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v t e

Dattatreya
Dattatreya
(IAST: Dattātreya, Sanskrit: दत्तात्रेय), Dattā or Dattaguru, is a paradigmatic Sannyasi
Sannyasi
(monk) and one of the lords of Yoga
Yoga
in Hinduism.[1] In many regions of India and Nepal, he is considered a deity. In Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana
Telangana
Karnataka, he is a syncretic deity, considered to be an avatar (incarnation) of the three Hindu
Hindu
gods Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva, collectively known as Trimurti.[2] In other regions, and some versions of texts such as the Garuda Purana, Brahma
Brahma
Purana
Purana
and Sattvata Samhita, he is an avatar of Vishnu.[3] His iconography varies regionally. In western Maharashtra
Maharashtra
and Andhra Pradesh, for example, he is typically shown with three heads and six hands, one head each for Brahma, Vishnu
Vishnu
and Shiva, and one pair of hand holding the symbolic items associated with each of these gods: rosary and water pot of Brahma, conch and wheel of Vishnu, trident and drum of Shiva.[2] He is typically dressed as a simple monk, situated in a forest or wilderness suggestive of his renunciation of worldly goods and pursuit of a meditative yogi lifestyle. In paintings and some large carvings, he is surrounded by four dogs and a cow, which is a symbolism for the four Vedas
Vedas
and mother earth that nourishes all living beings.[2][4] In the temples of southern Maharashtra, Varanasi and in the Himalayas, his iconography shows him with one head and two hands with four dogs and a cow.[5] According to Rigopoulos, in the Nath
Nath
tradition of Shaivism, Dattatreya is revered as the Adi- Guru
Guru
(First Teacher) of the Adinath Sampradaya of the Nathas, the first "Lord of Yoga" with mastery of Tantra (techniques), although most traditions and scholars consider Adi Nath an epithet of Shiva.[6][7] His pursuit of simple life, kindness to all, sharing of his knowledge and the meaning of life during his travels is reverentially mentioned in the poems by Tukaram, a saint-poet of the Bhakti
Bhakti
movement.[2] Over time, Dattatreya
Dattatreya
has inspired many monastic movements in Shaivism, Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
and Shaktism, particularly in the Deccan region of India, south India, Gujarat, Rajasthan and Himalayan regions where Shiva
Shiva
tradition has been strong.[8] According to Mallinson, Dattatreya
Dattatreya
is not the traditional guru of the Nath
Nath
sampradaya, he was coopted by the Nath tradition in about the 18th century as a guru, as a part of Vishnu- Shiva
Shiva
syncretism. This is evidenced by the Marathi text Navanathabhaktisara, states Mallinson, wherein there is syncretic fusion of the Nath
Nath
Sampradaya with the Mahanubhav sect by identifying nine Naths with nine Narayanas.[9] Several Upanishads
Upanishads
are dedicated to him, as are texts of the Advaita Vedanta- Yoga
Yoga
tradition in Hinduism.[10] One of the most important texts of Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta, namely Avadhuta Gita
Avadhuta Gita
(literally, "song of the free") is attributed to Dattatreya.[11][12] Annual festival in the Hindu
Hindu
calendar month of Mārgaśīrṣa (November/December) reveres Dattatreya
Dattatreya
and this is called Datta Jayanti.[13]

Contents

1 Life

1.1 Self-education: the 24 Gurus of Dattatreya

2 Iconography

2.1 Alternate iconography 2.2 Symbolism

3 Texts

3.1 Epics 3.2 Pancaratra texts 3.3 Avadhuta Gita

4 Dattatreya
Dattatreya
traditions 5 Temples 6 See also 7 References

7.1 Bibliography

8 External links

Life[edit] The mythologies of Dattatreya
Dattatreya
are diverse and vary by region. In the Puranas, he was born in north Indian hermitage to Anusuya and her husband the Vedic sage Atri
Atri
traditionally credited with making the largest contribution to the Rigveda.[14][15] Another states his father lived in southern India, in the western Deccan region.[15] A third claims he was born in Kashmir jungles near the sacred Amarnath.[16] A fourth legend states he was born along his brothers were Durvasas and Chandra, to an unwed mother named Anusuya, after sage Atri
Atri
saw her bathing, fantasized about her which caused her to become pregnant.[1][17] In a fifth myth, sage Atri
Atri
was very old when young Anusuya married him, and they sought the help of the trimurti gods for a child. The trinity were pleased with them for having brought light and knowledge to the world, simultaneously granted the boon, which led Dattatreya
Dattatreya
to be born with characteristics of all three.[18] While his origins are unclear and trace to inconsistent mythologies, stories about his life are more consistent. He is described in the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
as an exceptional Rishi
Rishi
(sage) with extraordinary insights and knowledge, who is adored and raised to a Guru
Guru
and an Avatar
Avatar
of Vishnu
Vishnu
in the Puranas.[19] Dattatreya
Dattatreya
is stated in these texts to having renounced the world and leaving his home at an early age to lead a monastic life. One myth claims he meditated immersed in water for a long time,[17] another has him wandering from childhood and the young Dattatreya
Dattatreya
footprints have been preserved on a lonely peak at Girnar
Girnar
(Junagadh, Gujarat). The Tripura-rahasya refers to the disciple Parasurama
Parasurama
finding Dattatreya
Dattatreya
meditating on Gandhamadana mountain.[20] Dattatreya
Dattatreya
is said to have his lunch daily by taking alms at a holy place Pithapuram,Andhra pradesh, where he was born as sri pada sri vallabha(his first avatar). Self-education: the 24 Gurus of Dattatreya[edit] The young Dattatreya
Dattatreya
is famous in the Hindu
Hindu
texts as the one who started with nothing and without teachers, yet reached self-awareness by observing nature during his Sannyasi
Sannyasi
wanderings, and treating these natural observations as his twenty four teachers.[21] This legend has been emblematic in the Hindu
Hindu
belief, particularly among artists and Yogis, that ideas, teachings and practices come from all sources, that self effort is a means to learning.[22][23] The 24 teachers of Dattatreya
Dattatreya
are:[21][24]

The 24 teachers from mother nature[21][24][25]

Guru Observation Dattatreya's learning

1. Earth Steadfastly productive, does its dharma, gets abused, heals and is steady in giving nourishment. forebearance, remain undisturbed even if oppressed, keep healing even if others injure you

2. Wind Passes through everything and everyone, unchanged, unattached, like Truth; sometimes becomes a gale, disturbs and changes the world, like Truth. be free like the wind, yet resolute true to your own force

3. Sky the highest has no boundaries, no limits, is unaffected even if clouds and thunderstorms come and go the highest within oneself, the Atman (self, soul) has no limits, it is undifferentiated nondual no matter what, let the clouds of materiality pass, be one with your soul and the Universal Self

4. Water serves all without pride, discrimination; is transparent to everyone; purifies and gives life to everyone it touches a saint discriminates against no one and is never arrogant, lets other give him impurity, yet he always remains pure and cleanses

5. Fire purifies and reforms everything it comes in contact with, its energy shapes things the heat of knowledge reforms everything it comes in contact with, to shape oneself one needs the energy of learning

6. Moon waxes and wanes but its oneness doesn't change birth, death, rebirth and the cycle of existence does not change the oneness of soul, like moon it is a continuous eternal reality

7. Sun source of light and gives its gift to all creatures as a sense of duty; in rain puddles it reflects and seems like distinct in each puddle, yet it is the same one Sun the soul may appear different in different bodies, yet everyone is connected and the soul is same in all; like Sun, one must share one's gifts as a sense of duty

8. Pigeons they suffer losses in the hands of violent hunters, warn against obsessive attachments to anyone or to material things in this world do not be obsessive, don't focus on transient things such as damage or personal loss, human life is a rare privilege to learn, discover one's soul and reach moksha

9. Python eats whatever comes its way, makes the most from what it consumes be content with what you have, make the most from life's gifts

10. Bumblebee active, works hard to build and create its reserve by directly visiting the flowers, but is selective and uses discretion, harmonious with flowers and never kills or over consumes be active, go directly to the sources of knowledge, seek wisdom from all sources but choose the nectar, be gentle, live harmoniously and leave others or other ideologies alone when you must

11. Beekeeper profits from honeybees don't crave for material pleasures or in piling up treasures, neither the body nor material wealth ever lasts

12. Hawk picks up a large chunk of food, but other birds harass him, when it drops its food other birds leave him alone take what you need, not more

13. Ocean lucid at the surface, but deep and undisturbed within; receives numerous rivers yet remains the same let rivers of sensory input not bother who you are deep inside, know your depths, seek self-knowledge, be unperturbed by life, equipoise

14. Moth is deceived by its senses, it runs to the fire in misunderstanding which kills it question your senses, question what others are telling you, question what you see, know senses can deceive, seek reason

15. Elephant is deceived by his lust, runs after the smell of a possible mate, and falls into a pit made by mahout's then fettered and used don't lust after something or someone, don't fall into traps of others or of sensory gratification

16. Deer is deceived by his fear, by hunters who beat drums and scare him into a waiting net fear not the noise, and do not succumb to pressure others design for you

17. Fish is deceived by bait and so lured to its death greed not the crumbs someone places before you, there are plenty of healthy opportunities everywhere

18. Courtesan exchanges transient pleasure with body, but feels dejected with meaningless life, ultimately moves on many prostitute their time, self-respect and principles for various reasons but feel dejected with their career and circumstances, seek meaning and spirituality in life, move on to doing things you love to do

19. Child lives a life of innocent bliss be a child, curious, innocent, blissful

20. Maiden she is poor yet tries her best to feed her family and guest, as she cooks she avoids attracting attention to her kitchen and poverty, by breaking all her bangles except one on each wrist don't seek attention, a yogi accomplishes and shares more through solitude

21. Snake lives in whatever hole that comes his way, willingly leaves bad skin and molts a yogi can live in any place, must be ready to molt old ideas and body for rebirth of his spirit

22. Arrowsmith the best one was so lost in his work that he failed to notice the king's procession that passed his way concentrate on what you love to do, intense concentration is the way to self-realization

23. Spider builds a beautiful web, destroys and abandons the web, then restarts again don't get entangled by your own web, be ready to abandon it, go with your Atman

24. Caterpillar starts out closed in a tiny nest but ultimately becomes a butterfly long journeys start small, a disciple starts out as insignificant but ultimately becomes a spiritual master

Iconography[edit]

Dattatreya's iconography varies with region. Left: Icon with three heads; Right: with one head.

The appearance of Shri Dattatreya
Dattatreya
in pictures varies according to traditional beliefs. A typical icon for Dattatreya, particularly popular with Marathi-speaking people in India, has three heads corresponding to Brahma-Vishnu-Shiva, and six hands; the lowest two hands carry rosary (mala) and water pot (kamandalu), middle pair of hands hold hourglass mini-drum (damaru) and trident (trishul), and top two hands have conch (shankh) and spinning wheel (chakra).[2][26] Many older medieval temples of Dattatreya
Dattatreya
show him with just one head, such as the one in Mahur and another in Pandharpur, both in southern Maharashtra.[27] Texts such as Agni Purana
Agni Purana
describe the architectural features for building murti, and for Dattatreya, it recommends him with one head and two hands.[28] In Varanasi, Nepal, north Himalayan foothill states of India, 15th-century Nath
Nath
temples of Dattatreya
Dattatreya
show him with just one face. In western parts of Maharashtra, the syncretic six armed and three faced iconography is more common.[5] He is the motif of the '"honey bee" Yogin who has realized advaita knowledge. Dattatreya
Dattatreya
as the archetypal model of syncretism:[2]

Furthermore, the unfolding of the Dattātreya icon illustrates the development of Yoga
Yoga
as a synthetic and inclusive body of ideologies and practices. Although fundamentally a jñāna-mūrti, Dattātreya is a "honey bee" Yogin: one whose character and teachings are developed by gathering varieties of Yoga's flowers. For all religious groups whose propensity it is to include ideas, practices, and teaching from the ocean of traditions, Dattātreya is truly a paradigm. — Antonio Rigopoulos, Dattātreya: the immortal guru, yogin, and avatāra[29]

Another distinctive aspect of Dattatreya
Dattatreya
iconography is that it includes four dogs and a cow. The four dogs represent the Vedas,[4] as trustworthy all weather friends, company and guardians, while the cow is a metaphor for mother earth who silently and always provides nourishment.[2][30] Alternate iconography[edit] Dattatreya's sculptures with alternate iconography have been identified in 1st millennium CE cave temples and archaeological sites related to Hinduism.[31] For example, in the Badami
Badami
temple (Karnataka), Dattatreya
Dattatreya
is shown to be with single head and four hands like Vishnu, but seated in a serene Yoga
Yoga
posture (padmasana). Carved with him are the emblems (lañchana) of the Trimurti, namely the swan of Brahma, the Garuda of Vishnu
Vishnu
and the Nandi of Shiva. The right earlobe jewelry and hair decoration in this art work of Dattatreya
Dattatreya
is of Shiva, but on his left the details are those of Vishnu.[32] Rigopoulos dates this Badami
Badami
sculpture to be from the 10th to 12th century.[31] A sculpture similar to Badami, but with some differences, has been discovered in Ajmer
Ajmer
(Rajasthan). The Ajmer
Ajmer
art work is a free statue where Dattatreya
Dattatreya
is standing, has one head and four hands. In his various hands, he carries a Trishula
Trishula
of Shiva, a Chakra
Chakra
of Vishnu, a Kamandalu of Brahma, and a rosary common to all three.[33] Like the Badami
Badami
relief work, the Ajmer
Ajmer
iconography of Dattatreya
Dattatreya
shows the swan of Brahma, the Garuda of Vishnu
Vishnu
and the Nandi of Shiva
Shiva
carved on the pedestal with him.[33] Some scholars such as James Harle and TA Gopinatha Rao consider iconography that presents Brahma-Vishnu- Shiva
Shiva
together as Hari Hara Pitamaha to be synonymous with or equivalent to Dattatreya.[34][35] Antonio Rigopoulos questions this identification, and suggests that Harihara Pitamaha iconography may have been a prelude to and something that evolved into Dattatreya
Dattatreya
iconography.[31] Symbolism[edit]

Always be learning The investigators of the true nature of the world are uplifted by their own efforts in this world. The self is the infallible guide of the self: through direct perception and through analogy one can work out one's salvation.

— Dattatreya, Bhagavata Purana
Bhagavata Purana
XI.7.19 Translated by Klaus Klostermaier[23]

The historic Indian literature has interpreted the representation of Dattatreya
Dattatreya
symbolically. His three heads are symbols of the Gunas (qualities in Samkhya
Samkhya
school of Hinduism). The three Gunas
Gunas
are Sattva, Rajas and Tamas. The six hands have ethical symbolism, namely Yamas, Niyama, Sama, Dama, Daya and Shanti (axiology in Yoga
Yoga
and Vedanta school of Hinduism).[36] The Kamadhenu cow is symbolic Panchabutas, the four dogs are inner forces of a human being: Iccha, Vasana, Asha and Trishna. In these interpretations, Dattatreya
Dattatreya
is that yogi Guru
Guru
(teacher) who has perfected all these, rules them rather than is ruled by them, and is thus the Guru
Guru
Dattatreya
Dattatreya
is beyond them.[36] Texts[edit] The Dattatreya
Dattatreya
Upanishad
Upanishad
(tantra-focussed), Darshana Upanishad (yoga-focussed) and particularly the Avadhuta Upanishad (advaita-focussed) present the philosophy of the Dattatreya tradition.[37][38] Dattatreya
Dattatreya
is also mentioned in the classic text on Yoga, the Shandilya Upanishad.[39] Other Upanishads
Upanishads
where Dattatreya's name appears in lists of ancient Hindu
Hindu
monks revered for their insights on renunciation are Jabala Upanishad, Naradaparivrajaka Upanishad, Bhikshuka Upanishad
Upanishad
and Yajnavalkya
Yajnavalkya
Upanishad.[40][41] Of these, his mention in the Jabala Upanishad
Upanishad
is chronologically significant because this ancient text is dated to have been complete between 3rd-century BCE and 3rd-century CE.[42] Epics[edit] Dattatreya
Dattatreya
is mentioned in the Mahabharata[43] and the Ramayana.[citation needed] Pancaratra texts[edit] Dattatreya
Dattatreya
is mentioned in the ancient chapter 9 of the Sattvata Samhita and chapter 5 of the Ahirbudhnya Samhita, both among the oldest layer of texts in the Vaishnava Agama tradition (Pancaratra).[44] Schrader states these texts and the chronology of Dattatreya
Dattatreya
are older than the Mahabharata, but Rigopoulos disagrees with him on the chronology.[44] Avadhuta Gita[edit] In the Hindu
Hindu
tradition, Dattatreya
Dattatreya
is the author of Avadhuta Gita, or the "Song of the free".[45][46] The text's poetry is based on the principles of Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta, one of the subschools of Hindu philosophy.[11][12][47] The extant manuscripts have been dated to approximately the 9th or 10th century,[48] but it may have existed earlier as part of an oral tradition.[49] It consists of 289 shlokas (metered verses), divided into eight chapters.[45][50] Dattatreya
Dattatreya
traditions[edit] Several Hindu
Hindu
monastic and yoga traditions are linked to Dattatreya:[51]

Dattatreya
Dattatreya
in Maharashtra

Nath
Nath
sampradaya: The Nath
Nath
yogis, that metamorphosed into a warrior ascetic group, consider Dattatreya
Dattatreya
as their theological founder.[52] This group grew and became particularly prominent during the Islamic invasions and Hindu-Muslim wars in South Asia, from about the 14th to 18th century, although the Dattatreya
Dattatreya
roots of the peaceful Nath
Nath
yogis go back to about the 10th century. The group was most active in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Nepal. The tradition believes that the legendary Nath
Nath
sampradaya yogi and Hatha Yoga
Yoga
innovator Gorakshanath
Gorakshanath
was inspired and shaped by Dattatreya.[52] Regional efforts and texts of the Nath
Nath
tradition such as Yogi
Yogi
sampradaya vishkriti discussed Dattatreya.[53][54] Avadhuta sampradaya: The nine Narayanas of the Avadhuta sampradaya are attributed to Dattatreya, an idea also found in the Natha sampradaya.[55] A panth started by Pantmaharaj Balekundrikar of Balekundri near Belgaum is related to this.[51] Dasanami sampradaya and Shakti
Shakti
pithas: Dattatreya
Dattatreya
is revered in Dasanami and goddess-oriented Shaktism traditions.[56][57] Bhakti
Bhakti
traditions: Dattatetreya's theology emphasizing simple life, kindness to all, questioning the status quo, self pursuit of knowledge and seeking spiritual meaning of life appealed to Bhakti
Bhakti
sant-poets of Hinduism
Hinduism
such as Tukaram[2] and Eknath,[58] during an era of political and social upheavel caused by Islamic invasion in the Deccan region of India. They reverentially mentioned Dattatreya
Dattatreya
in their poems. The use of his symbolism was one of the many syncretic themes of this period where the ideas of Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
and Shaivism
Shaivism
holistically fused in popular imagination.[59] Mahanubhav tradition: Along with Krishna, the Mahanubhav tradition considers Dattatreya
Dattatreya
as their divine inspiration. The Mahanubhav Panth, propagated by Sri Chakradhar Swami, has five Krishnas, of which Dattatreya
Dattatreya
is one as their Adi Guru
Guru
(the original Guru), as well as the early teachers in their tradition (Chakradhar, Gundham, Cangdev).[60] They worship Dattatreya
Dattatreya
as single headed with two arms. He has a temple dedicated in Mahur by this tradition.[27] Gurucharitra tradition: This tradition is named after the Marathi text Gurucharitra consisting of 51 chapters, containing the life stories of 14th-century Shripad Shrivallabha
Shripad Shrivallabha
and 15th-century Narasimha Saraswati.[61] The text was composed by Sarasvati Gangadhara, consists of three sections called Jnanakanda (chapters 1-24), Karmakanda (25-37) and Bhaktikanda (38-51), and is considered a sacred mantra-filled text in the Gurucharita tradition in parts of Maharashtra, north Karnataka
Karnataka
and Gujarat. Gangapur in north Karnataka is an important pilgrimage center in this tradition.[61] Lal Padris: another Hindu
Hindu
yogi group from western India with roots in the 10th-century and with ideas similar to Nath
Nath
and Kanphata sampradaya, traces Dattatreya
Dattatreya
as the basis of their spiritual ideas.[62] Around 1550 CE, Dattatreya
Dattatreya
Yogi
Yogi
taught the Dattatreya
Dattatreya
philosophy to his disciple Das Gosavi in Marathi. Das Gosavi then taught this philosophy to his two Telugu disciples Gopalbhatt and Sarvaved who studied and translated Das Gosavi's book of Vedantavyavaharsangraha into Telugu language. According to Prof. R. C. Dhere, Dattatreya
Dattatreya
Yogi and Das Gosavi are the original gurus in the Telugu Dattatreya tradition. Prof. Rao states that Dattatreya
Dattatreya
Shatakamu was written by Paramanandateertha who is equally important in his contributions to the Telugu tradition of Dattatreya. He was a proponent of Advaita philosophy and dedicated his two epics, Anubhavadarpanamu and Shivadnyanamanjari to Shri Dattatreya. His famous Vivekachintamani book was translated into Kannada
Kannada
by Nijashivagunayogi and Lingayat saint Shanatalingaswami translated this into Marathi.[63]

Temples[edit] Numerous Datta temples exists in Maharashtra. Mahur [Distric -Nanded]. Ek Mukhi Datta of Narayanpur features Dattatreya. There is a temple of Lord Dattatreya
Dattatreya
in Devgad (deogad)[64] of Ahmednagar district. There is a temple of lord Dattatreya, amidst the serene and quiet natural surroundings of Vanki river, at the village Pathari, 7 km from Valsad city (dist valsad) Gujarat, and 3 km from the Dharampur road highway.[65]

15th-century Dattatreya
Dattatreya
temple in Bhaktapur Nepal. Vishnu's conch, Shiva's trident and other iconography at its entrance. Inside is Dattatreya
Dattatreya
icon with one face and two hands, revered on Maha Shivaratri
Shivaratri
and considered as the healing deity. The square is surrounded by Hindu
Hindu
monasteries.[5]

Other temples of Dattatreya
Dattatreya
include:

Sri Dattatreya
Dattatreya
- Girnar, Gujarat Sri pada sri vallabha temple - pithapuram, Andhra pradesh Shri Datta Mandir - Garudeshwar, Gujarat[66] Shri Datta Mandir - Nareshwar Gujarat Sri Kalagnishamana Datta - Mysuru, Karnataka Sri Datta Mandir - Hingoli, Maharashtra Sri Yogiraja Vallabha
Vallabha
Datta - Prodduturu, Andhra Pradesh Sri Yogiraja Vallabha
Vallabha
Datta - Bangalore, Karnataka Sri Gnana Sagara Datta - Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh Sri Syama Kamala Lochana Datta - Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh Sri Atrivarada Datta - Machalipattanam, Andhra Pradesh Sri Sivaroopa Datta - Jayalakshmipuram, Andhra Pradesh Sri Jagadguru Datta - Guntur, Andhra Pradesh Sri Adiguru Datta - Chennai, Tamil Nadu Sri Digambara Datta - Rishikesh, Uttarakand Sri Viswambara Avadhoota Datta - Akiveedu, Andhra Pradesh Sri Deva Deva Datta - Nuzivedu, Andhra Pradesh Sri Avadhoota Datta - Hyderabad, Telangana Sri Digambara Datta - Gandigunta, Andhra Pradesh Sri Siddaraja datta - Cochin, Kerala Sri Mayamukta Avadhoota Datta - Acharapakkam, Tamil Nadu Sri Leela Viswambarava Datta - Surat, Gujarat Sri Kshetra Narada
Narada
Gadde - Raichur, Karnataka Shri Dattatreya
Dattatreya
Temple, Bijalpur, Indore, M.P. Shri Dattatreya
Dattatreya
Temple - Dharwad, Karnataka Shri Datta Mandir Sansthan Ruibhar[67] Osmanabad Maharashtra

See also[edit]

Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta Bhedabheda Dvaita
Dvaita
Vedanta Upanishads

References[edit]

^ a b James G. Lochtefeld (2002). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: A-M. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-8239-3179-8.  ^ a b c d e f g h Maxine Berntsen (1988). The Experience of Hinduism: Essays on Religion in Maharashtra. State University of New York Press. pp. 95–96. ISBN 978-0-88706-662-7.  ^ Rigopoulos 1998, pp. 42-43. ^ a b Werness, Hope B. (2004). The Continuum encyclopedia of animal symbolism in art. Illustrated edition. Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 0-8264-1525-3, ISBN 978-0-8264-1525-7. Source: [1] (accessed: Thursday February 11, 2010), p.138 ^ a b c Rigopoulos 1998, pp. 224-226. ^ Rigopoulos (1998), p. 77. ^ Harper & Brown (2002), p. 155. ^ Maxine Berntsen (1988). The Experience of Hinduism: Essays on Religion in Maharashtra. State University of New York Press. pp. 96–106. ISBN 978-0-88706-662-7.  ^ Mallinson 2012, pp. 407-411. ^ Antonio Rigopoulos (1998). Dattatreya: The Immortal Guru, Yogin, and Avatara: A Study of the Transformative and Inclusive Character of a Multi-faceted Hindu
Hindu
Deity. State University of New York Press. pp. 57–68. ISBN 978-0-7914-3696-7.  ^ a b Dalal 2010, p. 50. ^ a b K P Gietz 1992, p. 58 note 318. ^ Gudrun Buhnemann (1988),Puja: A study in Smarta Ritual, University of Vienna, Be Nobili, Editor: G Oberhammer, page 126 ^ Gopal, Madan (1990). K.S. Gautam, ed. India through the ages. Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. p. 73.  ^ a b Antonio Rigopoulos (1998). Dattatreya: The Immortal Guru, Yogin, and Avatara. State University of New York Press. pp. 1–3. ISBN 978-0-7914-3696-7.  ^ Mandeep (March 2013). "Who is Lord Dattatreya".  ^ a b Antonio Rigopoulos (1998). Dattatreya: The Immortal Guru, Yogin, and Avatara. State University of New York Press. pp. 6–7. ISBN 978-0-7914-3696-7.  ^ Antonio Rigopoulos (1998). Dattatreya: The Immortal Guru, Yogin, and Avatara. State University of New York Press. pp. 8–11. ISBN 978-0-7914-3696-7.  ^ Antonio Rigopoulos (1998). Dattatreya: The Immortal Guru, Yogin, and Avatara. State University of New York Press. pp. 27–28. ISBN 978-0-7914-3696-7.  ^ Mahendranath, Shri Gurudev. "The Pathless Path to Immortality: The Wisdom of Bhagavan Dattatreya" in The Scrolls of Mahendranath, International Nath
Nath
Order, 2002. Retrieved December 17, 2010. ^ a b c Antonio Rigopoulos (1994). Dattatreya: The Immortal Guru, Yogin, and Avatara: A Study of the Transformative and Inclusive Character of a Multi-faceted Hindu
Hindu
Deity. State University of New York Press. pp. 40–57. ISBN 978-1-4384-1733-2.  ^ Antonio Rigopoulos (1994). Dattatreya: The Immortal Guru, Yogin, and Avatara: A Study of the Transformative and Inclusive Character of a Multi-faceted Hindu
Hindu
Deity. State University of New York Press. pp. 57–58. ISBN 978-1-4384-1733-2.  ^ a b Klaus K. Klostermaier (2007). A Survey of Hinduism: Third Edition. State University of New York Press. p. 478. ISBN 978-0-7914-7082-4.  ^ a b Martin Haig (2007), Sri Dattatreya’s 24 Gurus: Learning from the World in Hindu
Hindu
Tradition, Canadian Journal of Environmental Education, Vol. 12, pages 131-135 ^ YH Yadav (1991), Glimpses of Greatness, 3rd Edition, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, pages 33-55 ^ मालाकमंडलुरधः करपद्मयुग्मे, मध्यस्थ पाणियुगुले डमरूत्रिशूले यस्यस्त उर्ध्वकरयोः शुभशंखचक्रे वंदे तमत्रिवरदं भुजषटकयुक्तम ^ a b Rigopoulos 1998, pp. 223-224. ^ Rigopoulos 1998, p. 224. ^ Rigopoulos, Antonio (1998), Dattātreya: the immortal guru, yogin, and avatāra : a study of the transformative and inclusive character of a multi-faceted Hindu
Hindu
deity, State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-3695-0 (accessed: Saturday February 6, 2010) ^ Antonio Rigopoulos (1994). Dattatreya: The Immortal Guru, Yogin, and Avatara: A Study of the Transformative and Inclusive Character of a Multi-faceted Hindu
Hindu
Deity. State University of New York Press. pp. xiv, 228–237. ISBN 978-1-4384-1733-2.  ^ a b c Rigopoulos 1998, pp. 227-228. ^ T. A. Gopinatha Rao (1993). Elements of Hindu
Hindu
iconography. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 252–255. ISBN 978-81-208-0878-2.  ^ a b T. A. Gopinatha Rao (1993). Elements of Hindu
Hindu
iconography. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 251 (figure 2), 255. ISBN 978-81-208-0878-2.  ^ James C. Harle (1994). The Art and Architecture of the Indian Subcontinent. Yale University Press. p. 236. ISBN 978-0-300-06217-5.  ^ T. A. Gopinatha Rao (1993). Elements of Hindu
Hindu
iconography. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 238, 252–253. ISBN 978-81-208-0878-2.  ^ a b Antonio Rigopoulos (1994). Dattatreya: The Immortal Guru, Yogin, and Avatara: A Study of the Transformative and Inclusive Character of a Multi-faceted Hindu
Hindu
Deity. State University of New York Press. pp. 243 footnote 40. ISBN 978-1-4384-1733-2.  ^ Rigopoulos 1998, pp. 64-71, 223. ^ Olivelle 1992, pp. 273-277. ^ Larson, Gerald James; Bhattacharya, Ram Shankar (2008). Yoga : India's Philosophy of Meditation. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 608=harv. ISBN 978-81-208-3349-4.  ^ Rigopoulos 1998, p. 57. ^ Olivelle 1992, pp. 145, 184, 237, 278-280 (see first three sections). ^ Olivelle 1992, pp. 5-11. ^ Vanaparva 115.12, Shantiparva 49.36-37, Anushasanparva 152.5 and 153.12 ^ a b Rigopoulos 1998, p. 43. ^ a b Rigopoulos 1998, p. 195. ^ John A. Grimes (1996). A Concise Dictionary of Indian Philosophy: Sanskrit Terms Defined in English. State University of New York Press. p. 110. ISBN 978-0-7914-3067-5.  ^ Katz, Jerry (2007). One: essential writings on nonduality. Sentient Publications. ISBN 978-1-59181-053-7, ISBN 978-1-59181-053-7. Source ^ Rigopoulos 1998, pp. 195-196. ^ Swami Abhayananda (1992, 2007). Dattatreya: Song of the Avadhut: An English Translation of the 'Avadhuta Gita' (with Sanskrit Transliteration). Classics of mystical literature series. ISBN 978-0-914557-15-9 (paper), p.10 ^ Hattangadi 2000. ^ a b Joshi, Dr. P. N. (2000) Shri Dattatreya
Dattatreya
Dnyankosh. Pune: Shri Dattatreya
Dattatreya
Dnyankosh Prakashan. ^ a b Rigopoulos 1998, pp. 99-104, 218. ^ Karine Schomer; W. H. McLeod (1987). The Sants: Studies in a Devotional Tradition of India. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. pp. 220–221. ISBN 978-81-208-0277-3.  ^ David N. Lorenzen; Adrián Muñoz (2011). Yogi
Yogi
Heroes and Poets: Histories and Legends of the Naths. State University of New York Press. pp. 59–61. ISBN 978-1-4384-3892-4.  ^ Rigopoulos 1998, p. 99. ^ Rigopoulos 1998, pp. xiii, 89, 94-95. ^ Raeside, I. M. P. (1982). "Dattātreya". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. 45 (03): 489–499. doi:10.1017/S0041977X00041537.  ^ Karine Schomer; W. H. McLeod (1987). The Sants: Studies in a Devotional Tradition of India. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. pp. 95–102, 220–221. ISBN 978-81-208-0277-3.  ^ Karine Schomer; W. H. McLeod (1987). The Sants: Studies in a Devotional Tradition of India. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. pp. 215–224. ISBN 978-81-208-0277-3.  ^ Antonio Rigopoulos (2005). The Mahanubhavs. Firenze University Press. pp. 9–10. ISBN 978-88-8453-264-0.  ^ a b Antonio Rigopoulos (1993). The Life And Teachings Of Sai Baba Of Shirdi: The Conflicting Origins, Impacts, and Futures of the Community College. State University of New York Press. pp. 18, 29 note 12, 269–272. ISBN 978-0-7914-1267-1.  ^ George Weston Briggs (1998). Gorakhnāth and the Kānphaṭa Yogīs. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 74–75. ISBN 978-81-208-0564-4.  ^ Works relating to the Dattatreya
Dattatreya
Cult in Telugu Literature: N. Venkata Rao (Essays in Philosophy presented to Dr. T. M. P. Mahadevan, Madras, 1962. pp464-475). ^ http://www.deogad.com Deogad.com ^ https://valsaddp.gujarat.gov.in/valsad/english/jillavishe/history.htm ^ Maharashtra
Maharashtra
CM Fadnavis visits Garudeshwar’s Datta temple, Indian Express (July 15 2017) ^ http://www.Dattamandir.com

Bibliography[edit]

Abhayananda, S., Dattatreya's Song of the Avadhut. ATMA Books (Olympia, Wash), 2000. ISBN 81-7030-675-2. Hariprasad Shivprasad Joshi (1965). Origin and Development of Dattātreya Worship in India. The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda. Dalal, Roshen (2010). Hinduism: An Alphabetical Guide. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-341421-6.  K P Gietz; et al. (1992), Epic and Puranic Bibliography (Up to 1985) Annoted and with Indexes: Part I: A - R, Part II: S - Z, Indexes, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3-447-03028-1  Harper, Katherine Anne; Brown, Robert L. (2002). The Roots of Tantra. New York: State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-5305-6. Kambhampati, Parvathi Kumar (2000). Sri Dattatreya
Dattatreya
(1st ed.). Visakhapatnam: Dhanishta.  Rigopoulos, Antonio (1998). Dattatreya: The Immortal Guru, Yogin, and Avatara. New York: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-3696-9. Subramanian K. N., Wisdom of Sri Dattatreya. Sura Books, 2006. ISBN 81-7478-390-3. Guru
Guru
Gita, BAPU (Prabhakar Motiwale, Indore), chaitanya ashram, Datta Shakti
Shakti
Pith Hattangadi, Sunder (2000). "अवधूतोपनिषत् (Avadhuta Upanishad)" (PDF) (in Sanskrit). Retrieved 4 March 2016.  Mallinson, James (2012). "Nāth Sampradāya". In Knut A. Jacobsen; Helene Basu; Angelika Malinar; Vasudha Narayanan. Brill’s Encyclopedia of Hinduism. 3. Brill Academic.  Olivelle, Patrick (1992). The Samnyasa Upanisads. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195070453.  Olivelle, Patrick (1993). The Asrama System. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195083279.  Rigopoulos, Antonio (1998). Dattatreya: The Immortal Guru, Yogin, and Avatara: A Study of the Transformative and Inclusive Character of a Multi-faceted Hindu
Hindu
Deity. State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-3696-7. 

External links[edit]

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Four Kumaras Narada Nara-Narayana Kapila Dattatreya Yajna Rishabha Prithu Dhanvantari Mohini Vyasa Prsnigarbha Hayagriva Hamsa

1 The list of ten avatars varies regionally. The two substitutions involve Balarama, Krishna
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