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Devī (Sanskrit: देवी) is the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word for "goddess"; the masculine form is Deva. Devi
Devi
– the feminine form, and Deva – the masculine form, mean "heavenly, divine, anything of excellence", and are also gender specific terms for a deity in Hinduism. The concept and reverence for goddesses appears in the Vedas, which were composed in the 2nd millennium BC; however, they do not play a central role in that era.[1] Goddesses such as Saraswati
Saraswati
and Usha have continued to be revered into the modern era.[1] The medieval era Puranas
Puranas
witnessed a major expansion in mythology and literature associated with Devi, with texts such as the Devi
Devi
Mahatmya, wherein she manifests as the ultimate truth and supreme power, and she has inspired the Shaktism
Shaktism
tradition of Hinduism.[2] The divine feminine has the strongest presence as Devi
Devi
in Hinduism, among major world religions, from the ancient times to the present.[3] The goddess is viewed as central in Shakti
Shakti
and Saiva Hindu traditions.[1][4]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History 3 Examples

3.1 Parvati 3.2 Lakshmi 3.3 Saraswati 3.4 Durga
Durga
and Kali 3.5 Tridevi 3.6 Sita 3.7 Radha 3.8 Mahadevi 3.9 Tantra
Tantra
and Devis

3.9.1 Matrikas

4 See also 5 References

5.1 Bibliography

6 External links

Etymology[edit]

Part of a series on

Shaktism

Deities

Adishakti (Supreme)

Shakti Shiva Devi Parvati Durga Matrika Mahavidya Lalita Navadurga Yoginis Kali Lakshmi Saraswati More

Scriptures and texts

Tantras Vedas Upanishads Shakta Upanishads Devi
Devi
Bhagavatam Devi
Devi
Mahatmyam Devi
Devi
Upanishad Lalita Sahasranamam Soundarya Lahari Abhirami Anthadhi

Philosophy and practices

Maya Yoga Tantra Panchamakara Kundalini Yantra

Schools

Vidya margam

Vamachara Dakshinachara

Kula margam

Srikulam Kalikulam Trika Kubjika

Scholars

Bhaskararaya Ramprasad Sen Ramakrishna Abhirami Bhattar

Festivals and temples

Navaratri Durga
Durga
Puja Lakshmi
Lakshmi
Puja Kali
Kali
Puja Saraswati
Saraswati
Puja Teej Shakti
Shakti
Peetha

Hinduism
Hinduism
portal

v t e

Devi
Devi
and Deva are Sanskrit
Sanskrit
terms found in Vedic literature of the 2nd millennium BC. Deva is masculine, and the related feminine equivalent is devi.[5] Monier Williams translates it as "heavenly, divine, terrestrial things of high excellence, exalted, shining ones".[6][7] Etymologically, the cognates of Devi
Devi
are Latin dea and Greek thea.[8] When capitalized, Devi
Devi
or Mata refers to goddess as divine mother in Hinduism.[9] Deva is also referred to as Devatā,[7] while Devi
Devi
as Devika.[6] According to Douglas Harper, the etymological root Dev- means "a shining one," from *div- "to shine," and it is a cognate with Greek dios "divine" and Zeus, and Latin deus (Old Latin deivos).[10] History[edit] See also: God and gender in Hinduism The Devi
Devi
Sukta of the Rigveda
Rigveda
10.125.1 through 10.125.8, is among the most studied hymns declaring that the ultimate reality is a goddess,[11][12]

I have created all worlds at my will without being urged by any higher Being, and dwell within them. I permeate the earth and heaven, and all created entities with my greatness and dwell in them as eternal and infinite consciousness.

—  Devi
Devi
Sukta, Rigveda
Rigveda
10.125.8, Translated by June McDaniel[11][12][13]

The Vedas
Vedas
includes numerous goddesses including Ushas
Ushas
(dawn), Prithvi (earth), Aditi
Aditi
(cosmic moral order), Saraswati
Saraswati
(river, knowledge), Vāc (sound), Nirṛti (destruction), Ratri
Ratri
(night), Aranyani (forest), and bounty goddesses such as Dinsana, Raka, Puramdhi, Parendi, Bharati, Mahi among others are mentioned in the Rigveda.[1]:6–17, 55–64 However, the goddesses are not discussed as frequently as gods (Devas).[1] Sri, also called Lakshmi, appears in late Vedic texts dated to be pre-Buddhist, but verses dedicated to her do not suggest that her characteristics were fully developed in the Vedic era.[1]:18–19 All gods and goddesses are distinguished in the Vedic times,[1]:18 but in the post-Vedic texts, particularly in the early medieval era literature, they are ultimately seen as aspects or manifestations of one Devi, the Supreme power.[14] Devi
Devi
is the supreme being in the Shakta tradition of Hinduism, while in the Smarta Tradition, she is one of the five primary forms of Brahman
Brahman
revered.[15][16] In other Hindu
Hindu
traditions, Devi
Devi
embodies the active energy and power of Deva, and they always appear together complementing each other, such as Lakshmi
Lakshmi
with Vishnu
Vishnu
in Vaishnavism and Parvati
Parvati
with Shiva
Shiva
in Shaivism.[17][18] The Devi-inspired philosophy is propounded in many Hindu
Hindu
texts, such as the Devi
Devi
Upanishad, which states that Shakti
Shakti
is essentially Brahman (ultimate metaphysical Reality), from her arise Prakṛti
Prakṛti
(matter) and Purusha (consciousness), she is bliss and non-bliss, the Vedas
Vedas
and what is different from it, the born and the unborn, and all of the universe.[19] She is also mentioned as creative power of Shiva
Shiva
in Tripura Upanishad, Bahvricha Upanishad, and Guhyakali Upanishad.[11] Devi
Devi
identifies herself in the Devi Upanishad
Devi Upanishad
as brahman in her reply to the gods stating that she rules the world, blesses devotees with riches, she is the supreme deity to whom all worship is to be offered, and that she infuses Ātman in every soul.[19] Devi
Devi
asserts that she is creator of earth and heaven and resides there.[11] Her creation of sky as father, seas as mother is reflected as the "Inner Supreme Self".[11] Her creations are not prompted by any Higher being and she resides in all her creations. She is, states Devi, the eternal and infinite consciousness engulfing earth and heaven, and "all forms of bliss and non-bliss, knowledge and ignorance, Brahman
Brahman
and Non-Brahman". The tantric aspect in Devi
Devi
Upanishad, states June McDaniel is the usage of the terms yantra, bindu, bija, mantra, shakti and chakra.[11] Among the major world religions, the concept of goddess in Hinduism
Hinduism
as the divine feminine, has had the strongest presence since the ancient times.[3] Examples[edit] Parvati[edit] Main article: Parvati

12th-century Parvati
Parvati
sculpture

Parvati
Parvati
is the Hindu
Hindu
goddess of love, fertility and devotion.[20][21][22] She is the gentle and nurturing aspect of the Hindu
Hindu
goddess. She is the mother goddess in Hinduism
Hinduism
and has many attributes and aspects. Each of her aspects is expressed with a different name, giving her over 100 names in regional Hindu mythologies of India, including the popular name Uma.[23] Along with Lakshmi
Lakshmi
(goddess of wealth and prosperity) and Saraswati
Saraswati
(goddess of knowledge and learning), she forms the trinity of Hindu
Hindu
goddesses.[24] Parvati
Parvati
is the wife of Shiva
Shiva
- the destroyer, recycler and regenerator of universe and all life.[25] She is the mother of Hindu
Hindu
gods Ganesha and Karttikeya.[26] Rita Gross states,[27] that the view of Parvati
Parvati
only as ideal wife and mother is incomplete symbolism of the power of the feminine in mythology of India. Parvati, along with other goddesses, are involved with the broad range of culturally valued goals and activities.[27] Her connection with motherhood and female sexuality does not confine the feminine or exhaust their significance and activities in Hindu literature. She is balanced by Durga, who is strong and capable without compromising her femaleness. She manifests in every activity, from water to mountains, from arts to inspiring warriors, from agriculture to dance. Parvati's numerous aspects, states Gross, reflects the Hindu
Hindu
belief that the feminine has universal range of activities, and her gender is not a limiting condition.[1][27] In Hindu
Hindu
belief, Parvati
Parvati
is the recreative energy and power of Shiva, and she is the cause of a bond that connects all beings and a means of their spiritual release.[28][29] A common symbolism for her and her husband Siva is in the form of yoni and linga respectively. In ancient literature, yoni means womb and place of gestation, the yoni-linga metaphor represents "origin, source or regenerative power".[30] The linga-yoni icon is widespread, found in Shaivite Hindu
Hindu
temples of South Asia
South Asia
and Southeast Asia. Often called Shivalinga, it almost always has both linga and the yoni.[27] Devi
Devi
is portrayed as the ideal wife, mother and householder in Indian legends.[31] In Indian art, this vision of ideal couple is derived from Shiva
Shiva
and Parvati
Parvati
as being half of the other, represented as Ardhanarisvara.[32][33][34] Parvati
Parvati
is found extensively in ancient Indian literature, and her statues and iconography grace ancient and medieval era Hindu
Hindu
temples all over South Asia
South Asia
and Southeast Asia.[35][36] Lakshmi[edit] Main article: Lakshmi

Lakshmi

Lakshmi, also called Sri, is the Hindu
Hindu
goddess of wealth, fortune, and prosperity (both material and spiritual). She is the consort and active energy of Vishnu.[37] Her four hands represent the four goals of human life considered important to the Hindu
Hindu
way of life – dharma, kāma, artha, and moksha.[38][39] In the ancient scriptures of India, all women are declared to be embodiments of Lakshmi.[38] The marriage and relationship between Lakshmi
Lakshmi
and Vishnu
Vishnu
as wife and husband, states Patricia Monaghan, is "the paradigm for rituals and ceremonies for the bride and groom in Hindu
Hindu
weddings."[40] Archaeological discoveries and ancient coins suggest the recognition and reverence for goddess Lakshmi
Lakshmi
in the Scytho-Parthian kingdom and throughout India by the 1st millennium BC.[41] She is also revered in other non- Hindu
Hindu
cultures of Asia, such as in Tibet.[42] Lakshmi's iconography and statues have also been found in Hindu
Hindu
temples throughout southeast Asia, estimated to be from second half of 1st millennium AD.[43][44] In modern times, Lakshmi
Lakshmi
is worshipped as the goddess of wealth. The festivals of Diwali
Diwali
and Sharad Purnima (Kojagiri Purnima) are celebrated in her honor.[45] Saraswati[edit] Main article: Saraswati

Image of goddess Saraswati

Saraswati, is the Hindu
Hindu
goddess of knowledge, music, arts, wisdom and learning.[46] She is the consort of Brahma.[47] The earliest known mention of Saraswati
Saraswati
as a goddess is in Rigveda. She has remained significant as a goddess from the Vedic age through modern times of Hindu
Hindu
traditions.[46] Some Hindus celebrate the festival of Vasant Panchami
Vasant Panchami
(the fifth day of spring) in her honour,[48] and mark the day by helping young children learn how to write alphabets on that day.[49] Saraswati
Saraswati
is often depicted dressed in pure white, often seated on a white lotus.[50] She not only embodies knowledge but also the experience of the highest reality. Her iconography is typically in white themes from dress to flowers to swan – the colour symbolizing Sattwa Guna or purity, discrimination for true knowledge, insight and wisdom.[46][51] She is generally shown to have four arms, but sometimes just two. The four hands hold items with symbolic meaning — a pustaka (book or script), a mala (rosary, garland), a water pot and a musical instrument (lute or vina).[46] The book she holds symbolizes the Vedas representing the universal, divine, eternal, and true knowledge as well as all forms of learning. A mālā of crystals, representing the power of meditation, a pot of water represents powers to purify the right from wrong.[46] The musical instrument, typically a veena, represents all creative arts and sciences,[52] and her holding it symbolizes expressing knowledge that creates harmony.[46][52] The Saraswatirahasya Upanishad
Upanishad
of the Yajurveda
Yajurveda
contain ten verses called "dasa sloki" which are in praise of Sarasvati.[53] In this Upanishad, she is extolled as

You are the swan gliding over the pond of creative energy, waves and waves of creative forces emanating from your form! Radiant Goddess resplendant in white, dwell forver in the Kashmir of my heart.[54]

Saraswati
Saraswati
is also found outside India, such as in Japan, Vietnam, Bali (Indonesia) and Myanmar.[1]:95[55] Durga
Durga
and Kali[edit] Main articles: Durga
Durga
and Kali

Durga
Durga
(left) killing the demon Mahishasura. In her most ferocious form, Durga
Durga
metamorphoses into Kali
Kali
(right).

Vedic literature does not have any particular goddess matching the concept of Durga. Her legends appear in the medieval era, as angry, ferocious aspects of mother goddess Parvati
Parvati
take the avatar as Durga or Kali.[1]:45–48 She manifests as a goddess with eight or ten arms holding weapons and skulls of demons, and is astride on a tiger or lion.[56][57] In Skanda Purana, Parvati
Parvati
assumes the form of a warrior-goddess and defeats a demon called Durg who assumes the form of a buffalo. In this aspect, she is known by the name Durga.[1]:96–97 In later Hindu
Hindu
literature, states Jansen, she is attributed the role of the "energy, power (shakti) of the Impersonal Absolute".[58] In the Shaktism
Shaktism
traditions of Hinduism, found particularly in eastern states of India, Durga
Durga
is a popular goddess. In medieval era composed texts such as the Puranas, she emerges as a prominent goddess in the context of crisis, when evil asuras were on the ascent. The male gods were unable to contain and subdue the forces of evil, led by Mahishasura. The warrior goddess, Durga
Durga
as the unified form of all gods appears, she kills the Mahishasura, she is thereafter invincible and revered as "preserver of Dharma, destroyer of evil".[58] Durga's emergence and mythology is described in the Puranas, particularly the Devi
Devi
Mahatmya. The text describes Kālī's emerging out of Durga
Durga
when becomes extremely angry. Durga's face turns pitch dark, and suddenly Kali
Kali
springs forth from Durga's forehead. She is black, wears a garland of human heads, is clothed in a tiger skin, rides a tiger, and wields a staff topped by a human skull. She destroys the asuras. Literature on goddess Kali
Kali
recounts several such appearances, mostly in her terrifying but protective aspects. Kali appears as an independent deity, or like Durga, viewed as the wife of Shiva.[58] In this aspect, she represents the omnipotent Shakti
Shakti
of Shiva. She holds both the creative and destructive power of time.[citation needed] Kali, also called Kalaratri, is called in Yoga Vasistha as Prakṛti
Prakṛti
or "all of nature". She is described in the text, state Shimkhanda and Herman, as the "one great body of cosmos", and same as Devis "Durga, Jaya and Siddha, Virya, Gayatri, Saraswati, Uma, Savitri".[59] She is the power that supports the earth, with all its seas, islands, forests, deserts and mountains, asserts Yoga Vasistha.[59] She is not to be confused with the Kali
Kali
yuga, which is spelled similarly yet holds a different meaning. The Kali
Kali
yuga is presented as a threat to Mother India, pictures from the nineteenth century depicting the age as a "ferocious meat-eating demon" in comparison to India's depiction of "a cow giving milk to her children". [60] The largest annual festival associated with the goddess is Durga
Durga
Puja celebrated in the month of Ashvin (September–October), where nine manifestations of Durga
Durga
(Navadurga) are worshipped, each on a day over nine days.[58] These are: Shailaputri, Brahmacharini, Chandraghanta, Skandamata, Katyayani, Kaalratri, Mahagauri
Mahagauri
and Siddhidaatri. Tridevi[edit] Main article: Tridevi In the feminist Shaktidharma denomination of Hinduism, the supreme deity Mahadevi
Mahadevi
manifests as the goddess Mahasaraswati
Mahasaraswati
in order to create, as the goddess Mahalaxmi
Mahalaxmi
in order to preserve, and as the goddess Mahakali
Mahakali
in order to destroy. These three forms of the supreme goddess Mahadevi
Mahadevi
are collectively called the Tridevi. Sita[edit]

Sita

Main article: Sita Sita, an incarnation of Lakshmi, is the wife of Rama, an avatar of Vishnu. She is shakti or prakriti of Rama
Rama
as told in the Ram Raksha Stotram. In Sita
Sita
Upanishad, a shakta Upanishad, Sita
Sita
is extolled as the supreme goddess.[61] The Upanishad
Upanishad
identifies Sita
Sita
with Prakrti (nature) which is constituted by "will" ichha, activity (kriya) and knowledge (jnana).[62] The Upanishad
Upanishad
also states that Sita
Sita
emerged while furrowing, at the edge of the plough.[63][64] She is extolled as one of the Panchakanya
Panchakanya
for her virtuous qualities; taking their names destroys all sins.[65] Her life story and journeys with her husband Rama
Rama
and brother-in-law Lakshmana
Lakshmana
are part of the Hindu
Hindu
epic Ramayana, an allegorical story with Hindu
Hindu
spiritual and ethical teachings.[66] However, there are many versions of Ramayana, and her story as a goddess in Hindu mythology. Her legends also vary in southeast Asian versions of the epic Ramayana, such as in the Ramakien
Ramakien
of Thailand
Thailand
where she is spelled as Sida (or Nang Sida).[67] In Valmiki Ramayana, Sita
Sita
is repeatedly expressed as manifestation of Lakshmi, as the one who blesses abundance in agriculture, food, and wealth. She is referred to golden goddess, wherein after Rama
Rama
(Vishnu) is bereaved of her, he refuses to marry again, insists that he is married solely and forever to her, and uses a golden image of Sita
Sita
as a substitute in the performance of his duties as a king.[59]:63 Sita, in many Hindu
Hindu
mythology, is the Devi
Devi
associated with agriculture, fertility, food and wealth for continuation of humanity.[59]:58, 64 Radha[edit] Main article: Radha

Sculpture of Radha

Radha
Radha
means "prosperity, success and lightning." She is the female counterpart of Krishna. In Puranic
Puranic
literature such as the Brahma Vaivarta Purana, she is known as the Goddess
Goddess
of love. She is known as goddess from the 12th century onwards and has figured prominently in the poems of Vidyapati
Vidyapati
(1352–1448) as a cosmic queen. She is also considered as an incarnation of Lakshmi.[68] According to legend, Radha
Radha
was married but she had mystical intimacy with Krishna.[69] Radha
Radha
was made famous through Jayadeva's Gitagovinda poems.[70] She was born as a milkmaid. She is considered a goddess of the heaven (Goloka) who was considered a combination of Shakti
Shakti
and Vishnu's power.[71] Her love affair with Krishna
Krishna
was set in Vraja
Vraja
and its surrounding forests much before Krishna
Krishna
married Rukmini and Satyabhama. Her attribute is lotus and she has always been a part of the bhakti movement symbolising "yearning of human soul drawn to Krishna". In South India
South India
she is considered as Bhumidevi
Bhumidevi
and is linked to Saraswati.[72] The Gitagovinda (12th century), a lyrical drama, a "mystical erotic poem", describes the love of Krishna
Krishna
and gopis, Radha in particular, a symbolism for the human soul.[70] Mahadevi[edit] Main article: Mahadevi In the sixth century when Devi Mahatmya
Devi Mahatmya
came into practice the name Devi
Devi
(goddess) or Mahadevi
Mahadevi
(Great Goddess) came into prominence to represent one female goddess to encompass the discrete goddesses like Lakshmi, Parvati
Parvati
and so forth.[73] In the Hindu
Hindu
mythology, Devi
Devi
and Deva are usually paired, complement and go together, typically shown as equal but sometimes the Devi
Devi
is shown smaller or in subordinate role.[74] Some goddesses, however, play an independent role in Hindu pantheon, and are revered as Supreme without any male god(s) present or with males in subordinate position.[74] Mahadevi, as mother goddess, is an example of the later, where she subsumes all goddesses, becomes the ultimate goddess, and is sometimes just called Devi.[74]

Tripura Sundari, one aspect of Mahadevi, is shown above with all major male gods as smaller, subordinate and subsumed

Theological texts projected Mahadevi
Mahadevi
as ultimate reality in the universe as a "powerful, creative, active, transcendent female being."[75] The Puranas
Puranas
and Tantra
Tantra
literature of India celebrates this idea, particularly between the 12th–16th century, and the best example of such texts being the various manuscript versions of Devi Bhagavata Purana with the embedded Devi Gita
Devi Gita
therein.[74][75][76] Devi Bhagavata Purana
Devi Bhagavata Purana
gives prime position to Mahadevi
Mahadevi
as the mother of all encompassing the three worlds and gives her the position of being all of universe – the material and the spiritual.[77] In the Upanishadic text Devi
Devi
Upanishad, a Sakta Upanishad
Upanishad
and an important Tantric text probably composed sometime between the ninth and fourtheenth centuries the Goddess
Goddess
is addressed in the most general and universal of terms, as Mahadevi, and represents all goddesses as different manifestations of her.[78] The Lalita Sahasranama
Lalita Sahasranama
(Thousand names of Lalita(Parvati)or states that Mahadevi
Mahadevi
is known by different synonyms such as Jagatikanda (anchors the world), Vishvadhika (one who surpasses the universe), Nirupama (one who has no match), Parameshwari (dominant governor), Vyapini (encompasses everything), Aprameya (immeasurable), Anekakotibrahmadajanani (creator of many universes), Vishvagarbha (she whose garbha or womb subsumes the universe), Sarvadhara (helps all), Sarvaga (being everywhere at the same time, Sarvalokesi (governs all worlds) and Vishavdaharini one who functions for the whole universe).[77] The Mahadevi
Mahadevi
goddess has many aspects to her personality. She focuses on that side of her that suits her objectives, but unlike male Hindu deities, her powers and knowledge work in concert in a multifunctional manner, rather than sequential re-incarnation as with Vishnu.[79] The ten aspects of her, also called Mahavidyas (or great forms of her knowledge) are: Kali, Tara, Tripura Sundari, Bhairavi, Bhuvanesvari, Chhinnamasta, Dhumavati, Bagalamukhi, Matangi
Matangi
and Kamala. Tantra
Tantra
and Devis[edit] Main article: Tantra

Yantra
Yantra
are used as icons for Devi
Devi
in Tantra; above is Tripura-Bhairavi yantra

Tantric literature such as Soundarya Lahari
Soundarya Lahari
meaning "Flood of Beauty", credited to Adi Shankaracharya
Adi Shankaracharya
a shakta or tantric poem, is dedicated to the Supreme Deity
Deity
of the sect, the Devi
Devi
who is considered much superior to Shiva. It celebrates Devi
Devi
and her feminine persona. It is an approach to the tantra through Devi.[80][81] In Shakti
Shakti
Tantra
Tantra
traditions, Devis are visualized with yantra and are a tool for spiritual journey for the tantric adept.[82] The adepts ritually construct triangle yantras with proper use of visualization, movement and mantra. The adepts believe, state John Stratton Hawley and Donna Marie Wulff, that "to establish such yantra is to place the macrocosm within oneself", and doing so can yield temporal benefits, spiritual powers or enlightenment.[82] A tantric text titled "Vigyan Bhairav Tantra", 'Vigyan' meaning "consciousness" is a conversation between Shiva
Shiva
and Devi
Devi
rendered in 112 verses, elaborates on "wisdom and insight of pure consciousness."[83] Devi
Devi
Puja is the worship of Devi
Devi
which is observed through four forms of Devi
Devi
Yantra; the first is Tara that exists in the realm of the fourth chakra representing the spiritual heart; Sarasvati emanates in the first chakra; Lakshmi
Lakshmi
forms the second chakra; and Kali
Kali
is at the heart of the third chakra. Worship through this Yantra
Yantra
leads to realization of "cosmic energy" within oneself.[84] Matrikas[edit] Main article: Matrikas Matrikas, that is, the mothers, are seven or eight female divinities, which are depicted as a group. They are Brahmani, Vaishnavi, Maheshvari, Indrani, Kaumari, Varahi
Varahi
and Chamundi
Chamundi
or Narasimhi.[1]:151–152 The Matrikas
Matrikas
concept are important in Tantric traditions.[85] They are described in the Isaanasivagurudevapaddhati, as creations to facilitate Lord Shiva
Shiva
face his adversary Andhakasura. All the Matrikas
Matrikas
are depicted in a sitting position known as the Lalitasana and bedecked with heavy jewellery.[86] Scholars state that the concept of Matrikas
Matrikas
as powerful goddesses emerged in the early 1st millennium AD, and possibly much earlier.[87][88] The idea of eight mother goddesses together is found in Himalayan Shaivism, while seven divine mothers (Sapta Matrika) is more common in South India.[89]

The Devi
Devi
Matrikas
Matrikas
(flanked by Shiva
Shiva
and Ganesha), representing various Shakti
Shakti
aspects, from 9th-century Madhya Pradesh

See also[edit]

Deva (Hinduism) Shaktism Shakti
Shakti
Peethas Soundarya Lahari

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Kinsley, David (1988). Hindu
Hindu
Goddesses: Vision of the Divine Feminine in the Hindu
Hindu
Religious Traditions. University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-06339-2. ^ Thomas Coburn (2002), Devī-Māhātmya: The Crystallization of the Goddess
Goddess
Tradition, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0557-6, pages 1–23 ^ a b Bryant, Edwin (2007), Krishna: A Sourcebook, Oxford University Press, p. 441  ^ Flood, Gavin, ed. (2003), The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism, Blackwell Publishing Ltd., ISBN 1-4051-3251-5, pages 200–203 ^ Klostermaier 2010, p. 496. ^ a b Klostermaier 2010, p. 492. ^ a b Klostermaier, Klaus (2010). A Survey of Hinduism, 3rd Edition. State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-7082-4, pages 101–102 ^ Hawley, John Stratton and Donna Marie Wulff (1998). Devi: Goddesses of India, Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-1491-2, page 2 ^ John Stratton Hawley and Donna Marie Wulff (1998), Devi: Goddesses of India, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-1491-2, pages 18–21 ^ Deva Etymology Dictionary, Douglas Harper (2015) ^ a b c d e f McDaniel 2004, p. 90. ^ a b Brown 1998, p. 26. ^ Sanskrit
Sanskrit
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Secrets: Eighteen Transformational Lessons to Serenity, Radiance, and Bliss. Weiser Books. ISBN 978-1-60925-362-2.  Chandra, Suresh (1 January 1998). Encyclopaedia of Hindu
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