Dalian is a major city and seaport in the south of
China. It is the southernmost city of the
Liaodong Peninsula. Dalian
is the province's second largest city and has sub-provincial
administrative status. The
Shandong Peninsula lies southwest across
Bohai Strait and
Korea lies across the
Yellow Sea to the east.
Today, a financial, shipping and logistics centre for Northeast Asia,
Dalian has a significant history of being used by foreign powers for
Dalian was previously known as both Dalniy (Russian:
Дальний; Dal'nii) and Dairen (Japanese: 大連). However, the
city was better known as
Port Arthur (Russian: Порт-Артур;
Port-Artur) and Ryojun (Japanese: 旅順) from the original Port
Arthur, now the city's
Dalian ranks 48th in the Global Financial Centres Index, the
other Chinese cities on the list being Hong Kong, Shanghai, Shenzhen,
Beijing and Qingdao. In 2012,
Dalian ranked 82nd in the Global City
Competitiveness Index. In 2006,
Dalian was named China's most
livable city by
2.2 Qing Dynasty
2.3 British, Russian, and Japanese occupations
2.4 Post-World War II
2.5 Post 1990
2.6 Post 2010
3.2 Environmental issues
4.1 Municipal government
4.2 Administrative divisions
6.1 Agriculture and aquaculture
6.2 Heavy, light and distribution industries
6.3 Industrial zones
6.4 Financial and IT industry
7.1 Four inner-city districts
Jinzhou District and Development Zone (in the northern suburbs)
Lüshunkou District (in the southwestern suburbs)
7.4 Three Northern District and Cities of Greater Dalian
7.5 Hot Spring and Ski Resorts
8.1 Local transportation
8.2 Domestic and international
9.5 City-wide festivals and events
10 Notable people
11.1 Colleges and universities
11.2 Research centres
11.3 High schools
11.4 International schools
12 Twin towns and sister cities
13 See also
16 Further reading
17 External links
Dalian originated from Qingniwa (Chinese: 青泥洼; pinyin:
Qīngníwā; literally: "cyan mud swamp") or
青泥洼桥; pinyin: Qīngníwāqiáo; literally: "bridge over the
cyan mud swamp"), a small fishing village.
Russia built a commercial
town for the
Kwantung Leased Territory
Kwantung Leased Territory after assuming control in 1898
and called it "Dalniy" (Russian: Дальний Dal'nii, lit. 'a
remote one (in reference to the town's location)', rendered as
Chinese: 达里尼; pinyin: Dálǐní) from 1898–1905. After the
Japan occupied the
Kwantung Leased Territory
Kwantung Leased Territory and
renamed the city Dairen (Japanese: 大連/だいれん) after the
Chinese name for
Dalian Bay (simplified Chinese: 大连湾;
traditional Chinese: 大連灣; pinyin: Dàlián Wān). English
sources called the city "Dairen" in this period, from the Japanese.
Dalian merged with nearby town called
旅顺) (formerly "Ryojun" and before that, "
Port Arthur") to form the
city of Lüda (Chinese: 旅大; pinyin: Lǚdà), a name formed
from the first syllable of each constituent's name which was usually
rendered as Luta in English during that era. In 1981, the State
Council again renamed the city, from Lüda to "Dalian" (simplified
Chinese: 大连; traditional Chinese: 大連; pinyin: Dàlián, the
same Chinese characters as Japanese Dairen), effective 5 March
In the Qin and Han periods (221 BC–AD 220), Chinese expanded their
territories into northern
Korea through the
Dalian region, then under
the jurisdiction of
Liaodong county. During the Sixteen Kingdoms
era (3rd through 5th centuries), the kingdom of
this region. In the early
Tang Dynasty (618–907), the
was part of
Andong Prefecture in Jili state; during the Liao Dynasty
(916–1125), it was part of Dong Jing Tong
Liaoyang county. Dalian
was named Sanshan in the period of Wei Jin (220–420), San Shanpu in
Tang Dynasty (618–907), Sanshan Seaport in the Ming Dynasty
(1368–1644), and Qingniwakou during the
Qing Dynasty (1644–1911).
In the 1880s, Jinzhou, the north of downtown within Dalian, now
Jinzhou District, was a walled town and centre for political intrigue
and economic activity. The Qing government built bridges and heavily
fortified the peninsula. Mining camps on the northern coast of Dalian
Bay became the small town of Qingniwa or Qingniwaqiao, near what
became downtown Dalian.
British, Russian, and Japanese occupations
Russian Dalian and Kwantung Leased Territory
Zhongshan Square, then Ōhiroba, ca. 1940. It was initially built in
1898 as Nikolayevskaya Square.
An old clock on a heritage building near the port
Dalian Hotel, formerly Yamato Hotel, was built in 1914
The British occupied Qingniwa in 1858, but it returned to Chinese
control in the 1860.
Port Arthur at the peninsula's tip took its
English name from Royal Navy Lieutenant William C. Arthur, but Chinese
called it Lüshun. Although
China heavily fortified the area, in which
it allowed trade with foreigners,
Japan swiftly overcame those
defenses in the First Sino-Japanese War, committing
Port Arthur massacre during the war in November 1894. In April
China conceded defeat in the First Sino-Japanese War, ceding
Taiwan and Penghu, and making many other
concessions in the Treaty of Shimonoseki.
Triple Intervention by Russia,
Liaodong Peninsula to China, despite the treaty's terms;
Russian Empire coerced a lease of the peninsula from the
Qing Dynasty in 1898. For
Russia the region of the peninsula was of
particular interest as one of the few areas in the region that had the
potential to develop ice-free ports. The Russians built a modern
commercial port city, which they wanted to become the Paris of the Far
East, and called it Dal'niy (Russian: Дальний). Linked to
the Trans-Siberian Railway's branch line from Harbin, Dalniy became
Russia's primary port-city in Asia, and also served other western
Russia signed the
Pavlov Agreement (1898) with China, which
Russia a 25-year lease on
Lüshun and exclusive
right to lay a branch of the Chinese Eastern Railway—what would
become the South Manchurian Railway.
Russia spent more than 10
million golden rubles (equivalent to 11.5 billion of today's rubles)
building the new ice-free port city.
Russia heavily fortified both Dalniy (
Qingniwaqiao of Zhongshan
District) and the
Port Arthur naval base (Lüshunkou) before and after
the Boxer Rebellion. Missionaries and converts were killed in the
peninsula during the insurrection, although the massive massacres of
ethnic Chinese Christians including
Metrophanes, Chi Sung
Metrophanes, Chi Sung occurred at
Harbin. Also, Western expeditionary forces suppressed the Boxers
Yellow Sea in Shandong.
During the Russo-Japanese War, the peninsula became a major
battleground. Major-General Baron
Anatoly Stoessel defended the siege
Port Arthur, for five months, but the Japanese army managed to sink
several Russian ships attempting to relieve him through long-distance
fire in early December. Admiral Eugene Alexeyeff was blamed for
splitting precious resources shipped 5,000 miles (8,047 km)
across the single tracked
Trans-Siberian Railway and Manchurian
Railway between Dalniy and
Port Arthur. After the Japanese navy
crippled the remaining Russian battleship Sevastopol in three weeks of
constant attacks, and explosives detonated in tunnels destroyed Port
Arthur's remaining defenses at year's end,
Russia surrendered the port
on 2 January 1905.
Treaty of Portsmouth
Treaty of Portsmouth ceded
Port Arthur to Japan, which set up the
Kwantung Leased Territory
Kwantung Leased Territory or Guandongzhou (關東州), on roughly the
southern half (
Jinzhou District and south) of present-day Dalian.
Japanese invested heavily in the region, which became the main trading
port between Manchuria and Japan.
Japan leased the area from Manchukuo
after establishing the puppet state in 1932. In 1937, as the Second
Sino-Japanese War began,
Japan enlarged and modernized the trade zone
as two cities: the northern Dairen (Dalian) and the southern Ryojun
↓Treaty of Portsmouth
Dalian Transferred to China
People's Pepublic of China
↓Second Opium War
Republic of China
People's Republic of China
Post-World War II
China Railways SY, built jointly by
Dalian Locomotive Works
Tangshan Locomotive Works in 1959, on display in front of Dalian
With the unconditional surrender of
Japan in August 1945, Dairen was
passed to the Soviets, whose Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation
had liberated the city. The Soviets and
Chinese Communists cooperated
to develop the city, relatively undamaged during the war,
especially its industrial infrastructure and the port. The Soviet
government rented the port and in 1945 the first Chinese Communist
mayor of the new Lüda Administrative Office (旅大行政公署) had
been appointed.
Joint Chinese-Soviet travel document issued at
Dalian (Guandong) in
In 1950, the USSR presented the city to the Chinese Communist
government without any compensation.
Lüshun (former Port
Arthur) merged as Lüda on 1 December 1950. From 12 March 1953 to 1
August 1954 it was a direct-controlled municipality and not part of
Liaoning. Soviet troops left the city in 1955. After the Soviets
left, the PRC made Lüda a major shipbuilding centre.
In 1981, it was renamed Dalian, with
Lüshunkou becoming a constituent
district. In 1984, the Chinese Government designated the city a
Special Economic Zone. At the time,
Dalian was China's largest foreign
Qingniwaqiao shopping district
The city was upgraded from a prefecture-level city to a sub-provincial
city in May 1994, with no change in its administrative subdivisions.
In the 1990s the city benefited from the attention of
Bo Xilai (later
Communist Party head of Chongqing) who was both the mayor of the city
and one of the major leaders in the province, who, among other things,
banned motorcycles and planted large, lush parks in the city's many
traffic circles. He also preserved much of Dalian's Japanese and
Russian architectural heritage. He also worked as former Minister of
Commerce of the PRC.
In 2008, about 1,000 people protested and blocked traffic as a
response of the 2008 Tibetan anti-Chinese protests, and forced the
temporary closure of the local
In 2010, one of the worst recorded oil spills in China's history
occurred in Dalian.
Dalian has been hosting the Annual Meeting of the New
Champions ("Summer Davos"), organised by the World Economic Forum, in
alternating years with Tianjin. The venue for the forum is Dalian
International Conference Center in Donggang CBD.
14 August 2011 -
Dalian PX protest occurred.
June 2014 - China's tenth national new area,
Dalian Jinpu New Area
14 June 2016 -
Dalian taxi incident occurred.
5 August 2016 -
Huabiao incident occurred.
Climate chart (explanation)
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
China Meteorological Administration
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Dalian and vicinities,
Landsat 5 satellite image, 3 August 2010
One of the most heavily developed industrial areas of China, Dalian
municipal area today consists of
Dalian proper and the smaller
Lüshun city, known in Western and Russian
historic references as
Port Arthur), about forty nautical miles (74
kilometres; 46 miles) farther along the
Liaodong Peninsula. Historical
references note that the Russian designed city of Dalniy (Alt.
Dalney), on the south side of
Dalian Bay was 40 kilometres (25 miles)
Lüshun (known today as
Lüshunkou or literally,
Dalian is located on
Korea Bay north of the
Yellow Sea and roughly in
the middle of the
Liaodong peninsula at its narrowest neck or isthmus.
With a coastline of 1,906 km (1,184 mi), it governs the
majority of the
Liaodong Peninsula and about 260 surrounding islands
and reefs. It is seated at south-south-west of the Yalu River, and its
harbour entrance forms a sub-bay known as
Shore in Dalian
Dalian has a monsoon-influenced humid continental climate (Köppen
Dwa), characterised by warm wet summers due to the East Asian monsoon,
and cold, windy, dry winters that reflect the influence of the vast
Siberian anticyclone. Except for winter, the city experiences a
one-month seasonal lag due to its position on the
The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −3.9 °C
(25.0 °F) in January to 24.1 °C (75.4 °F) in August.
Annual precipitation averages 602 millimetres (23.7 in) but is
heavily concentrated in the summer months and can vary greatly from
year to year. Due to the coastal location, the mean diurnal
temperature variation annually is small, at 6.75 °C
(12.2 °F). The monthly percent of possible sunshine ranges from
49% in July to 68% in September and October, with 2,740 hours of
bright sunshine annually. The annual mean temperature is
10.90 °C (51.6 °F). Extremes since 1951 have ranged from
−21.1 °C (−6 °F) on 4 January 1970 to 36.6 °C
(98 °F) on 14 July 2015.
Climate data for
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Percent possible sunshine
China Meteorological Administration
Autumn mountain foliage
View from Xiaochangshan Island (小长山岛) in Changhai County
Beach side sunset
Seascape at Heishijiao (黑石礁) Geological Park
In 2001, The
United Nations Environment Programme
United Nations Environment Programme awarded the Dalian
Municipal Government for its outstanding contribution to the
protection of the environment.
The average content of the four pollutants in the air reached Class
Ⅱ of National Ambient Air Quality Standards and there were 353 days
Air Pollution Index (API) over Class Ⅱ (Good), including 108
excellent days with Class Ⅰ (Superior).
Dalian frequently ranks
Grade 2 for air pollution according to State Environmental Protection
Administration. However, the environmental effects of economic
growth are of concern, according to
Dalian Environmental Protection
Agency, during the first half of 2011, respirable particles in the air
increased significantly, with an average 40% higher than 2010.
The water quality of offshore marine space remained stable overall.
The annual average content of monitoring indicators for water quality
met Class-II of the National Seawater Quality Standard, with the
exception of Inorganic Nitrogen in
Dalian Bay and the city's southern
coast. The water quality of drinking water sources is considered good
and complies with Class-III of Environmental Quality Standards for
Recent events have had a major environmental impact on the city. In
July 2010, the explosion of two petroleum pipelines released 11,000
barrels of oil into the Yellow Sea, according to official statements.
Rick Steiner, an American marine conservationist working with
Greenpeace, says that the figure could be upwards of 400,000. It
was reported as the largest oil spill to occur in China, and
involved 2,000 firefighters. The oil spill stretched for at least
50 square kilometres (19 sq mi). 800 fishing boats were
mobilized for the cleanup. The incident caused President Hu Jintao
Wen Jiabao to intervene, and Vice Premier Zhang Dejiang
moved in to help direct the rescue work. A researcher with the
China Environmental Science Research Institute, said that "the impact
on marine life and on humans – as the pollution enters the food
chain – could last 10 years." This has compounded aquatic
pollution, affecting the city's fishing industry.
In August 2011, a dike protecting the petrochemical Fujia Factory in
Jinzhou District was breached due to a typhoon. Authorities have
ordered the plant to be shut down. Around 12,000 residents
protested as the factory, which originally was intended to be based in
Xiamen, did not receive official approval to operate in
Dalian. Municipal authorities ruled that the facility must
move, leaving taxpayers to pay the expensive cost of relocation.
Concerns have been raised over mounting traffic due to "bad urban
design" and that the growing rate of car ownership is affecting air
United States National Academy of Engineering
have raised concern about rising traffic in
Dalian stating that "rapid
growth of traffic in
Dalian and in similar Chinese cities will repeat
the air quality and energy consumption mistakes of
Los Angeles and
other U.S. cities, if not better managed."
Dalian is the second largest city of
Liaoning province, after
Shenyang, the provincial capital.
Dalian City is governed by the
Dalian Municipal People's Government.
The municipal government is located in the main building on the north
side of People's Square on
Zhongshan Road, originally built as the
Administrative Office of Kwantung Leased Territory, and other
buildings in downtown Dalian. There are the Commerce, Foreign Economy
& Trade, Hygiene, Information Industry, Police, Religion, Science
& Technology, Transportation and other city-level bureaus, which
work closely with the corresponding agencies at the district level.
There are, in addition, 4 national leading open zones
The Development Zone (开发区)
The Free Trade Zone (保税区)
The Hi-Tech Industrial Zone (高新技术产业园区)
The Jīnshítān ("Golden Pebble Beach") National Holiday Resort
(see Administrative divisions of the People's Republic of China)
The city administers 7 districts, 2 county-level cities, and 1 county:
There are 92 sub-districts and 69 towns and townships.
Zhongshan, Xigang, Shahekou and Ganjingzi Districts make up the urban
Changhai County is made up entirely of islands east of the
Meaning in English
Sun Yat-sen (Not historical based)
Zhong2 San4 Qu4
West Sentry (Named by Japanese)
Xi4 Gang4 Qu4
Sand River Estuary
Sa4 He2 Kou3 Qu4
Sweet Well (Named by a legend)
Gan4 Jinge3 Qu4
Safe Travel Estuary (also named
Lv3 Sun4 Kou3 Qu4
Golden State (Named by Emperor Taizong of Tang
Jin4 Zhou0 Qu4
Land of Brambles (Manchu)
Pulan4 Dian4 Qu4
Land of Tile-roofed Houses
Wa4 Fang4 Dian4 Si4
Zuang4 He0 Si4
Long Sea (formerly named Elliot Islands)
The population of
Dalian according to the 2010 census totaled 6.69
million. The total registered population on household at year end 2014
was 5.943 million, with a net increase of 29,000 over the previous
Wang Jianlin, Chairman of the
Dalian Wanda Group, at the Annual
Meeting of the New Champions of World Economic Forum,
Main article: Economy of Dalian
The city has had a continuous annual double-digit percentage increase
in GDP since 1992. In 2014, the city's GDP registered a 5.8%
increase, reaching RMB 765.56 billion, while per capita GDP hit RMB
109,939. According to a nationwide appraisal by the National Bureau
Dalian ranks eighth among Chinese cities in terms of
overall strength. The city’s main industries include machine
manufacturing, petrochemicals and oil refining, and electronics.
Street view on Renmin Road, Dalian
Agriculture and aquaculture
Dalian was originally an agriculture and aquaculture-based area,
which, after the opening of the ferry between
Yantai and Lüshun
during the early 20th century, began to be populated by the farmers
and fishers of Shandong, across the
Yellow Sea during the Chuang
Guandong (闯关东) era.
Heavy, light and distribution industries
Ex-Varyag undergoing refit in
Dalian Shipbuilding Industry Company
(2011), which later became China's first aircraft carrier Liaoning
Even before and during the Second Sino-Japanese War, the shipbuilding
and locomotives industries were located in the city such as the
companies which later became
Dalian Shipbuilding Industry Company
Dalian Shipbuilding Industry Company and
Dalian Locomotive & Rolling Stock Works (DLoco). After the WWII,
Dalian became an important centre of the heavy and light industries,
including companies such as
Dalian Heavy Industry Co.,
Wafangdian Bearing Co.; and of the distribution industry,
such as the Dashang Group.
Port is an important port for international trade. It has
established trading and shipping links with more than 300 ports in 160
countries and regions of the world. There are over 100 international
and domestic container shipping routes. A harbor for oil tankers
(the largest by tonnage in China), at the terminus of an oil
pipeline from the
Daqing oilfields, was completed in 1976.
the 6th largest port in China; and according to AAPA world port
Dalian is the 8th busiest port in the world by cargo
tonnage in 2012, and the 12th busiest container port in the world by
total number of TEUs handled in 2013. Accordingly,
Dalian is a
major center for oil refineries, diesel engineering, and chemical
Also completed in 1993 is a newer port called Dayaowan
大窑湾港; pinyin: Dà yáo wān gǎng), on Dagushan (Chinese:
大孤山; pinyin: Dà gū shān) Peninsula in the northern suburbs,
specialising in import-export of mining and oil products. Together
Dalian Railway Station,
Dalian North Railway Station, Dalian
International Airport and two major express roads to
Changchun (Changda Expressway),
Harbin (Hada Expressway)
in the north and to
Dandong to the east,
Dalian has been an important
Xinghai CBD houses the headquarters of
Dalian Commodity Exchange
Donggang (Chinese: 东港; literally: "East Harbour") CBD houses the
Dalian International Conference Center
Dalian Hi-Tech Zone
Dalian Development Zone
Dalian has been given many benefits by the Chinese government,
including the title of "open-city" (1984), which allows it to receive
considerable foreign investment (see
Special Economic Zone). The
Development Zone was established in
Jinzhou District, to which many
Japanese companies, such as Canon, Mitsubishi Electric, Nidec, Sanyo
Electric and Toshiba, followed by South Korean, American and European
companies (such as Pfizer). In 2007,
Intel announced plans to build a
semiconductor fabrication facility (commonly known as a fab) in the
Development Zone, Dalian. It is Intel's first fab to be built at an
entirely new site since 1992. The facility began operation in October
Dalian also houses auto-manufacturing plants for Chery,
Dongfeng Nissan Passenger Vehicle Company, and
BYD Automobile (a
production base for BYD K9 electric buses).
Other zones in the city include the
Dalian Economic and Technological
Dalian Export Processing Zone,
Dalian Free Trade
Dalian Hi-Tech Industrial Zone.
Financial and IT industry
Dalian Hi-Tech Zone
Dalian is the financial centre of Northeast China. There are the
Dalian branches of China's five major banks: Bank of China, Industrial
& Commercial Bank of China,
China Construction Bank, Bank of
Communications, and Agricultural Bank of China.
Dalian City Commercial
Bank is now called Bank of Dalian, which among other things handles
processing of the
Dalian Mingzhu IC Card for public transportation.
Bank of Dalian
Bank of Dalian has opened branches in Beijing,
Shanghai and Shenyang,
among five other cities.
Founded in 1993,
Dalian Commodity Exchange
Dalian Commodity Exchange (DCE) is the only futures
exchange in Northeast China. The futures industry leaped forward in
its development. Among its 16 listed futures products approved by the
China Securities Regulatory Commission (CSRC) are corn, corn starch,
soybeans, soybean meal, soybean oil, RBD palm olein, linear
low-density polyethylene (LLDPE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC),
polypropylene (PP), coke, coking coal, iron ore, egg, fiberboard and
blockboard. In 2014, DCE achieved 770 million lots and RMB 41.5
trillion respectively in trading volume and turnover. According to the
Futures Industry Association (FIA) of the U.S., DCE ranked the 10th
out of the global leading derivative exchanges in 2014.
Since the 1990s,
Dalian has emphasized the development of the IT
industry, especially in
Dalian Hi-Tech Zone
Dalian Hi-Tech Zone and
Dalian Software Park
in the western suburbs near
Dalian University of Technology. Dalian
High-Tech Zone is the base of high-tech industries, housing more than
4,700 enterprises, including 80
Fortune Global 500 companies. Not
only Chinese IT companies, such as DHC, Hisoft and Neusoft Group, but
also American, European, Indian and Japanese IT companies are located
there, including Infosys, IBM, Dell, HP, Ericsson, Panasonic, Sony,
Hitachi and Cisco. Nine professional business
incubators are also located in the area, including the Hi-tech
Business Incubator, animation and software incubators, with over 400
companies incubated. Currently, the "
Lüshun South Road Software
Industry Belt" Plan is proceeding, including
Dalian Software Park
Intel's Fab 68 is located in Dalian. The plan was announced on 26
March 2007, and operations started on 26 October 2010. It is Intel's
first chip-manufacturing fabrication in East Asia.
Xinghai Square is the largest city square in the world
Dalian is a popular destination among domestic tourists and foreign
visitors, especially from Japan, South
Korea and Russia. Its mild
climate and multiple beaches as well as its importance in the modern
China have attracted tourists. Some of the most famous
beaches are Jīnshítān Golden Coast (金石滩黄金海岸) beach,
Fùjiāzhuāng (付家庄) beach, Bàngchuídǎo (棒棰岛) beach,
Xīnghǎi Park (星海公园) beach, Xīnghǎi Bay (星海湾) beach,
and Xiàjiāhézi (夏家河子) beach. In 2007, it was one of the
three cities named "China's best tourist city", along with Hangzhou
and Chengdu, recognized by the
National Tourism Administration
National Tourism Administration and the
United Nations World Tourism Organization.
Dalian (left) and apartments at Xinghai Square
Xinghai Square amusement park with the Castle Hotel in the background
Xinghai Bay Bridge
Four inner-city districts
Originally designed by Russians in the 19th century,
(中山广场) is especially noted for the several classical buildings
located around the square built during the first half of the 20th
century by the Japanese.
Laohutan Ocean Park: the park contains the Polar Region Marine Animals
World, the Coral Aquarium, and the World of Birds. The white
whale and dolphin show is a major attraction in the Polar Region
Marine Animals World. The Tigers Sculpture Square is nearby, whose
tiger sculpture is the symbol of Tiger Beach (老虎滩; Lǎohǔtān).
Taiyuan is open to visitors.
Dalian Laohutan Ocean Park
Xinghai Square: situated at the Xinghai Bay, Xinghai Square
(星海广场; "Square of the Sea of Stars") was built at the
centennial of the City of
Dalian (1998) and is the largest city square
in the world.
Hēishíjiāo Geological Park and
Dalian Natural History Museum
Sunasia Ocean World
Dalian Forest Zoo
Bangchuidao Scenic Area: a well-maintained park used as a State
Guesthouse since 1960, the Bangchuidao Scenic Area is now open to the
public with upgraded features including lavish greens, Chinese and
western style villas, hot spring, tennis courts, badminton courts, a
recreation center, a golf course and the Bangchuidao beach. The
Bangchui Island (棒棰岛; Bàngchuí Dǎo, named for an islet in the
shape of an ancient washing tool Bangchui) can be seen from the
beach. As a State Guesthouse, the scenic area has received numerous
Chinese and foreign leaders and high-profile officials, including Zhou
Enlai, Deng Xiaoping, Jiang Zemin, Hu Jintao, Henry Kissinger, Boris
Yeltsin, Gerhard Schröder,
Juan Antonio Samaranch
Juan Antonio Samaranch and so on.
Video showing Bangchuidao beach during winter season
Dalian Sightseeing Tower
Dalian Sightseeing Tower, formerly
Dalian Radio & TV Tower
Dalian Modern Museum
Jinzhou District and Development Zone (in the northern suburbs)
Jinshitan National Holiday Resort and the Discoveryland (pinyin:
jinshitan l=Golden Pebble Beach) is composed of eastern peninsula,
western peninsula, open ground between two peninsulas and the ten-mile
Golden Coast beach. Major sightseeing points include, Golden Pebble
Waxworks Museum, Geological Museum, Coastal National Geopark,
International Vehicle Campsite,
Tang Dynasty Hot Spring Resort, Golden
Rock Park, Wanfuding Park,
China Martial Arts Hall, Discoveryland
Theme Park, Mao Zedong Badge Exhibition Hall, Model Movie & TV Art
Center, Golden Pebble Hunting Club, Golden Pebble Equestrianism Base,
Golden Pebble International Convention Center & Resort, Golden
Pebble Golf Club, and Golden Gulf Golf Course. Several themed events,
Dalian International Beach Carnival, International Winter
Swimming Festival and Grape Festival, take place in Jinshitan
The Discoveryland Theme Park (发现王国, also translated as "the
Discovery Kingdom") was built in 2006 and covers an area of 470,000
square miles (1,217,294 square kilometres). It was designed by
Romero Petrilli VanRell Associates who participated in the design of
the Disney theme park.
Lüshunkou District (in the southwestern suburbs)
Lüshun Railway Station
East Jīguàn Mountain (东鸡冠山),
203 Hill and Shuishiying
The fiercest battle site and the signing site of the ceasefire treaty,
of the Battle of
Lüshun during the
Russo-Japanese War (1904–05).
Japanese and Russian Prison Site Museum in Lüshun
The prison was built by Russians in 1902 and later expanded by the
Japanese. During World War II, the prison was used to detain people of
various nationalities who were against Japanese invasion. An
Jung-geun, the Korean independence activist who assassinated Itō
Hirobumi, was imprisoned and killed there.
Lüshun Snake Museum, and
Port and Snake Island
Hengshan Temple and Longwangtang Cherry Blossom Park
Héngshān Temple (横山寺) is near Lóngwángtáng Reservoir
(龙王塘水库). The temple dates back to the Han Dynasty, and was
rebuilt in 2003.
Hengshan Temple in
Three Northern District and Cities of Greater Dalian
Ānbō Hotspring and Ski Course (安波温泉滑雪场), in Pulandian
Changxing Island International Golf Course, in Wafangdian
Bīngyùgōu (冰峪沟) Scenic Area and Bùyún Mountain Hot Spring
(步云山温泉), in Zhuanghe
Islands of Changhai County
Hot Spring and Ski Resorts
There are various hot spring hotels in Dalian. Notable ones include,
Laotieshan Hot Spring Hotel in Lüshun,
Tang Dynasty Hot Spring Resort
in Jinshitan, Minghu Hot Spring Hotel in
Wafangdian City, Chengyuan
Hot Spring Villa in Ganjingzi District, and Tianmu Hot Spring Hotel in
Skiing has become increasingly popular in Dalian. Famous ski resorts
Linhai Ski Resort in Ganjingzi District, Anbo Ski Resort in
Pulandian District, Minghu Ski Resort & Minghu International
Skiing Holiday Village in
Wafangdian City, and
Dalian Happy Snow World
Ganjingzi District near the airport.
Dalian Metro, Line 2
Dalian historical tramway, still used in a limited area of the city.
Not many people ride bicycles in
Dalian because of the hilly roads.
Dalian is also one of the many cities in
China where there are few
motorcycles, because motorcycle riding on most roads is banned by
law. The city has a comprehensive bus system and an efficient
metro system. As of November 2015, the
Dalian Metro consists of the
underground Line 1, Line 2, and the overground Line 12 (Formerly
called line R2) and Line 3. New lines and expansion of the metro
system are under way. The
Dalian Tram system is the second oldest in
China. Most of the public transportation in the city can be accessed
using the Mingzhu IC Card (明珠卡).
Domestic and international
Internal view of
Dalian North Railway Station
Dalian expanded the international airport,
International Airport, with direct flights to the most major cities in
China, and to cities in Thailand, South Korea,
Japan and many
countries in East Asia. In 2014, the airport was the 20th busiest
China with 13,551,223 passengers. The airport is the
The city's location means that train trips to most Chinese cities
outside China's northeastern region require changing trains in Beijing
or Shanghai. With the high-speed rail system, trips from
Shenyang can be completed in 1.5 hours, to
Changchun 2.5 hours and to
Harbin 3.5 hours. The city has two railway stations, namely Dalian
Railway Station and
Dalian North Railway Station
Dalian North Railway Station (IATA: DBL)[citation
needed], the latter being part of the Harbin–
In addition to local and express bus services to
Beijing and other
areas in the northeast,
Dalian is connected by passenger ship service
to neighbouring coastal cities, including Tianjin, Yantai, Weihai,
Penglai and Dongying, as well as Incheon, South Korea.
Peking Opera House
Dalian was selected as the most liveable city in China
Standard Mandarin is usually spoken in
Dalian because it is a city
with people from various locations. But
Dalian natives use Dalian
dialect, which belongs to the
Jiaoliao Mandarin subgroup spoken in
Liaoning provinces. Most of the residents of
Dalian were farmers and fishermen who had come from
in a large population move, the Chuang Guandong, during which era
Dalian was occupied by the Japanese as the Kwantung Leased Territory.
Dalian dialect incorporates a few loanwords from Japanese and
Russian (very rare in Chinese), reflecting the history of foreign
Dalian dialect is mostly distinguishable from Standard
Mandarin based on a low-falling Yinping 阴平 (31), and it
was[clarify] often referred to as "oyster flavored" by the
Salted fish with corn cake
Dalian Menzi, a popular local snack
Zhongshan Art Museum
Dalian cuisine is a branch of
Shandong cuisine, with influence from
Northeastern Chinese cuisine, and is widely known for its unique style
of seafood dishes. The variety of seafood in
Dalian includes fish,
prawns, clams, crabs, scallops, sea urchins, oysters, sea cucumbers,
mussels, lobsters, conches, abalone, algae, razor clams, urechis
unicinctus, mantis shrimps, jellyfish and so on. During the winter,
many seafoods such as clams, mussels and abalone gain the most
Colorful snowflake scallops (五彩雪花扇贝) is a local seafood
dish, where egg white is made into snowflake-shape to embrace the
scallops, with seasonal greens, carrot and hot pepper cut into small
pieces as decorations on top.
Another popular local dish is Salted fish with corn cake
(咸鱼饼子), where steamed or fried corn cake is served with fried
salted fish. Legend goes that, in the old days fishermen going out
fishing in the morning couldn't return home to have lunch, so they
baked fresh fish to eat with corn cakes, and the habit passed down
from generation to generation and eventually became a famous food
among local people.
Dalian Menzi (焖子) is a traditional local snack. A protein-rich
starch paste coagulated from an extract of potatoes is cut into pieces
and fried on a pan to create a crisp cover. A mixed seasoning of
smashed garlic, sesame, and sauces is added on eating.
Other popular local specialties include Dalian-style grilled squid,
seafood noodles, roast full prawns, salt baked conches, lantern-shaped
steamed abalone, and so on.
Well-known theaters in
Dalian People's Culture Club
(mainly for music),
Hongqi Grand Stage
Hongqi Grand Stage (for
Beijing Opera), Working
People's Theater-Doudou Grand Stage (Chinese:
工人剧院/豆豆大舞台, mainly for Er ren zhuan) and Development
Area Grand Theater (Chinese: 开发区大剧院).
China Martial Arts Hall, at Jinshitan National Holiday Resort
Sports play a big role in the local culture. Dalian's former
association football club,
Dalian Shide (formerly known as Dalian
Wanda as the club was originally sponsored by the
Dalian Wanda Group),
achieved a total of eight titles from China's top-tier football
Chinese Jia-A League and the later rebranded Chinese Super
League, and was widely considered one of the most successful clubs in
Chinese football history. In the Asian Football Confederation, the
club reached the
1997–98 Asian Club Championship
1997–98 Asian Club Championship and 2000–01 Asian
Cup Winners' Cup finals. Several of China’s greatest players,
including Sun Jihai,
Hao Haidong and Li Ming, made their names with
Dalian also produced many top Chinese football players
thanks to its youth training system and grassroots football
culture. As of the 2014 season of the Chinese Super League, out of
the 448 registered Chinese players, a total of 71 players are from
Dalian earned its nickname of China's "Football
City" (足球城), and a giant football statue was placed in the
Labor Park near downtown
Dalian in its honor. Current football clubs
in the city are
Dalian Yifang playing in the
Chinese Super League
Chinese Super League and
Dalian Transcendence playing in the country's 2nd-tier league, the
China League One. Their home stadiums are
Dalian Sports Center
Dalian Sports Center Stadium
Jinzhou Stadium, respectively.
Some other popular sports played in
Dalian are swimming, skiing, golf,
cycling, bowling and billiards. The government hold various events
every year in Dalian, like marathon, tennis and so on.
As part of the 2013 National Games of
Liaoning in 2013,
Dalian was a host city for 12 events, including synchronized swimming,
field hockey, gymnastics, sailing and canoeing.
City-wide festivals and events
Binhai Road is the main route for
Dalian International Walking
Festival. View of mountain on one side and sea on the other makes it a
popular exercise destination for local people.
Dalian Xinghai Convention & Exhibitions Center,
Dalian World Expo Center and the hotels on Renmin Road are the
main places where Dalian's major annual events are held.
Every year from January to February, the Bingyugou Ice Lantern
Festival is held in Bingyugou Scenic Area in
Zhuanghe City. The event
features a large number of ice sculptures, snow sculptures and
colorful ice lanterns. Visitors can also participate in a series of
ice-sports including ice-skating, ice hockey and iceboating.
From late April to May, the
Lüshun International Cherry Blossom
Festival is held. The main site is 203 Hill, and the other site is
Longwangtang Cherry Blossom Park. It is said that the very first
cherry trees were planted by Japanese soldiers stationed in Lüshun
during World War II, in order to ease their homesickness. Today, the
203 Hill site has more than 3000 cherry trees, and boasts to be the
largest cherry blossom park in
China with the most varieties.
Each May, the
Dalian International Walking Festival takes place. The
purpose of the festival is to foster health and peace for the whole
community. It is widely popular among citizens and attracts many
Dalian is the only city in
China recognized by
the IML Walking Association. Four different routes of 30
kilometres (19 miles), 20 kilometres (12 miles), 10 kilometres (6.2
miles) and 5 kilometres (3.1 miles) are provided for participants,
with the longest route going from
Xinghai Square along
Binhai Road to
Laohutan Ocean Park, Bangchuidao Scenic Area and finally reaching
Dalian International Conference Center. Starting from 2012, Jinshitan
National Holiday Resort also serves as a venue for the festival.
Dalian International Marathon
Dalian International Marathon is held. With the first
marathon held in 1987, it is one of the four oldest marathon races in
China. The main venue is the Jinshitan National Holiday Resort.
Every June, the
China International Software & Information Service
Fair is held in
Dalian World Expo Center. Officials from overseas
government departments, CEOs of World Top 500, well-known consulting
firms and overseas IT associations attend the fair each year.
Dalian International Beer Festival takes place in
Xinghai Square every
year from July to August. It is similar to
is a widely popular event in the city. Activities of the Beer Festival
include exhibitions by beer manufacturers, a beer disco plaza, a beer
culture exhibition, a beer drinking contest, a photography contest,
the Beer Industry Summit, and a beer quiz.
Dalian International Automotive Exhibition is held in August in Dalian
Xinghai Convention & Exhibitions Center and
Dalian World Expo
Dalian International Fashion Festival is held in September
Dalian Xinghai Convention & Exhibitions Center and
Expo Center. For the past decade, the festival has been attracting the
world's top fashion designers, businessmen and models to Dalian.
Arrangement for the show includes various theme activities including
the Garment Export Fair, fashion exhibitions, fashion competitions and
a model contest.
Japan maintains a branch office for its
Consulate General of
Shenyang and a
JETRO office in Dalian, reflecting a relatively large
Japan Chamber of Commerce & Industry has about 700 corporate
members. Those Japanese who had lived in Dalian
before the War have organized the
Lianhuashan (lit. "lotus flower mountain") Temple, Dalian
As of 2005[update],
Dalian had 29 Christian churches (27 of them
Protestant, 2 of them Catholic), 10 mosques, 34 Buddhist temples, and
Taoist temples, according to the statistics of the city
Taoist temples can be found in various districts including downtown
Dalian (Hua Temple in
Zhongshan Park), in
(Longwang Temple), and in
Jinzhou District (Jinlong Temple in
Daweijia, Xiangshui Temple at the foot of Dahei Mountain, and Zhenwu
Temple in Liangjiadian).
Buddhist temples are in downtown
Dalian (Songshan Temple on Tangshan
Street and Lianhuashan Temple on Yingchun Road), on the northern side
of Anzi Mountain (
Anshan Temple), at Daheishi (Thousand-Hand Buddha
& 500 Luohan Statues), in
Lüshunkou District (Hengshan Temple at
Longwangtang), and in
Jinzhou District (Guanyinge-Shengshui Temple on
Dalian Catholic Church
Dalian Catholic Church (built in 1926) is in downtown Dalian, west of
Dalian Railway Station. Protestant churches are near
(Yuguang Street Church, the former
Dalian Anglican Church, built in
1928 in the British Consulate General's premises by the Church of
England and Anglican Church of
Japan jointly), on Changjiang Road
Beijing Street Church, now called Cheng-en Church, originally built
in 1914 by the Danish Lutheran Church), on
Xi'an Road (Christian
Church for Korean Chinese and South Koreans), east of the airport (the
newly built Harvest Church, which can seat 4000 people), in Jinzhou
(the newly built
Jinzhou Church) and in
Lüshunkou District (Lüshun
Church, a former Danish Lutheran church).
Dalian Mosque is on Beijing
Changchun statue at Olympic Square, Dalian
Bi Fujian (毕福剑), director, host and professor.
Bo Xilai (薄熙来), former mayor, removed from Politburo under
Dong Jie (董洁), actress.
Lai Yawen (赖亚文), retired middle blocker and current assistant
coach of the
China women's national volleyball team.
Changchun (李长春), Chinese politician, former member of the
Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China.
Li Yongbo (李永波), retired badminton player and current head coach
China National Badminton Team.
Lin Peng (林鹏), actress.
Changchun (刘长春), sprinter, first athlete to represent China
in competition at the Olympic Games.
Lou Yixiao (娄艺潇), actress.
Sun Jihai (孙继海), footballer.
Sun Nan (孙楠), singer.
Xia Deren (夏德仁), former mayor from October 2006 to May
Xue Jiye (薛继业), painter and sculptor.
Yu Nan (余男), actress.
Kelly Yu (于文文), singer.
There were[clarify] 23 general institutions of higher education (and
another 7 privately run colleges), 108 secondary vocational schools,
80 ordinary middle high schools, 1,049 schools for nine-year
compulsory education and 1,432 kindergartens in Dalian. The students
on campus of all levels (including kindergartens) totaled 1108
There are the following schools of higher education and research
Colleges and universities
Dalian Jiaotong University
Dalian Jiaotong University (Founded in 1956)
Dalian Maritime University
Dalian Maritime University (Project 211)
Dalian Medical University (Founded in 1947)
Dalian Nationalities University
Dalian Nationalities University (Founded in 1997)
Dalian Naval Academy
Dalian Naval Academy of the PLA Navy
Dalian Neusoft University of Information (zh)
Dalian Ocean University
Dalian Ocean University (Founded in 1952)
Dalian Polytechnic University
Dalian University of Foreign Languages
Dalian University of Technology
Dalian University of Technology (Project 985, Project 211)
Dongbei University of Finance and Economics
Liaoning Normal University
Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, of the Chinese Academy of
Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics of the Chinese Academy of
Notable high schools include:
Jinzhou Senior High School (大连市金州高级中学)
Lüshun Senior High School (大连市旅顺中学)
Dalian No. 1 High School (大连市第一中学), Founded in 1922 by
Japanese. It was the first school institute in Dalian.
Dalian No. 8 High School
Dalian No. 8 High School (大连市第八中学)
Dalian No. 12 High School (大连市第十二中学)
Dalian No. 23 High School (大连市第二十三中学）
Dalian No. 24 High School (大连市第二十四中学)
Dalian No. 36 Middle School (大连市第三十六中学)
Dalian Yuming Senior High School
Dalian Yuming Senior High School (大连育明高级中学)
The High School Affiliated to
Liaoning Normal University
Wafangdian Senior High School (瓦房店市高级中学)
Dalian American International School
Dalian Korean International School (ko )
Dalian Maple Leaf International School
Japanese School of Dalian
Twin towns and sister cities
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in China
Dalian is twinned with:
Bahía Blanca, Argentina
Incheon, South Korea
Kitakyūshū, Fukuoka, Japan
Le Havre, France
Maizuru, Kyoto, Japan
Oakland, California, USA
Salisbury, Maryland, USA
Sydney, Nova Scotia, Canada
Since 29 April 2008,
Dalian has had a friendship city agreement with
Dallas, United States.
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Le Havre - Les villes jumelées" [
Le Havre - Twin towns]. City of
Le Havre (in French). Archived from the original on 29 July 2013.
Retrieved 7 August 2013.
^ "Kontakty partnerskie Miasta Szczecin". Urząd Miasta
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Dallas mayor inks friendship pact with North
China port city
www.pegasusnews.com Dallas/Fort Worth. www.pegasusnews.com (29 April
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^ "Sister Cities". Dallas-ecodev.org. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
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1st edition. Michigan State University Press. 1 October 1999.
ISBN 0-87013-510-4, ISBN 978-0-87013-510-1,
ISBN 0-87013-725-5, ISBN 978-0-87013-725-9.
Hess, Christian A. (2006). "From colonial jewel to socialist
metropolis: Dalian, 1895—1955." Ph.D. dissertation, University of
California, San Diego.
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the World, 3rd revision. New York: Barnes and Noble Books, 2001.
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dalian.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Dalian.
Dalian Government website
Dalian Government website (in Chinese)
Dalian at Encyclopædia Britannica
Liaoning Normal University
Early Qing Tombs
Wunu Mountain City
Anshan Jade Buddha
County-level divisions of
Shenbei New Area
Xiuyan Autonomous County
Xinbin Autonomous County
Qingyuan Autonomous County
Benxi Autonomous County
Huanren Autonomous County
Kuandian Autonomous County
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Major Metropolitan regions
Pearl River Delta
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Prefecture-level cities by Province
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County-level cities by Province
* Indicates this city has already occurred above.
aDirect-controlled Municipalities. bSub-provincial cities as
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3Prefecture capital status established by
Heilongjiang Province and
not recognized by Ministry of Civil Affairs. Disputed by Oroqen
Autonomous Banner, Hulunbuir,
Inner Mongolia as part of it.
4Only administers islands and waters in South
China Sea and have no
urban core comparable to typical cities in China.
5The claimed province of
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announced by Ministry of Civil Affairs of PRC, due to lack of actual
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All provincial capitals are listed first in prefecture-level cities by
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Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China
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