Denominazione di origine controllata
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The following four classifications of wine constitute the
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...

Italian
system of labelling and legally protecting
Italian wine Italian wine is produced in every region of Italy, home to some of the oldest wine-producing regions in the world. Italy is the List of wine-producing countries, world's largest producer of wine, with an area of under vineyard cultivation, and con ...
: * ''Denominazione di origine'' (DO, rarely used; ;
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English
: “designation of origin”), * ''Indicazione geografica tipica'' (IGT; ; “indication of geographical typicality”), * ''Denominazione di origine controllata'' (DOC; ; “controlled designation of origin”), and * ''Denominazione di origine controllata e garantita'' (DOCG; ; “controlled and guaranteed designation of origin”). The system was introduced in 1963 shortly after the
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established Italy as a founding member of the
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European Economic Community
, and was modelled on the extant
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French
''
Appellation d'origine contrôlée The ''appellation d'origine contrôlée'' (AOC; ; "controlled designation of origin") is a French certification granted to certain France, French geographical indications for French wine, wines, List of French cheeses, cheeses, butters, and ot ...
'' (AOC) laws. It was overhauled in 1992 to match new
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European Union
law on
Protected Designation of Origin The protected designation of origin (PDO) is a type of geographical indication of the European Union and the United Kingdom aimed at preserving the designations of origin of food-related products. The designation was created in 1992 and its main ...
, introducing the more general ''Denominazione di Origine Protetta'' (DOP) designation for foods and agricultural products, including wines. Further EU reforms to harmonise agricultural policy in 2008 meant that designations used in member states, and thus Italian designations, were registered with the EU by the end of 2011, with subsequent new denominations or elevations approved by the EU.


Indicazione geografica tipica (IGT)

''Indicazione geografica tipica'' was created in 1992 to recognize the unusually high quality of the class of wines known as
Super Tuscans Tuscan wine (Italian ''Toscana'') is Italian wine from the Tuscany region. Located in central Italy along the Tyrrhenian Sea, Tyrrhenian coast, Tuscany is home to some of the world's most notable List of wine-producing regions, wine regions. Chian ...
, and to be broadly equivalent to the French '' vin de pays'' designation. IGT wines are labelled with the locality of their creation, but do not meet the requirements of the stricter DOC or DOCG designations, which are generally intended to protect traditional wine formulations such as
Chianti A Chianti wine (, also , ) is any wine produced in the Chianti (region), Chianti region of central Tuscan wine, Tuscany. It was historically associated with a squat bottle enclosed in a straw basket, called a ''fiasco (bottle), fiasco'' ("flask"; ...

Chianti
or
Barolo Barolo (, also , ; pms, bareul ) is a red '' Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita'' (DOCG) wine produced in the northern Italian region of Piedmont it, Piemontese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , po ...

Barolo
. Since 2008 both IGT and vin de pays are equivalent to the EU
Protected Geographical Indication Three European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of Member state of the European Union, member states that are located primarily in Europe. Its members have a combined area of and an estimated total popula ...
(PGI) designation, and many producers have switched to using the Italian translation, ''Indicazione geografica protetta'' (IGP). This classification is seen to be a higher quality wine than ''
vino da tavola Table wine is a wine term with two different meanings: a style of wine and a quality level within classification of wine, wine classification. In the United States, ''table wine'' primarily designates a wine style: ordinary wine which is neither f ...
''.


Denominazione di origine controllata (DOC)

The ''Denominazione di origine controllata'' classification was created to be roughly equivalent to the French ''
Appellation d'origine contrôlée The ''appellation d'origine contrôlée'' (AOC; ; "controlled designation of origin") is a French certification granted to certain France, French geographical indications for French wine, wines, List of French cheeses, cheeses, butters, and ot ...
'' (AOC). It requires that a wine satisfy a defined quality standard, and be produced within the specified region. Unlike IGT, the DOC definitions will usually specify additional more stringent rules regarding permitted grape varieties, harvest yields, minimum ageing including use of barrels, minimum alcohol content, and other factors. Wines labelled DOC or DOCG must be sold in bottles holding no more than . Historically the DOC status has been used to classify other food products such as cheeses, olive oil and vinegar, but the ''Denominazione di origine protetta'' (DOP) is now used instead. Since the 2008 EU reforms, both the DOC and DOCG wine classifications are protected in the EU as Protected Designations of Origin (PDO), which in Italy generally is indicated in Italian: "Denominazione d'Origine Protetta" (DOP). The may however still be referred to as DOC/DOCG or (in Bolzano, where
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German
is an official language) in German: ''Kontrollierte Ursprungsbezeichnung'.


Denominazione di origine controllata e garantita (DOCG)

''Denominazione di origine controllata e garantita'' is intended to be a superior classification to DOC, and is the highest classification in Italy. All DOCG wines from each producer are analysed and tasted by government–licensed judgement panel before being bottled. Once approved, the wines are “guaranteed” with a numbered governmental seal across the cap or cork, to prevent later manipulation. Where the DOCG classification represents a refinement of an existing DOC wine, the rules for the DOCG wine usually require more stringent quality controls. These controls are usually some combination of a lower proportion of blending grapes, lower yields, higher minimum alcohol, longer ageing requirements, and so on. The need for a DOCG identification arose when the DOC designation was, in the view of many Italian food industries, given too liberally to different products. A new, more restrictive identification was then created as similar as possible to the previous one so that buyers could still recognize it, but qualitatively different. The three original DOCGs were
Brunello di Montalcino Brunello di Montalcino is a red Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita, DOCG Italian wine produced in the vineyards surrounding the town of Montalcino, in the province of Siena, located about 80 km south of Florence in the Tuscany ...
,
Vino Nobile di Montepulciano Vino Nobile di Montepulciano is a red wine with a Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita status produced in the vineyards surrounding the town of Montepulciano, Italy. The wine is made primarily from the Sangiovese grape varietal (known ...
, and
Barolo Barolo (, also , ; pms, bareul ) is a red '' Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita'' (DOCG) wine produced in the northern Italian region of Piedmont it, Piemontese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , po ...

Barolo
, all approved by a presidential decree in July 1980, followed by
Barbaresco Barbaresco is an Italian wine Italian wine is produced in every region of Italy, home to some of the oldest wine-producing regions in the world. Italy is the List of wine-producing countries, world's largest producer of wine, with an area of unde ...
three months later. For wines produced in Bolzano, where German is an official language, DOCG may be written as ''Kontrollierte und garantierte Ursprungsbezeichnung''. In 2010–2011 many new DOCG classifications were created or elevated from DOC, in the rush to register them before the EU reform deadline. This has had the effect of potentially diluting the importance of the DOCG classification.


Other label rules

Italian legislation additionally regulates the use of qualifying terms for wines. ''Classico'' (“classic”) is reserved for wines produced in the region where a particular type of wine has been produced "traditionally". For
Chianti Classico A Chianti wine (, also , ) is any wine produced in the Chianti (region), Chianti region of central Tuscan wine, Tuscany. It was historically associated with a squat bottle enclosed in a straw basket, called a ''fiasco (bottle), fiasco'' ("flask"; ...
, this traditional region is defined by a 1932 decree. '' Riserva'' (“reserve”) may be used only for wines that have been aged at least two years longer than normal for a particular type of wine.


See also

*
Geographical indications and traditional specialities in the European Union Three European Union schemes of geographical indications and Traditional food, traditional specialties, known as protected designation of origin (PDO), protected geographical indication (PGI), and traditional specialities guaranteed (TSG), promot ...
*
List of Italian DOCG wines This is a list of the 77 Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional ...
*
List of Italian DOC wines This is a list of the 329 Italy, Italian Denominazione di origine controllata, DOC (''Denominazione di Origine Controllata'') wines ordered by region. The wine making regions of Italy are equivalent to its twenty Regions of Italy, administrative reg ...
* List of Italian IGT wines * List of Italian products with protected designation of origin * Traditional food


References


External links


An excerpt from the relevant Italian law

''V.Q.P.R.D. Vini (DOCG – DOC): Elenco e Riferimenti Normativi al 07.02.2006''
published by the Italian Ministry of Agriculture, which lists every DOC and DOCG wine as of February 2006, together with the dates of the decrees by which the appellation was instituted, and the provinces in which the wine is permitted to be produced.
Complete list of Italian DOC wines
{{Portal bar, Italy, Wine Alcohol law in Italy Italian DOC, Italian DOCG, Wine classification Food law