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Demographic economics or population economics is the application of economic analysis to demography, the study of human populations, including size, growth, density, distribution, and vital statistics.[1][2]

Aspects[edit] Aspects of the subject include

marriage and fertility[1][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10] the family[11][12][13][14][15][16][17] divorce[18][19][20] morbidity[21] and life expectancy/mortality[22][23][24] dependency ratios[1][3][25][26][27] migration[28][29][30] population growth[31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38] population size[39][40][41] public policy[1][42][42][43][44][45][46][47][48] the demographic transition from "population explosion" to (dynamic) stability[49] or decline.[50][51][52] Other subfields include measuring value of life[53][54] and the economics of the elderly[55][56][57] and the handicapped[58][59][60] and of gender,[61][62][63] race, minorities, and non-labor discrimination.[64][65] In coverage and subfields, it complements labor economics[66][67] and implicates a variety of other economics subjects.[68][69][70]

Subareas[edit] The Journal of Economic
Economic
Literature classification codes are a way of categorizing subjects in economics. There, Demographic Economics
Economics
is paired with Labor Economics
Economics
as one of 19 primary classifications at JEL: J.[71] It has 8 subareas, which are listed below with JEL-code links to corresponding available article-preview links of The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics
Economics
(2008) Online:

JEL: J10 (all) – General JEL: J11 – Demographic Trends and Forecasts JEL: J12 – Marriage; Marital Dissolution; Family Structure JEL: J13 – Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth JEL: J14 – Economics
Economics
of the Elderly; Economics
Economics
of the Handicapped JEL: J15 – Economics
Economics
of Minorities and Races; Non-labor Discrimination JEL: J16 – Economics
Economics
of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination JEL: J17 – Value of life; Foregone Income JEL: J18 – Public Policy. See also[edit]

Cost of raising a child Family economics Generational accounting Growth economics

Related:

Income and fertility Demographic dividend Demographic transition Demographic gift Demographic window Demographic trap Preston curve Development economics

Notes[edit]

^ a b c d Kelley, Allen C.; Schmidt, Robert M. (2008). "Economic Demography". The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. London: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 655. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.0428. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5..mw-parser-output cite.citation font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'" .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95% .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em

^ van Praag, Bernard M. S. (1988). "The notion of population economics". Journal of Population
Population
Economics. 1. pp. 5–16. doi:10.1007/bf00171507. JSTOR 20007247. PMID 12342564.

^ a b Foster, Andrew (2008). "Marriage Markets". The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. London: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 356. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.1044. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5.

^ Schultz, T. Paul (2008). "Fertility in Developing Countries". The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. London: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 291. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.0560. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5.

^ Galor, Oded (2008). " Economic
Economic
Growth in the Very Long Run". The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. London: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 685. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.0434. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5.

^ Adsera, Alicia (2008). "Fertility in Developed Countries". The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. London: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 286. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.0559. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5.

^ Montgomery, Mark; Trussell, James (1986). Models of marital status and childbearing. Handbook of Labor Economics. 1. pp. 205–71. doi:10.1016/S1573-4463(86)01006-4. ISBN 978-0-444-87856-4.

^ Galor, Oded (2005). "The Demographic Transition and the Emergence of Sustained Economic
Economic
Growth". Journal of the European Economic Association. 3 (2–3): 494–504. doi:10.1162/jeea.2005.3.2-3.494. hdl:10419/80187. JSTOR 40004992.

^ Hanushek, Eric A (1992). "The Trade-Off between Child Quantity and Quality" (PDF). Journal of Political Economy. 100 (1): 84–117. doi:10.1086/261808. JSTOR 2138807.

^ Lehrer, Evelyn L. (1996). "Religion as a determinant of marital fertility". Journal of Population
Population
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^ Ermisch, John (2008). "Family Economics". The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. London: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 260. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.0550. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5.

^ Ermisch, John (2003). An Economic
Economic
Analysis of the Family. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-09667-4.[page needed]

^ Becker, Gary S. (2008). "Family". The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. London: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 1. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.2528. ISBN 9780333786765.

^ Becker, Gary S. (1991) [1981]. A Treatise on the Family. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-90698-3.[page needed]

^ Becker, Gary S. (1988). "Family Economics
Economics
and Macro Behavior" (PDF). American Economic
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Review. 78 (1): 1–13.

^ Lehrer, Evelyn (2007). Religion, Economics
Economics
and Demography: The Effects of Religion on Education, Work, and the Family. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-70194-5.[page needed]

^ Lehrer, Evelyn L. (2004). "Religion as a Determinant of Economic
Economic
and Demographic Behavior in the United States". Population
Population
and Development Review. 30 (4): 707–726. doi:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2004.00038.x. hdl:10419/20687. JSTOR 3657335.

^ Weiss, Yoram (2008). "Marriage and Divorce". The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. London: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 347. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.1043. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5.

^ Lehrer, Evelyn L.; Chiswick, Carmel U. (August 1993). "Religion as a Determinant of Marital Stability". Demography. 30 (3): 385–404. doi:10.2307/2061647. JSTOR 2061647. PMID 8405605.

^ de la Croix, David; Mariani, Fabio (2015-01-07). "From Polygyny to Serial Monogamy: a Unified Theory of Marriage Institutions*". The Review of Economic
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^ Canning, David; Bloom, David E. (2008). " Population
Population
Health, Economic Implications of". The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. London: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 516. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.1310. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5.

^ Vaupel, James W.; Von Kistowski, Kristín G.; Rau, Roland (2008). "Mortality". The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. London: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 781. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.1141. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5.

^ Preston, Samuel H. (1975). "The Changing Relation between Mortality and level of Economic
Economic
Development". Population
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^ Bloom, D. E; Canning, D. (2007). "Commentary: The Preston Curve 30 years on: Still sparking fires". International Journal of Epidemiology. 36 (3): 498–9, discussion 502–3. doi:10.1093/ije/dym079. PMID 17550948.

^ Kelley, AC; Schmidt, RM (1996). "Saving, dependency and development". Journal of Population
Population
Economics. 9 (4): 365–86. doi:10.1007/BF00573070. PMID 12292225.

^ Weil, David N. (May 1999). " Population
Population
Growth, Dependency, and Consumption". The American Economic
Economic
Review. 89 (2): 251–5. doi:10.1257/aer.89.2.251. JSTOR 117115.

^ Denton, Frank T.; Spencer, Byron G. (2010). " Population
Population
Aging and Its Economic
Economic
Costs: A Survey of the Issues and Evidence". Canadian Journal on Aging. 19: 1–31. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.613.1972. doi:10.1017/S071498080001463X.

^ Ioannides, Yannis M.; Rossi-Hansberg, Esteban (2008). "Urban Growth". The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. London: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 544. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.1772. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5.

^ Walker, James R. (2008). "Internal Migration". The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. London: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 421. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.0824. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5.

^ Borjas, George J. (2008). "International Migration". The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. p. 453. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.0830. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5.

^ Lee, Ronald D. (2008). " Population
Population
Dynamics". The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. London: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 512. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.1309. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5.

^ Galor, Oded (2008). "Human Capital, Fertility and Growth". The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. London: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 109. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.0755. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5.

^ Galor, Oded; Weil, David N. (September 2000). "Population, Technology, and Growth: From Malthusian Stagnation to the Demographic Transition and beyond". The American Economic
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Review. 90 (4): 806–28. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.195.5342. doi:10.1257/aer.90.4.806. JSTOR 117309.

^ Johnson, David Gale; Lee, Ronald Demos, eds. (1987). Population Growth and Economic
Economic
Development: Issues and Evidence. University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 978-0-299-11130-4.[page needed]

^ Kelley, Allen C. (1988). " Economic
Economic
Consequences of Population
Population
Change in the Third World". Journal of Economic
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Literature. December (4): 1685–728. JSTOR 2726858.

^ Brander, James A.; Dowrick, Steve (1994). "The role of fertility and population in economic growth". Journal of Population
Population
Economics. 7 (1): 1–25. doi:10.1007/BF00160435. PMID 12287546.

^ Kremer, Michael (August 1993). " Population
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Growth and Technological Change: One Million B.C. to 1990". The Quarterly Journal of Economics. 108 (3): 681–716. doi:10.2307/2118405. JSTOR 2118405.

^ Dasgupta, Partha (December 1995). "The Population
Population
Problem: Theory and Evidence". Journal of Economic
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Literature. 33 (4): 1879–902. JSTOR 2729316.

^ Arrow, K.; Bolin, B.; Costanza, R.; Dasgupta, P.; Folke, C.; Holling, C. S.; Jansson, B.-O.; Levin, S.; Mäler, K.-G.; Perrings, C.; Pimentel, D. (1995). " Economic
Economic
Growth, Carrying Capacity, and the Environment". Science. 268 (5210): 520–1. doi:10.1126/science.268.5210.520. PMID 17756719.

^ Cohen, J. (1995). " Population
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growth and earth's human carrying capacity". Science. 269 (5222): 341–6. doi:10.1126/science.7618100. PMID 7618100.

^ Cohen, Joel E. (1995). How Many People Can the Earth Support?. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-31495-3.[page needed]

^ a b Currie, Janet (2008). "Child Health and Mortality". The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. London: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 769. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.0228. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5.

^ National Research Council (1986). Population
Population
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^ Theodore W. Schultz, 1981. Investing in People: The Economics
Economics
of Population
Population
Quality, University of California Press. Description and chapter-preview links.

^ Sen, Amartya (1995). "Authoritarianism versus Cooperation" (PDF). International Lecture Series on Population
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Population
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^ Birdsall, Nancy; Kelley, Allen C.; Sinding, Steven W., eds. (2001). Population
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Matters: Demographic Change, Economic
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^ Samuelson, Paul A. (December 1958). "An Exact Consumption-Loan Model of Interest with or without the Social Contrivance of Money". Journal of Political Economy. 66 (6): 467–82. doi:10.1086/258100. JSTOR 1826989.

^ Gokhale, Jagadeesh (2008). "Generational Accounting". The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. London: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 630. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.0627. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5.

^ Tuljapurkar, Shripad (2008). "Stable Population
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^ Greenwood, Jeremy; Seshadri, Ananth; Vandenbroucke, Guillaume (2005). "The Baby Boom and Baby Bust". American Economic
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^ Mosk, Carl (2008). "Historical Demography". The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. London: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 38. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.0738. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5.

^ Lee, Ronald D. (2008). "Demographic Transition". The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. London: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 433. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.0374. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5.

^ Kip Viscusi, W. (2008). "Value of Life". The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. London: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 586. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.1784. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5.

^ Becker, Gary S; Philipson, Tomas J; Soares, Rodrigo R (2005). "The Quantity and Quality of Life and the Evolution of World Inequality". American Economic
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^ Hurd, Michael (2008). "Retirement". The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. London: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 130. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.1431. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5.

^ Weil, David N. (2008). " Population
Population
Ageing". The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. London: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 499. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.1307. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5.

^ Clark, Robert Louis; Spengler, Joseph John (1998). The Economics
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of Individual and Population
Population
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^ Blanchet, Didier; Fleurbaey, Marc (2006). "Selfishness, altruism and normative principles in the economic analysis of social transfers". Handbook of the Economics
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of Giving, Altruism and Reciprocity. 2. p. 1465. doi:10.1016/S1574-0714(06)02024-0. ISBN 9780444521453.

^ Tomlinson, Sally (1985). "The Expansion of Special
Special
Education". Oxford Review of Education. 11 (2): 157–165. doi:10.1080/0305498850110203. JSTOR 1050498.

^ Bubolz, Margaret M.; Whiren, Alice P. (January 1984). "The Family of the Handicapped: An Ecological Model for Policy and Practice". Family Relations. 33 (1): 5–12. doi:10.2307/584584. JSTOR 584584.

^ Galor, Oded; Weil, David N. (June 1996). "The Gender Gap, Fertility, and Growth". The American Economic
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Review. 86 (3): 374–87. JSTOR 2118202.

^ Jacobsen, Joyce P. (2008), "gender roles and division of labour", in Durlauf, Steven N.; Blume, Lawrence E. (eds.), The new Palgrave dictionary of economics (2nd ed.), Basingstoke, Hampshire New York: Palgrave Macmillan, p. 582, ISBN 9780333786765. Also available online.

^ Jacobsen, Joyce P. (2007). The economics of gender (3rd ed.). Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 9781405161824.

^ Sowell, Thomas (1975). Race and Economics. McKay.[page needed]

^ Sowell, Thomas (1995). Race and Culture: A World View. Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-06797-8.

^ JEL classification codes#Labor and demographic economics JEL: J Subcategories.

^ Labor and Demographic Economics: Demographic Economics, NBER Working Paper abstract links from the National Bureau of Economic
Economic
Research.

^ Assaf Razin and Efraim Sadka, 1996. Population
Population
Economics. MIT Press. Description & chapter previews.

^ Rosenzweig, Mark R.; Stark, Oded (1997). "Introduction: Population and family economics". Handbook of Population
Population
and Family Economics. 1. p. 1. doi:10.1016/S1574-003X(97)80018-9. ISBN 9780444826459.

^ Search of The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics
Economics
Online, "population OR demography".

^ Of which a complete list for JEL: J with corresponding links is at JEL classification codes#Labor and demographic economics JEL: J Subcategories.

References[edit] John Eatwell, Murray Milgate, and Peter Newman, ed. ([1987] 1989. Social Economics: The New Palgrave, pp. v-vi. Arrow-page searchable links to entries for: "Ageing Populations," pp. 1-3, by Robert L. Clark "Declining Population," pp. 10-15, by Robin Barlow "Demographic Transition," pp. 16-23, by Ansley J. Coale "Extended Family," pp. 58-63, by Oliva Harris "Family," pp. 65-76, by Gary S. Becker "Fertility," pp.77-89, by Richard A. Easterlin "Gender," pp. 95-108, by Francine D. Blau "Race and Economics," pp. 215-218, by H. Stanback "Value of Life," pp.289-76, by Thomas C. Schelling Nathan Keyfitz, 1987. "demography," The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics, v. 1, pp. 796–802. T. Paul Schultz, 1981. Economics
Economics
of Population. Addison-Wesley. Book review. John B. Shoven, ed., 2011. Demography
Demography
and the Economy, University of Chicago Press. Scroll-down description[permanent dead link] and preview. Julian L. Simon, 1977. The Economics
Economics
of Population
Population
Growth. Princeton, _____, [1981] 1996. The Ultimate Resource
The Ultimate Resource
2, rev. and expanded. Princeton. Description and preview links. Dennis A. Ahlburg, 1998. "Julian Simon and the Population
Population
Growth Debate," Population
Population
and Development Review, 24(2), pp. 317-327. M. Perlman, 1982. [Untitled review of Simon, 1977 & 1981], Population
Population
Studies, 36(3), pp. 490-494. Julian L. Simon, ed., 1997. The Economics
Economics
Of Population: Key Modern Writings. Description.[permanent dead link] _____, ed., 1998. The Economics
Economics
of Population: Classic Writings. Description and scroll to chapter-preview links. Joseph J. Spengler 1951. "The Population
Population
Obstacle to Economic Betterment," American Economic
Economic
Review, 41(2), pp. 343-354. _____, 1966. "The Economist
Economist
and the Population
Population
Question," American Economic
Economic
Review, 56(1/2), pp. 1–24. Journals[edit] Demography
Demography
— Scope and links to issue contents & abstracts. Journal of Population
Population
Economics
Economics
— Aims and scope and 20th Anniversary statement, 2006. Population
Population
and Development Review — Aims and abstract & supplement links. Population
Population
Bulletin — Each issue on a current population topic. Population
Population
Studies —Aims and scope. Review of Economics
Economics

.