Denali (/dɪˈnɑːli/) (also known as Mount McKinley, its
former official name) is the tallest land-based[a] mountain on
Earth—with a vertical rise of about 18,000 feet (5,500 m)[b], as
well as the highest mountain peak in North America—with a summit
elevation of 20,310 feet (6,190 m) above sea level. With a
topographic prominence of 20,156 feet (6,144 m) and a topographic
isolation of 4,629 miles (7,450 km),
Denali is the third most
prominent and third most isolated peak, after
Mount Everest and
Aconcagua. Located in the
Alaska Range in the interior of the U.S.
state of Alaska,
Denali is the centerpiece of
Denali National Park and
Koyukon people who inhabit the area around the mountain have
referred to the peak as "Denali" for centuries. In 1896, a gold
prospector named it "Mount McKinley" in support of then-presidential
candidate William McKinley; that name was the official name recognized
United States government from 1917 until 2015. In August 2015,
following the 1975 lead of the state of Alaska, the U.S. Department of
the Interior announced the change of the official name of the mountain
James Wickersham recorded the first attempt at climbing
Denali, which was unsuccessful. In 1906,
Frederick Cook claimed the
first ascent, which was later proven to be false. The first verifiable
ascent to Denali's summit was achieved on June 7, 1913, by climbers
Hudson Stuck, Harry Karstens, Walter Harper, and Robert Tatum, who
went by the South Summit. In 1951,
Bradford Washburn pioneered the
West Buttress route, considered to be the safest and easiest route,
and therefore the most popular currently in use.
On September 2, 2015, the
U.S. Geological Survey
U.S. Geological Survey announced that the
mountain is 20,310 feet (6,190 m) high, not 20,320 feet
(6,194 m), as measured in 1952 using photogrammetry.
1 Geology and features
1.1 Layout of the mountain
3.1 Climbing history
4 Weather station
4.1 Historical record
5 Subpeaks and nearby mountains
6 Taxonomic honors
7 See also
10 External links
Geology and features
Denali is a granitic pluton lifted by tectonic pressure from the
subduction of the
Pacific Plate beneath the North American Plate; at
the same time, the sedimentary material above and around the mountain
was stripped away by erosion. The forces that lifted
cause many deep earthquakes in
Alaska and the Aleutian Islands. The
Pacific Plate is seismically active beneath Denali, a tectonic region
that is known as the "McKinley cluster".
Denali has a summit elevation of 20,310 feet (6,190 m) above sea
level, making it the highest peak in
North America and the
northernmost mountain above 6,000 meters elevation in the
world. Measured from base to peak at some 18,000 ft
(5,500 m), it is among the largest mountains situated entirely
above sea level (although some Asian mountains i.e. Rakaposhi,
Nanga Parbat are even larger in this regard
Denali rises from a sloping plain with elevations from
1,000 to 3,000 ft (300 to 910 m), for a base-to-peak height
of 17,000 to 19,000 ft (5,000 to 6,000 m). By
Mount Everest rises from the
Tibetan Plateau at a much
higher base elevation. Base elevations for Everest range from
13,800 ft (4,200 m) on the south side to 17,100 ft
(5,200 m) on the Tibetan Plateau, for a base-to-peak height in
the range of 12,000 to 15,300 ft (3,700 to 4,700 m).
Denali's base-to-peak height is little more than half the
33,500 ft (10,200 m) of the volcano Mauna Kea, which lies
mostly under water.
Layout of the mountain
Denali has two significant summits: the South
Summit is the higher
one, while the North
Summit has an elevation of 19,470 ft
(5,934 m) and a prominence of approximately 1,270 ft
(387 m). The North
Summit is sometimes counted as a separate
peak (see e.g., fourteener) and sometimes not; it is rarely climbed,
except by those doing routes on the north side of the massif.
Five large glaciers flow off the slopes of the mountain. The Peters
Glacier lies on the northwest side of the massif, while the Muldrow
Glacier falls from its northeast slopes. Just to the east of the
Muldrow, and abutting the eastern side of the massif, is the Traleika
Ruth Glacier lies to the southeast of the mountain, and
Kahiltna Glacier leads up to the southwest side of the
mountain. With a length of 44 mi (71 km), the
Kahiltna Glacier is the longest glacier in the
Main article: Denali–Mount McKinley naming dispute
The Koyukon Athabaskans who inhabit the area around the mountain have
for centuries referred to the peak as Dinale or Denali. The name is
based on a Koyukon word for "high" or "tall". During the Russian
ownership of Alaska, the common name for the mountain was Bolshaya
Gora (Russian: Большая Гора, bolshaya = Russian for big;
gora = Russian for mountain), which is the Russian translation of
Denali. It was briefly called Densmore's
Mountain in the late
1880s and early 1890s after Frank Densmore, an Alaskan prospector
who was the first European to reach the base of the mountain.
In 1896, a gold prospector named it McKinley as political support for
then-presidential candidate William McKinley, who became president the
following year. The
United States formally recognized the name Mount
McKinley after President Wilson signed the Mount McKinley National
Park Act of February 26, 1917. In 1965,
Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson declared
the north and south peaks of the mountain the "Churchill Peaks", in
honor of British statesman Winston Churchill. The
Alaska Board of
Geographic Names changed the name of the mountain to
Denali in 1975,
which was how it is called locally. However, a request in 1975
Alaska state legislature to the
United States Board on
Geographic Names to do the same at the federal level was blocked by
Ohio congressman Ralph Regula, whose district included McKinley's
hometown of Canton.
On August 30, 2015, just ahead of a presidential visit to Alaska, the
Barack Obama administration announced the name
Denali would be
restored in line with the
Alaska Geographic Board's
designation. U.S. Secretary of the Interior
Sally Jewell issued
the order changing the name to
Denali on August 28, 2015, effective
immediately. Jewell said the change had been "a long time
coming". The renaming of the mountain received praise from
Alaska's senior U.S. senator, Lisa Murkowski, who had previously
introduced legislation to accomplish the name change, but it drew
criticism from several politicians from President McKinley's home
state of Ohio, such as Governor John Kasich, U.S. Senator Rob Portman,
U.S. House Speaker John Boehner, and Representative Bob Gibbs, who
described Obama's action as "constitutional overreach" because he said
an act of Congress is required to rename the mountain; The
Alaska Dispatch News reported that the Secretary of the Interior has
authority under federal law to change geographic names when the Board
of Geographic Names does not act on a naming request within a
"reasonable" period of time. Jewell told the
Alaska Dispatch News that
"I think any of us would think that 40 years is an unreasonable amount
Indigenous names for
Denali can be found in seven different Alaskan
languages. The names fall into two categories. To the south of the
Alaska Range in the Dena'ina and Ahtna languages the mountain is known
by names that are translated as "big mountain". To the north of the
Alaska Range in the Lower Tanana, Koyukon, Upper Kuskokwim,
Holikachuk, and Deg Xinag languages the mountain is known by names
that are translated as "the high one", "the tall one" (Koyukon,
Lower and Middle Tanana, Upper Kuskokwim, Deg Xinag, and Holikachuk),
or "big mountain" (Ahtna and Dena'ina). Asked about the importance
of the mountain and its name, Will Mayo, former president of the
Tanana Chiefs Conference, an organization that represents 42
Athabaskan tribes in the Alaskan interior, said “It’s not one
homogeneous belief structure around the mountain, but we all agree
that we’re all deeply gratified by the acknowledgment of the
Denali to Alaska’s people."
The following table lists the Alaskan Athabascan names for Denali.
Spelling in the
local practical alphabet
Spelling in a
'the tall one'
Dghelaay Ce'e, Deghilaay Ce'e
Dghelaay Ke'e, Deghilaay Ke'e
Upper Inlet Dena'ina
Lower Inlet Dena'ina
Hudson Stuck and Harry Karstens, co-leaders of the first successful
Denali in 1913
The Koyukon Athabaskans, living in the Yukon, Tanana and Kuskokwim
basins, were the first Native Americans with access to the flanks of
the mountain. A British naval captain and explorer, George
Vancouver, is the first European on record to have sighted Denali,
when he noted "distant stupendous mountains" while surveying the Knik
Arm of the
Cook Inlet on May 6, 1794. The Russian explorer
Lavrenty Zagoskin explored the Tanana and
Kuskokwim rivers in 1843 and
1844, and was likely the first European to sight the mountain from the
William Dickey, a New Hampshire-born resident of Seattle, Washington
who had been digging for gold in the sands of the Susitna River,
wrote, after his returning from Alaska, an account in the New York Sun
that appeared on January 24, 1897. His report drew attention with
the sentence "We have no doubt that this peak is the highest in North
America, and estimate that it is over 20,000 feet (6,100 m)
high." Until then,
Mount Logan in Canada's
Yukon Territory was
believed to be the continent’s highest point. Though later praised
for his estimate, Dickey admitted that other prospector parties had
also guessed the mountain to be over 20,000 feet (6,100 m).
The reverse side of the
Denali National Park quarter
On November 5, 2012, the
United States Mint released a twenty-five
cent piece depicting
Denali National Park. It is the fifteenth of the
America the Beautiful Quarters
America the Beautiful Quarters series. The reverse features a Dall
sheep with the peak of
Denali in the background.
The first recorded attempt to climb
Denali was by Judge James
Wickersham in 1903, via the Peters Glacier and the North Face, now
known as the Wickersham Wall. Because of the route's history of
avalanche danger, it was not successfully climbed until 1963.
Famed explorer Dr.
Frederick Cook claimed the first ascent of the
mountain in 1906. His claim was regarded with some suspicion from the
start, but was also widely believed. It was later proved false, with
some crucial evidence provided by
Bradford Washburn when he was
sketched on a lower peak.
High camp (17,200 ft or 5,200 m) of the West Buttress Route
pioneered by Bradford Washburn, photographed in 2001
In 1910, four area locals – Tom Lloyd, Peter Anderson, Billy Taylor,
and Charles McGonagall – known as the Sourdough Expedition,
attempted to climb
Denali despite a lack of climbing experience. The
group spent approximately three months on the mountain. Their
purported summit ascent day included carrying a bag of doughnuts each,
a thermos of hot chocolate, and a 14-foot (4.2 m) spruce pole. Two of
them reached the North Summit, the lower of the two, and erected the
pole near the top. According to the group, the time they took to reach
the summit was a total of 18 hours. Until the first ascent in 1913,
their claims were disbelieved, in part due to false claims they had
climbed both summits.
In 1912, the Parker-Browne expedition nearly reached the summit,
turning back within just a few hundred yards of it due to harsh
weather. Hours after their ascent, the Great
Earthquake of 1912
shattered the glacier they had ascended.
The first ascent of the main summit of
Denali came on June 7, 1913, by
a party led by
Hudson Stuck and Harry Karstens. The first man to reach
the summit was Walter Harper, an
Robert Tatum also made
the summit. Using the mountain's contemporary name, Tatum later
commented, "The view from the top of Mount McKinley is like looking
out the windows of Heaven!" They ascended the Muldrow Glacier
route pioneered by the earlier expeditions, which is still often
climbed today. Stuck confirmed, via binoculars, the presence of a
large pole near the North Summit; this report confirmed the Sourdough
ascent, and today it is widely believed that the Sourdoughs did
succeed on the North Summit. However, the pole was never seen before
or since, so there is still some doubt. Stuck also discovered that the
Parker-Browne party were only about 200 feet (61 m) of elevation short
of the true summit when they turned back.
The mountain is regularly climbed today. In 2003, around 58% of
climbers reached the top. But by 2003, the mountain had claimed the
lives of nearly 100 mountaineers over time. The vast majority of
climbers use the West Buttress Route, pioneered in 1951 by Bradford
Washburn, after an extensive aerial photographic analysis of the
mountain. Climbers typically take two to four weeks to ascend Denali.
It is one of the Seven Summits; summiting all of them is a challenge
Denali's West Buttress (lower left to upper right), August 2010
A three-dimensional representation of the mountain created with
1896–1902: Surveys by Robert Muldrow, George Eldridge, Alfred
1913: First ascent, by Hudson Stuck, Harry Karstens, Walter Harper,
Robert Tatum via the
Muldrow Glacier route.
1932: Second ascent, by Alfred Lindley, Harry Liek, Grant Pearson,
Erling Strom. (Both peaks were climbed.):320
Barbara Washburn becomes the first woman to reach the summit
while her husband
Bradford Washburn becomes the first person to summit
First ascent of the West Buttress Route, led by Bradford
First ascent of the very long South Buttress Route by George
Argus, Elton Thayer (died on descent), Morton Wood, and Les Viereck.
Deteriorating conditions behind the team pushed them to make the first
traverse of Denali. The Great Traleika Cirque, where they camped just
below the summit, was renamed Thayer Basin, in honor of the fallen
First ascent of the West Rib, now a popular, mildly technical
route to the summit.
First ascent of the Cassin Ridge, named for
Riccardo Cassin and
the best-known technical route on the mountain. The first ascent
team members are: Riccardo Cassin, Luigi Airoldi, Luigi Alippi,
Giancarlo Canali, Romano Perego, and Annibale Zucchi.
South view from 27,000 feet (8,200 m)
1963: A team of six climbers (W. Blesser, P. Lev, R. Newcomb, A. Read,
J. Williamson, F. Wright) made the first ascent of the East Buttress.
The summit was attained via Thayer Basin and Karstens Ridge. See AAJ
1963: Two teams make first ascents of two different routes on the
1967: First winter ascent, via the West Buttress, by Dave Johnston,
Art Davidson and Ray Genet.
1967: Seven members of Joe Wilcox's twelve-man expedition perish,
while stranded for ten days near the summit, in what has been
described as the worst storm on record. Up to that time, this was the
third worst disaster in mountaineering history in terms of lives
lost. Before July 1967 only four men had ever perished on
1970: First solo ascent by Naomi Uemura.
First ascent by an all-female team, led by Grace Hoeman and the
later famous American high altitude mountaineer
Arlene Blum together
with Margaret Clark, Margaret Young, Faye Kerr and Dana Smith
1972: First descent on skis down the sheer southwest face, by Sylvain
Saudan, "Skier of the Impossible".
1976: First solo ascent of the Cassin Ridge by Charlie Porter, a climb
"ahead of its time".
First ascent by dog team achieved by Susan Butcher, Ray Genet,
Brian Okonek, Joe Redington, Sr., and Robert Stapleton.
1984: Uemura returns to make the first winter solo ascent, but dies
after summitting. Tono Križo, František Korl and Blažej Adam
from the Slovak Mountaineering Association climb a very direct route
to the summit, now known as the Slovak Route, on the south face of the
mountain, to the right of the Cassin Ridge.
1988: First successful winter solo ascent. Vern Tejas climbed the West
Buttress alone in February and March, summitted successfully, and
1997: First successful ascent up the West Fork of
Traleika Glacier up
to Karstens Ridge beneath Browne Tower. This path was named the "Butte
Direct" by the two climbers Jim Wilson and Jim Blow.
2015: On June 24, a survey team led by Blaine Horner placed two global
positioning receivers on the summit to determine the precise position
and elevation of the summit. The summit snow depth was measured at
15 ft (4.6 m). The
United States National Geodetic Survey
later determined the summit elevation to be 20,310 ft (6,190
The east side viewed from
Denali National Park and Preserve, which
surrounds the mountain
The Japan Alpine Club installed a meteorological station on a ridge
near the summit of
Denali at an altitude of 18,733 feet (5,710 m)
in 1990. In 1998, this weather station was donated to the
International Arctic Research Center
International Arctic Research Center at the University of Alaska
Fairbanks. In June 2002, a weather station was placed at the
19,000-foot (5,800 m) level. This weather station was designed to
transmit data in real-time for use by the climbing public and the
science community. Since its establishment, annual upgrades to the
equipment have been performed with instrumentation custom built for
the extreme weather and altitude conditions. This weather station is
the third-highest weather station in the world.
The weather station recorded a temperature of −75.5 °F
(−59.7 °C) on December 1, 2003. On the previous day of
November 30, 2003, a temperature of −74.4 °F
(−59.1 °C) combined with a wind speed of 18.4 miles per hour
(29.6 km/h) to produce a North American record windchill of
−118.1 °F (−83.4 °C).
Even in July, this weather station has recorded temperatures as low as
−22.9 °F (−30.5 °C) and windchills as low as
−59.2 °F (−50.7 °C).
The mountain is characterized by extremely cold weather. Temperatures
as low as −75.5 °F (−59.7 °C) and wind chills as low
as −118.1 °F (−83.4 °C) have been recorded by an
automated weather station located at 18,733 feet (5,700 m).
According to the National Park Service, in 1932 the Liek-Lindley
expedition recovered a self-recording minimum thermometer left near
Browne's Tower, at about 15,000 feet (4,600 m), on
Denali by the
Stuck-Karstens party in 1913. The spirit thermometer was calibrated
down to −95 °F (−71 °C), and the lowest recorded
temperature was below that point. Harry J. Lek took the thermometer
back to Washington, D.C. where it was tested by the United States
Weather Bureau and found to be accurate. The lowest temperature that
it had recorded was found to be approximately −100 °F
(−73 °C). Another thermometer was placed at the 15,000
feet (4,600 m) level by the U.S. Army Natick Laboratory, and was
there from 1950 to 1969. The coldest temperature recorded during that
period was also −100 °F (−73 °C).
Subpeaks and nearby mountains
Denali, here shrouded in clouds, is large enough to create its own
Besides the North
Summit mentioned above, other features on the massif
which are sometimes included as separate peaks are:
South Buttress, 15,885 feet (4,842 m); mean prominence: 335 feet
East Buttress high point, 14,730 feet (4,490 m); mean prominence:
380 feet (120 m)
East Buttress, most topographically prominent point, 14,650 feet
(4,470 m); mean prominence: 600 feet (180 m)
Browne Tower, 14,530 feet (4,430 m); mean prominence: 75 feet
Nearby peaks include:
The Moose's Tooth
Ceratozetella denaliensis (formerly Cyrtozetes denaliensis
Behan-Pelletier, 1985) is a species of moss mite in the family
Mycobatidae sv:Ceratozetella denaliensis
Magnoavipes denaliensis Fiorillo et al., 2011 (literally “bird with
large feet found in Denali”) is a
Magnoavipes ichnospecies of bird
footprint from the Upper Cretaceous of
Alaska and was a large
heron-like bird (as larger than a sandhill crane) with three toes and
toe pads. pt:
Cosberella denali (Fjellberg, 1985) is a springtail. sv:Cosberella
Proclossiana aphirape denali Klots, 1940 is a
species of the
Heliconiinae subfamily of Nymphalidae.
Symplecta denali (Alexander, 1955) is a species of crane fly in the
family Limoniidae. sv:Symplecta denali
Tipula denali Alexander, 1969 is a species of crane fly in the family
Tipulidae. sv:Tipula denali
Erigeron denalii A. Nelson, 1945 or
Denali fleabane is an Erigeron
Papaver denalii Gjaerevoll 1963 is an
Papaver species and syn. of
mckinleyensis or mackinleyensis
Erebia mackinleyensis (Gunder, 1932) or
Mt. McKinley alpine is a
butterfly species of the
Satyrinae subfamily of Nymphalidae.
Oeneis mackinleyensis Dos Passos 1965 or
Oeneis mckinleyensis Dos
Passos 1949 is a butterfly species of the
Satyrinae subfamily of
Nymphalidae (syn. of Oeneis bore)
Uredo mckinleyensis Cummins 1952 or Uredo mackinleyensis Cummins 1952
is a rust fungus species.
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List of the most isolated major summits of the United States
^ Entirely above sea level
^ Which exceeds Everest's vertical rise of about 12,000 feet (3,658
^ a b c d Mark Newell; Blaine Horner (September 2, 2015). "New
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^ a b "Denali, Alaska". Peakbagger.com. Retrieved December 12,
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^ a b Mr. Wyden, from the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources
(September 10, 2013). "Senate Report 113-93 – Designation of Denali
in the State of Alaska". U.S. Government Publishing Office. Retrieved
2015-09-16. The State of
Alaska changed the name of the mountain to
Denali in 1975, although the U.S. Board on Geographic Names has
continued to use the name Mount McKinley. Today most Alaskans refer to
Mount McKinley as Denali.
^ a b "
Denali Name Change" (PDF) (Press release). U.S. Department of
the Interior. August 28, 2015. Retrieved August 31, 2015.
^ a b Campbell, Jon (August 30, 2015). "Old Name Officially Returns to
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^ a b c Roberts, David (April 2007). "The Geography of Brad Washburn
(1910–2007)". National Geographic Adventure. Archived from the
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^ a b Brease, P. (May 2003). "GEO-FAQS #1 – General Geologic
Features" (PDF). National Park Service. Retrieved 2013-03-17.
^ Hanson, Roger A. "
Earthquake and Seismic Monitoring in Denali
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^ Meltzer, Anne (2001). "Seismic characterization of an active
metamorphic massif, Nanga Parbat, Pakistan Himalaya" (PDF). p. 1.
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^ Martinson, Erica (August 30, 2015). "McKinley no more: America's
tallest peak to be renamed Denali".
Alaska Dispatch News. Retrieved
August 31, 2015. The name “Denali” is derived from the Koyukon
name and is based on a verb theme meaning “high” or “tall,”
according to linguist James Kari of the
Alaska Native Language Center
at the University of
Alaska Fairbanks, in the book “Shem Pete’s
Alaska.” It doesn't mean "the great one," as is commonly believed,
^ Dictionary of
Alaska Place Names (PDF).
United States Department of
the Interior. 1976. p. 610. ISBN 0944780024. .
^ Norris, Frank. "Crown Jewel of the North: An Administrative History
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^ Berton, Pierre (1990) . Klondike: The Last Great Gold Rush
1896–1899 (revised ed.). p. 84. ISBN 0-14-011759-8.
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Alaska Planning (October
8, 1974). "Proposed Mt. McKinley National Park Additions, Alaska:
Final Environmental Statement".
Alaska Planning Group, U.S. Department
of the Interior. Retrieved October 8, 2017 – via Google Books.
^ Johnson, Lyndon B. (October 23, 1965). "Statement by the President
Designating Two Peaks of Mount McKinley in Honor of Sir Winston
Churchill". The American Presidency Project. University of California,
Santa Barbara. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
Ron Wyden (September 10, 2013). "Senate Report 113-93,
Denali in the State of Alaska". US Government
Publishing Office. Retrieved August 31, 2015.
^ Monmonier, Mark (1995). Drawing the Line: Tales of Maps and
Cartocontroversy. Henry Holt and Company. p. 67.
ISBN 0-8050-2581-2. Retrieved 2013-01-22.
^ Richardson, Jeff (August 30, 2015). "
Denali to be restored as name
of North America's tallest mountain". Fairbanks Daily News-Miner.
Retrieved August 30, 2015.
^ "President Obama OKs renaming of Mount McKinley to Denali". Alaska
Dispatch News. August 30, 2015. Retrieved August 30, 2015.
^ Matthew Smith – "Murkowski thanks Obama for restoring Denali",
Alaska Public Radio, KNOM, Nome, August 31, 2015. Retrieved
^ Michael A. Memoli – "Mt. McKinley, America's Tallest Peak, is
Getting Back its Original Name: Denali", Los Angeles Times, August 30,
2015. Retrieved 2015-09-1
^ "Ohio lawmakers slam Obama plans to rename Mt. McKinley 'Denali'
Alaska trip". Fox News. August 31, 2015. Retrieved August 31,
^ Glionna, John M. (August 31, 2015). "It's back to Denali, but some
McKinley supporters may be in denial". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved
August 31, 2015.
^ "Ohio Gov. Kasich opposes changing name of Mount McKinley". KTUU.
Associated Press. August 31, 2015. Archived from the original on
September 2, 2015. Retrieved August 31, 2015.
^ Martinson, Erica (August 30, 2015). "McKinley no more: North
America's tallest peak to be renamed Denali".
Alaska Dispatch News.
Retrieved September 2, 2015.
^ Kari, James. 1981. Native names celebrate the mountain's grandeur.
Now in the North, February.
^ Robert Hedin and Gary Holthaus (1989), Alaska: Reflections on Land
and Spirit, p. 95
^ a b Kari, James (2003), Names for Denali/Mt. McKinley in Alaska
Native Languages, pp. 211–13.
^ Thiessen, Mark (August 31, 2015). "Renaming Mount McKinley to
Denali: 9 questions answered". Associated Press. Retrieved September
^ Beckey 1993, p. 42.
^ Beckey 1993, p. 44.
^ Beckey 1993, p. 47.
^ Sherwonit, Bill (October 1, 2000). Denali: A Literary Anthology.
Seattle: The Mountaineers Books. p. 9.
ISBN 0-89886-710-X. See, particularly, chapter 4 (pp.
52–61): "Discoveries in Alaska", 1897, by William A. Dickey.
Denali National Park Quarter". National Park Quarters. Retrieved
^ Beckey 1993, p. 139.
^ "North peak of Mount McKinley: A Timely Escape". The American Alpine
Club. Archived from the original on September 6, 2015. Retrieved
October 5, 2015.
^ Heacox, Kim (2015). Rhythm of the Wild: A Life Inspired by Alaska's
Denali National Park. Connecticut: Rowman & Littlefield.
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