
Gospel
of Jesus) Al-Qur’ân (The Book of Muhammad) Ṣuḥuf-i Ibrâhîm (Scroll(s) of Abraham) Aṫ-Ṫawrâṫ (The Torah)

Ṣuḥuf-i-Mûsâ (Scroll(s) of Moses) Tablets of Stone

Az-Zabûr (The Psalms
Psalms
of David) Umm al-Kiṫâb ("Mother of the Book(s)")

Objects of people or beings

Heavenly Food of Christian
Christian
Apostles Noah's Ark Staff of Musa Ṫābūṫ as-Sakīnah (Casket of Shekhinah) Throne of Bilqis Trumpet of Israfil

Mentioned idols (cult images)

'Ansāb Idols of Israelites:

Baal The ‘ijl (golden calf statue) of Israelites

Idols of Noah's people:

Nasr Suwā‘ Wadd Yaghūth Ya‘ūq

Idols of Quraysh:

Al-Lāṫ Al-‘Uzzá Manāṫ

Jibṫ and Ṭâghûṫ

Celestial bodies

Maṣābīḥ (literally 'lamps'):

Al-Qamar (The Moon) Kawâkib (Planets)

Al-Arḍ (The Earth)

Nujūm (Stars)

Ash-Shams (The Sun)

Liquids

Mā’ ( Water
Water
or fluid)

Nahr (River) Yamm ( River
River
or sea)

Sharâb (Drink)

Events

Battle of al-Aḥzāb ("the Confederates") Battle of Badr Battle of Hunayn Battle of Khaybar Battle of Tabouk Battle of Uhud Conquest of Mecca Incident of Ifk Laylat al-Mabit Mubahala Sayl al-‘Arim
Sayl al-‘Arim
(Flood of the Great Dam of Marib
Marib
in Sheba) The Farewell Pilgrimage
The Farewell Pilgrimage
(Hujja al-Wada') Treaty of Hudaybiyyah Umrah
Umrah
al-Qaza Yawm al-Dār

Implied

Event of Ghadir Khumm

Note: The names are sorted alphabetically. Standard form: Islamic name / Biblical name (title or relationship)

v t e

Islam
Islam
topics

Outline of Islam

Beliefs

God
God
in Islam Tawhid Muhammad

In Islam

Prophets of Islam Angels Revelation Predestination Judgement Day

Five Pillars

Shahada Salah Sawm Zakat Hajj

History Leaders

Timeline of Muslim
Muslim
history Conquests Golden Age Historiography Sahaba Ahl al-Bayt Shi'a Imams Caliphates

Rashidun Umayyad Abbasid Córdoba Fatimid Almohad Sokoto Ottoman

Religious texts

Quran Sunnah Hadith Tafsir Seerah

Denominations

Sunni Shia Ibadi Black Muslims Ahmadiyya Quranism Non-denominational

Life Culture

Animals Art Calendar Children Clothing Holidays Mosques Madrasas Moral teachings Music Philosophy Political aspects Qurbani Science

medieval

Social welfare Women LGBT Islam
Islam
by country

Law Jurisprudence

Economics

Banking Economic history Sukuk Takaful Murabaha Riba

Hygiene

Ghusl Miswak Najis Tayammum Toilet Wudu

Marriage Sex

Marriage contract Mahr Mahram Masturbation Nikah Nikah Mut‘ah Zina

Other aspects

Cleanliness Criminal Dhabiĥa Dhimmi Divorce Diet Ethics Etiquette Gambling Gender segregation Honorifics Hudud Inheritance Jizya Leadership Ma malakat aymanukum Military

POWs

Slavery Sources of law Theological

baligh kalam

 Islamic studies

Arts

Arabesque Architecture Calligraphy Carpets Gardens Geometric patterns Music Pottery

Medieval science

Alchemy and chemistry Astronomy Cosmology Geography and cartography Mathematics Medicine Ophthalmology Physics

Philosophy

Early Contemporary Eschatology Theological

Other areas

Astrology Creationism (evolution) Feminism Inventions Liberalism and progressivism Literature

poetry

Psychology Shu'ubiyya Conversion to mosques

Other religions

Christianity

Mormonism Protestantism

Hinduism Jainism Judaism Sikhism

Related topics

Apostasy Criticism of Islam Cultural Muslim Islamism

Criticism Post-Islamism Qutbism Salafi movement

Islamophobia

Incidents

Islamic terrorism Islamic view of miracles Domestic violence Nursing Persecution of Muslims Quran
Quran
and miracles Symbolism

Islam
Islam
portal Category

Authority control

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