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DüSSELDORF (German: ( listen ), Low Franconian , Ripuarian : Düsseldörp ) is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the seventh most populous city in Germany. Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
is an international business and financial centre, renowned for its fashion and trade fairs. The city is headquarters to one Fortune Global 500 and two DAX
DAX
companies. Messe Düsseldorf organises nearly one fifth of premier trade shows.

Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
is known for its academy of fine arts ( Joseph Beuys , Emanuel Leutze , August Macke , Gerhard Richter , Sigmar Polke , and Andreas Gursky ), its pioneering influence on electronic/experimental music ( Kraftwerk
Kraftwerk
) and its Japanese community . On the river Rhine
Rhine
, Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
holds Rhenish Carnival celebrations every year in February / March. It is one of the central cities of the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan area. Mercer\'s 2012 Quality of Living survey ranked Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
the sixth most livable city in the world.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 2 Geography

* 2.1 Physical geography * 2.2 Adjacent cities and districts * 2.3 Climate

* 3 Demographics

* 4 Government

* 4.1 Mayors * 4.2 Districts

* 5 Economy

* 5.1 Media

* 6 Transport

* 6.1 Airport
Airport
DUS * 6.2 Railway * 6.3 Taxi * 6.4 Autobahn
Autobahn

* 7 Culture and recreation

* 7.1 Beer
Beer
* 7.2 Music and nightlife * 7.3 Fashion
Fashion
* 7.4 Carnival
Carnival

* 7.5 Cartwheeler of Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf

* 7.5.1 Legends of its origin and history

* 7.5.1.1 Cartwheelers in the cityscape

* 7.6 Christmas
Christmas
Market * 7.7 Cuisine * 7.8 Literature * 7.9 Rivalry with Cologne
Cologne
* 7.10 Theatres * 7.11 Museums, arts and history institutes, and other attractions * 7.12 Parks and gardens

* 8 Sports * 9 Education * 10 Notable buildings * 11 Notable places * 12 Twin towns – sister cities

* 13 Sons and daughters of the town

* 13.1 Born before 1850 * 13.2 Born 1851–1900 * 13.3 Born after 1900 * 13.4 The following figures are not sons and daughters of the city, but have a special meaning for Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf

* 14 See also * 15 References * 16 Bibliography * 17 External links

HISTORY

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See also: Timeline of Düsseldorf

When the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
was strengthening its position throughout Europe, a few Germanic tribes clung on in marshy territory off the eastern banks of the Rhine
Rhine
River .

In the 7th and 8th centuries, the odd farming or fishing settlement could be found at the point where the small river Düssel flows into the Rhine. It was from such settlements that the city of Düsseldorf grew. Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
in 1647

The first written mention of Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
(then called Dusseldorp in the local Low Rhenish dialect) dates back to 1135. Under Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa the small town of Kaiserswerth to the north of Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
became a well-fortified outpost, where soldiers kept a watchful eye on every movement on the Rhine. Kaiserswerth eventually became a suburb of Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
in 1929.

In 1186, Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
came under the rule of the Counts of Berg . 14 August 1288 is one of the most important dates in the history of Düsseldorf. On this day the sovereign Count Adolf VIII of Berg granted the village on the banks of the Düssel town privileges . Before this, a bloody struggle for power had taken place between the Archbishop
Archbishop
of Cologne
Cologne
and the count of Berg , culminating in the Battle of Worringen .

The Archbishop
Archbishop
of Cologne's forces were wiped out by the forces of the count of Berg who were supported by citizens and farmers of Cologne
Cologne
and Düsseldorf, paving the way for Düsseldorf's elevation to city status, which is commemorated today by a monument on the Burgplatz. The custom of turning cartwheels is credited to the children of Düsseldorf. There are variations of the origin of the cartwheeling children. Today the symbol (Der Radschläger) represents the story and every year the Düsseldorfers celebrate by having a cartwheeling contest. After this battle the relationship between the four cities deteriorated, because they were commercial rivals; it is often said that there is a kind of hostility between the citizens of Cologne
Cologne
and Düsseldorf. Today, it finds its expression mainly in a humorous form (especially during the Rhineland
Rhineland
Karneval ) and in sports. View of Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
with the church of St. Andrew in the centre, 1667, by Adriaen van de Velde
Adriaen van de Velde

A market square sprang up on the banks of the Rhine
Rhine
and the square was protected by city walls on all four sides. In 1380, the dukes of Berg moved their seat to the town and Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
was made regional capital of the Duchy of Berg. During the following centuries several famous landmarks were built, including the Collegiate Church of St Lambertus . In 1609, the ducal line of the United Duchies of Jülich-Cleves-Berg died out, and after a virulent struggle over succession, Jülich and Berg fell to the Wittelsbach Counts of Palatinate-Neuburg , who made Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
their main domicile, even after they inherited the Electorate of the Palatinate , in 1685, becoming now Prince-electors as Electors Palatine. Bond of the town Düsseldorf, issued 26. July 1899 The state parliament , seen from the top of the Rheinturm
Rheinturm
. Rheinturm
Rheinturm
Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
70th Anniversary of the state NRW Illumination with Rheinkomet , including a real comet at the right side

Under the art loving Johann Wilhelm II (r. 1690–1716), a vast art gallery with a huge selection of paintings and sculptures, were housed in the Stadtschloss (city castle). After his death, the city fell on hard times again, especially after Elector Charles Theodore inherited Bavaria
Bavaria
and moved the electoral court to Munich
Munich
. With him he took the art collection , which became part of what is now the Alte Pinakothek in Munich. Destruction and poverty struck Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
after the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
. Napoleon
Napoleon
made Berg a Grand Duchy and Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
its capital. Johann Devaranne , a leader of Solingen
Solingen
's resistance to Napoleon's conscription decrees, was executed here in 1813. After Napoleon's defeat, the whole Rhineland
Rhineland
including Berg was given to the Kingdom of Prussia
Kingdom of Prussia
in 1815. The Rhine
Rhine
Province 's parliament was established in Düsseldorf. By the mid-19th century, Düsseldorf enjoyed a revival thanks to the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
as the city boasted 100,000 inhabitants by 1882; the figure doubled in 1892. In 1920, Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
became the centre of the General Strike. On 15 April 1920, 45 delegates of the German Miners Union were murdered by the Freikorps
Freikorps
.

The city was a target of strategic bombing during World War II , particularly during the RAF bombing campaign in 1943 when over 700 bombers were used in a single night. Raids continued late into the war. As part of the campaign against German oil facilities , the RAF raid of 20–21 February on the Rhenania Ossag refinery in the Reisholz district of the city halted oil production there. The Allied ground advance into Germany
Germany
reached Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
in mid-April 1945. The United States
United States
97th Infantry Division easily captured the city on 18 April 1945, after the local German Resistance group launched Aktion Rheinland .

In 1946, Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
was made capital of the new federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
. The city's reconstruction proceeded at a frantic pace and the economic transformation guided Düsseldorf's economic growth.

GEOGRAPHY

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY

Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
skyline Promenade along the Rhine
Rhine

Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
lies at the centre of the Lower Rhine
Rhine
basin, where the delta of the River Düssel flows into the Rhine. The city lies on the east side of the Rhine, except District 4 (Oberkassel , Niederkassel , Heerdt and Lörick ). Across the Rhine, the city of Neuss stands on the delta of the Erft river. Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
lies southwest of the Ruhr urban area, and in the middle of the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region.

Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
is built entirely on alluvium , mud, sand, clay and occasionally gravel. The highest point in Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
is the top of Sandberg in the far eastern part of the city (Hubbelrath borough) at 165 metres (541 ft). The lowest point is at the far northern end in Wittlaer borough where the Schwarzbach enters the Rhine, with an average elevation of 28 metres (92 ft).

ADJACENT CITIES AND DISTRICTS

The following districts and cities border Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
(clockwise starting from the north): the City of Duisburg
Duisburg
, the District of Mettmann ( Ratingen , Mettmann , Erkrath , Hilden , Langenfeld , and Monheim ), and the District of Neuss ( Dormagen , Neuss, and Meerbusch ).

CLIMATE

Like the rest of the lower Rhineland
Rhineland
, Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
experiences moderate winters with little snowfall and mild to warm summers. The average annual temperature is 10.6 °C (51 °F) with an average yearly precipitation of 797 millimetres (31 in). The dominant wind direction is from the west with velocities in the range of 3 to 4 m/s (7–9 mph), with gusts of 3.5 −4.8 m/s (8–10.7 mph). The wind is calm (defined as being under 2 m/s or 4.5 mph) about 35% of the time, more frequently at night and in the winter.

CLIMATE DATA FOR DüSSELDORF (1990-2013)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 5.5 (41.9) 6.9 (44.4) 10.9 (51.6) 15.2 (59.4) 19.4 (66.9) 22.1 (71.8) 24.3 (75.7) 24.0 (75.2) 19.8 (67.6) 15.0 (59) 9.5 (49.1) 5.7 (42.3) 14.9 (58.8)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 1.2 (34.2) 1.3 (34.3) 3.3 (37.9) 5.5 (41.9) 9.3 (48.7) 12.0 (53.6) 14.4 (57.9) 14.1 (57.4) 11.2 (52.2) 8.1 (46.6) 4.6 (40.3) 1.7 (35.1) 7.3 (45.1)

AVERAGE RAINFALL MM (INCHES) 61.1 (2.406) 55.7 (2.193) 54.6 (2.15) 50.8 (2) 57.6 (2.268) 71.5 (2.815) 77.0 (3.031) 74.5 (2.933) 100.5 (3.957) 65.3 (2.571) 66.1 (2.602) 71.1 (2.799) 805.8 (31.725)

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 55.7 76.2 112.2 165.0 198.8 194.0 207.6 190.7 140.1 110.4 59.0 45.2 1,554.9

Source: www.weatheronline.de

Source 2: Sun = http://meteo-climat-bzh.dyndns.org]

DEMOGRAPHICS

TEN LARGEST GROUPS OF FOREIGN RESIDENTS

NATIONALITY POPULATION (2017)

Turkey
Turkey
16,004

Greece
Greece
12,292

Poland
Poland
10,100

Italy
Italy
8,546

Yugoslavia 7,934

Syria
Syria
6,249

Spain
Spain
5,726

Russia
Russia
5,111

Morocco
Morocco
4,865

Iraq
Iraq
4,289

With a population of 593,682 within the city boundaries (31 December 2012), Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
is Germany\'s seventh largest city . Its population surpassed the threshold of 100,000 inhabitants during the height of industrialisation in 1882, and peaked at just over 705,000 in 1962. The city then began to lose residents with many moving into neighbouring municipalities. However, since the late 1990s, the city's population has been slowly rising again.

A total of 109,883 of Düsseldorf's population are foreigners (31 December 2008), the majority of whom come from within Europe
Europe
(81,742). The largest national minorities are Turks , Greeks , and Poles . Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
and its surroundings have the third-largest Japanese community in Europe
Europe
and the largest in Germany
Germany
(about 11,000 people). Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
has the third-largest Jewish community in Germany, with about 7,600 members.

GOVERNMENT

MAYORS

Main article: List of mayors of Düsseldorf
List of mayors of Düsseldorf

DISTRICTS

Main article: Districts of Düsseldorf

Since 1975, Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
is divided into ten administrative districts. Each district (Bezirk) has its own elected district council (Bezirksvertretung) and its own district mayor (Bezirksvorsteher). The district councils are advisory only. Each district is further subdivided into boroughs. There are 50 boroughs in Düsseldorf.

District 1 (Stadtbezirk 1) Altstadt , Carlstadt , Derendorf , Golzheim , Pempelfort , Stadtmitte District 2 (Stadtbezirk 2) Düsseltal , Flingern-Nord , Flingern-Süd District 3 (Stadtbezirk 3) Bilk , Flehe , Friedrichstadt , Hafen , Hamm
Hamm
, Oberbilk , Unterbilk , Volmerswerth District 4 (Stadtbezirk 4) Heerdt , Lörick , Niederkassel , Oberkassel District 5 (Stadtbezirk 5) Angermund , Kaiserswerth , Kalkum , Lohausen , Stockum , Wittlaer

District 6 (de) (Stadtbezirk 6) Lichtenbroich , Mörsenbroich , Rath , Unterrath District 7 (Stadtbezirk 7) Gerresheim , Grafenberg , Hubbelrath , Ludenberg , Knittkuhl District 8 (de) (Stadtbezirk 8) Eller , Lierenfeld , Unterbach , Vennhausen District 9 (Stadtbezirk 9) Benrath , Hassels , Himmelgeist , Holthausen , Itter , Reisholz , Urdenbach , Wersten District 10 (de) (Stadtbezirk 10) Garath , Hellerhof

ECONOMY

Rheinturm
Rheinturm
and Gehry -buildings Der Neue Zollhof in Hafen Königsallee in Stadtmitte

Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
has become one of the top telecommunications centres in Germany. With two of the four big German providers of mobile frequencies, D2 Vodafone
Vodafone
and E-Plus , Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
leads the German mobile phone market. There are many foreign information and communication technology companies in Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
such as Huawei
Huawei
, NTT , Ericsson
Ericsson
, Nokia
Nokia
, and GTS.. There are 18 internet service providers located in the capital of North- Rhine
Rhine
Westphalia. There are two airlines with headquarters in the city: Eurowings and formerly independent LTU International .

Many of the internet companies in Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
have their roots in the world of advertising: there are 400 advertising agencies in Düsseldorf, among them three of the largest in Germany: BBDO Group and Publicis . A number of affiliates of foreign agencies deserve mention as well, such as Ogilvy & Mather , Dentsu
Dentsu
, Hakuhodo , and DDB . There are also about 200 publishing houses in Düsseldorf. There are around 170 national and international financial institutions , and about 130 insurance agencies, and one of Germany's eight stock exchanges . Several other major companies have their headquarters in the city: Peek Henkel AG Metro (wholesale, retail); Ergo (insurance), Esprit Holdings (fashion, headquarters in Ratingen near Düsseldorf), BASF Personal Care ">

Daimler AG
Daimler AG
builds the Mercedes-Benz Sprinter light commercial vehicles in Düsseldorf. Since the 1960s, there has been a strong relationship between the city and Japan
Japan
. Many Japanese banks and corporations have their European headquarters in Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
– so many that Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
has the third largest Japanese community in Europe, after London
London
and Paris
Paris
.

The "Kö", which stands for Königsallee ("King's Avenue"), is a popular shopping destination. Some of the most reputed jewellery shops, designer labels, and galleries have their stores here. The Kö has among the highest rents for retail and office space in Germany.

MEDIA

Important newspapers and journals such as Handelsblatt , Rheinische Post , Wirtschaftswoche, Deutsches Wirtschaftsblatt and VDI-Nachrichten are published in Düsseldorf. Almost all of these papers are available online on the Internet. Renowned filmmaking companies, such as Germany's biggest cinema enterprise, the Riech-Group, and TV channels such as WDR and QVC are located in Düsseldorf. The foundation Film- und Medienstiftung NRW is supporting the production of film and new media.

In regards to movies and movie theatres in Düsseldorf, movie goers have the option to choose between multiple different languages at the theatre. Many mainstream movies are shown in English, Spanish, French, and German.

TRANSPORT

AIRPORT DUS

Düsseldorf Airport

Düsseldorf Airport , also referred to as Rhein- Ruhr
Ruhr
Airport, is located eight kilometres (5.0 miles) from the city centre and can easily be reached by train or the S-Bahn urban railway. There is a long-distance train station served by regional and national services, which is linked to the airport by the SkyTrain , an automatic people mover . Another station situated under the terminal building carries the S-Bahn line (S11 ) to Düsseldorf Central Station , and to Cologne as well as a few selected night services. After Frankfurt
Frankfurt
and Munich, Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
International is Germany's third largest commercial airport , with 21,850,489 passengers annually (2014). The airport offers 180 destinations on 4 continents, and is served by 70 airlines. The airport buildings were partly destroyed by a devastating fire caused by welding works in 1996, killing 17 people. It was completely rebuilt and the Skytrain installed.

RAILWAY

Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
Straßenbahn and Düsseldorf Stadtbahn
Düsseldorf Stadtbahn
network, part of the Verkehrsverbund Rhein- Ruhr
Ruhr
.

The city is a major hub in the Deutsche Bahn
Deutsche Bahn
(DB) railway network. More than 1,000 trains stop in Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
daily. Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
Central Station at Konrad-Adenauer-Platz is located in Düsseldorf-Stadtmitte . Several Rhein- Ruhr
Ruhr
S-Bahn lines connect Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
to other cities of Rhine-Ruhr . Local Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
Straßenbahn and light rail Düsseldorf Stadtbahn
Düsseldorf Stadtbahn
traffic, as well as local bus traffic, is carried out by the city-owned Rheinbahn which operates within the VRR public transport system. The light rail system also serves neighbouring cities and is partially operated underground. The Central Station and the Airport
Airport
Station (Flughafen-Bahnhof) are connected to the national and European high-speed systems (Intercity/Eurocity, IC/EC and InterCityExpress ).

TAXI

Officially licensed taxis are always ivory coloured

In Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
there are 1320 officially licensed Taxis. According to the regulations, the cars are always in ivory colour. On the back window you always find a black number on a yellow patch. Credit card payment has to be accepted at the Taxi stands at Airport
Airport
of Düsseldorf. The supply of taxis in Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
is over the German average. Two taxi organisations cover the market. "Taxi-Düsseldorf" offers more than 1180 cabs in different sizes for max. 8 Passengers. The smaller one is "Rhein-Taxi" with more than 120 cabs. It is obligatory to carry out any journeys to destinations in the city and directly neighbouring cities.

AUTOBAHN

North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
has the densest network of autobahns in Germany
Germany
and Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
is directly accessible via the A3 , A44 , A46 , A52 , A57 , A59 and A524 .

CULTURE AND RECREATION

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Elector Jan Wellem
Jan Wellem
and his wife Anna Maria Luisa de\' Medici of Tuscany, were patrons of Düsseldorf's first significant cultural activities in the 17th and 18th centuries. Heinrich Heine
Heinrich Heine
, whose 200th birthday was celebrated in 1997 and who originally had a proposed memorial in the city dedicated to him; Clara and Robert Schumann ; and as Felix Mendelssohn
Felix Mendelssohn
, are the most prominent artists related to the city, which is home to a distinguished Academy of Fine Arts .

The Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
cultural scene comprises traditional and avant-garde , classical and glamorous. The world-famous state art collection of North Rhine-Westphalia, the highly acclaimed Deutsche Oper am Rhein (opera), and the Düsseldorfer Schauspielhaus
Düsseldorfer Schauspielhaus
(theatre), artistic home of Gustaf Gründgens , are major elements of Düsseldorf's reputation as a centre of the fine arts.

BEER

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Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
is well known for its Altbier , a hoppy beer which translates as old beer, a reference to the pre-lager brewing method of using a warm top-fermenting yeast like British pale ales. Over time the Alt yeast adjusted to lower temperatures, and the Alt brewers would store or lager the beer after fermentation, leading to a cleaner, crisper beer. The name "altbier" first appeared in the 19th century to differentiate the beers of Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
from the new pale lager that was gaining a hold on Germany.

Brewers in Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
used the pale malts that were used for the modern pale lagers, but retained the old ("alt") method of using warm fermenting yeasts. The first brewery to use the name Alt was Schumacher which opened in 1838. The founder, Mathias Schumacher, allowed the beer to mature in cool conditions in wooden casks for longer than normal, and laid the foundation for the modern alt – amber coloured and lagered. The result is a pale beer that has some of the lean dryness of a lager but with fruity notes as well.

There are five pub-breweries in Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
which brew Altbier on the premises: Füchschen, Schumacher, Schlüssel, Uerige and Brauerei Kürzer. Four of the five are in the historic centre of Düsseldorf (Altstadt); the other (Schumacher), between the Altstadt and Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
Central railway station (Hauptbahnhof), also maintains an establishment in the Altstadt, Im Goldenen Kessel, across the street from Schlüssel.

Each (except Brauerei Kürzer) produces a special, secret, seasonal "Sticke" version in small quantities, though the names vary: Schlüssel spells it "Stike", without the "c", while Schumacher calls its special beer "Latzenbier", meaning "slat beer", possibly because the kegs from which it was poured had been stored on raised shelves. Füchschen's seasonal is its Weihnachtsbier ( Christmas
Christmas
beer), available in bottles starting mid-November, and served in the brewpub on Christmas Eve .

MUSIC AND NIGHTLIFE

Sensation White
Sensation White
New Year's Eve party, Esprit Arena

Since the 1950s the " Kom(m)ödchen
Kom(m)ödchen
" has been one of the most prominent political cabarets of Germany. The city's most famous contribution to the culture of modern popular music is beyond doubt the avant-garde electronic music band Kraftwerk
Kraftwerk
. Formed by a few Düsseldorf-born musicians, Kraftwerk
Kraftwerk
are internationally known as the most significant band in the history of post-war German music and as pioneers in electronic music.

Internationally known power metal band Warlock was formed in Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
in 1982. Their frontwoman, Doro Pesch , has had a successful solo career in Europe
Europe
and Asia since Warlock ended. The punk band Die Toten Hosen , which is famous around the world, also the most popular singers in Germany
Germany
Westernhagen and Heino
Heino
come from Düsseldorf. The electronic act D.A.F. was formed in the city in 1978, as well as the electronic/industrial pioneers Die Krupps
Die Krupps
in 1980. The experimental post-punk group La Düsseldorf was named after the city, for which it paid with a legal case in the early 1980s. Another famous formation is Fehlfarben . Founded in the late 1970s by Peter Hein, Frank Fenstermacher, Kurt Dahlke and Michael Kemner.

FASHION

Düsseldorf, Germany
Germany
is the fashion capital of Germany
Germany
as it is a major cultural center for the art and fashion scenes. The fashionable clothes trend took root in this city before 1949. 1949 is the date of the first fashion show staged in Düsseldorf. Fashion
Fashion
trends have occurred as access to more elegant clothing for the general public has been a part of the culture for almost a century. Two times a year an event called the, “Voices of Fashion,” occurs and attracts many people to visit Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
to find the latest fashion items. There are famous designers that have made a name for themselves in Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
as well. Designers Sabine Schumacher, Peter O. Mahler, and Renate Harvan all design in Düsseldorf. To keep the creativity and passion for fashion alive in Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
everyday there are schools dedicated to fashion design in Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
as well. Akademie Mode and Design Institution, Design Department Academy, and Mode Design College are the three prominent fashion schools residing in Düsseldorf.

CARNIVAL

Main article: Carnival
Carnival
in Germany, Switzerland and Austria § Rhineland
Rhineland

One of the biggest cultural events in Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
is the Karneval (also referred to as the "fifth season") which starts every year on 11 November at 11:11 a.m., and reaches its climax on Rosenmontag (Rose Monday), featuring a huge parade through the streets of Düsseldorf. Karneval ends on Aschermittwoch ( Ash Wednesday
Ash Wednesday
).

CARTWHEELER OF DüSSELDORF

Main article: Düsseldorf\'s cartwheeler

The Düsseldorfer Radschläger (Boy who does Cartwheels ) is said to be the city's oldest tradition. The symbol of the cartwheeler can be found on many souvenirs and various things in Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
have the cartwheelers to thank for their names. This tradition was honoured in 1954 by the erection of a fountain, called Cartwheeler's Fountain, on the Burgplatz in Düsseldorf.

Legends Of Its Origin And History

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The tradition cannot be linked to one specific historical event, instead, there are several stories surrounding the beginnings of the Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
Cartwheelers. Probably the most well known version is Battle of Worringen . In the battle of 1288 Count Adolf devastatingly defeated the Archbishop
Archbishop
of Cologne
Cologne
. As a consequence of this victory, Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
obtained Town privileges . The inhabitants, especially the children ran joyfully on the streets and performed cartwheels .

Another story talks about a wedding procession during which one of the wheels of the wedding carriage broke. In order to fend off the threat of bad luck, a boy supposedly jumped to the carriage, took hold of the wheel and thus became a living part of the wheel. Whether the story is about the marriage of Jan Wellem
Jan Wellem
and Anna Maria Luisa de\' Medici or the wedding of Margravine Jakobea of Baden and Johann Wilhelm is debatable.

Another story gives an account of this wedding between Margrave Jacobe von Baden and Johann Wilhelm, in 1585. According to legend she felt miserable about her marriage, but the cartwheelers who displayed their skills next to her carriage were able to make her smile. Numerous travelers were attracted to the city by great exhibitions - the forerunner of today’s fairs - between the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. During this time the children who did the cart wheeling found out that it was a profitable source of income. The bourgeoisie accepted this in good humour as a symbolic act of local patriotism. In the beginning the lads shouted "för eene Penning schlage ich das Rad“ (cartwheel for a penny). The Jan Wellem
Jan Wellem
monument returned to Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
at the end of the Second World War. The procession was accompanied by torches, fanfares and the cartwheeling boys.

Cartwheelers In The Cityscape

Cartwheelers can be found by several fountains within the city. The most famous is Cartwheeler’s Fountain in Burgplatz with an inscription of a quote by Hans Müller-Schlösser: "Radschläger wolle mer blieve, wie jeck et de Minschen och drieve“ (We will always remain cartwheelers, however crazy it drives people.) The fountain was designed by Alfred Zschorsch in 1954 and donated by the Heimatverein Düsseldorfer Jonges, which is a club devoted to the maintenance of local and regional traditions. There are other cartwheelers that decorate storm drains and the door knocker on the Church of Lambertus, which was designed by Friedrich Becker. He created the cartwheeler in front of the Schadow Arcades.

This tradition has been kept alive by the Alde Düsseldorfer Bürgergesellschaft von 1920 e. V., a society founded in 1920, who organized the first cartwheeler competition on 17 October 1937. Since 1971 this event has been held annually in cooperation with the Stadtsparkasse (a local bank), but formerly took place in the Königsallee . Since 2006 it has taken place on the Rheinwerft, near the old part of town. This is a fixed date in the city’s calendar of events. About 500 boys regularly participate in this event and since 1971 girls have also taken part. In 2001 the art project Radschläger-Kunst (Cartwheeler Art) was called into life, in which over 100 cartwheeler sculptures have been designed by various artists. The door knocker on the Church of Lambertus functioned as a model for the sculptures that are 2 metres (6 feet 7 inches) high, 2 metres (6 feet 7 inches) wide and 30 cm (12 in) deep. They were positioned around the city centre. Some of the sculptures have been auctioned off to companies and private owners.

CHRISTMAS MARKET

Every Christmas
Christmas
, the city of Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
uses the city centre to host one of the largest Christmas
Christmas
gatherings in Germany. The Christmas festival occurs every year from 17 November until 23 December. This Christmas
Christmas
fest brings Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
a large portion of tourism every year as many people from nearby areas come to the city to drink mulled wine and hot chocolate and watch craftsman blow glass and create art. The event contains many small wooden buildings all clustered in the middle of the city for all the citizens to enjoy. The event, to many visitors, has an old European feel, but is very lively.

CUISINE

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Traditional meals in the region are Rheinischer Sauerbraten
Sauerbraten
(a beef roast and sometimes horse marinated for a few days in vinegar and spices served with gravy and raisins) and Heaven and Earth (Himmel und Äd; black pudding with stewed apples mixed with mashed potatoes ). In winter the people like to eat Muscheln Rheinischer Art (Rhenish-style mussels) as well as Reibekuchen (fried potato pancake served with apple sauce). Also a special meal: Düsseldorfer Senfrostbraten (Steaks roasted with Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
mustard on top).

Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
is known for its strong Dijon -like mustard served in a traditional pot called "Mostertpöttche", which was eternalised in a still life by Vincent van Gogh
Vincent van Gogh
in 1884.

The Rhine
Rhine
Metropolis is one of the most diverse areas in terms of culinary diversity. Düsseldorf, with the third largest Japanese community in Europe, not only provides a wide range of culinary cuisine but also has a solid foundation of Authentic Asian food in the city. Düsseldorf’s exceptional culinary cuisine has been recognized and visited by the Worldwide leading travel guide of Lonely Planet. Along with a broad range of diverse cultural cuisine, Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
is also home to various Michelin starred restaurants that are world renowned.

ALVE HAHN - this dish is made from a half a double rye roll, which is another of the specialties of Düsseldorf, buttered, with a thick slice of aged Gouda cheese, onions, mustard, ground paprika and sour pickles.

HIMMEL UN AAD - a dish of mashed potatoes and apples along with slices of blutwurst. Caramelized onions are usually served with this meal.

REIBEKUCHEN is another famous dish from Düsseldorf; this dish is usually drizzled with Rübensyrup (beet syrup) and is served on pumpernickel slices along with applesauce

LITERATURE

The Förderpreis für Literatur der Landeshauptstadt Düsseldorf is a German Literary award donated by the City of Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
in Northrhine-Westphalia . The Prize for Literature in support of the City of Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
is awarded since 1972 by the Council of the City due to the decisions of the courts.

The Förderpreis für Literatur der Landeshauptstadt Düsseldorf is given once a year to artists and groups, especially to the areas of poetry, writing, review and translation.

RIVALRY WITH COLOGNE

Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
and Cologne
Cologne
have a "fierce regional rivalry". The rivalry includes carnival parades, football , ice hockey and beer . People in Cologne
Cologne
prefer Kölsch while people in Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
prefer Alt. Waiters and patrons will "scorn" and make a "mockery" of people who order Alt beer in Cologne
Cologne
and Kölsch in Düsseldorf. The rivalry has been described as a "love-hate relationship".

THEATRES

Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
Schauspielhaus Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
Tonhalle

* Apollo (varieté, circus; shows do not require knowledge of German language ) * Capitol (musicals) * Deutsche Oper am Rhein (Opera; Ballet) * Düsseldorfer Schauspielhaus
Düsseldorfer Schauspielhaus
; the theatre started with theatrical performances in 1585 * Düsseldorfer Marionetten-Theater * ESPRIT Arena (Venue of the Eurovision Song Contest 2011 ) * FFT – Forum Freies Theater (intimate theatre) * Junges Theater in der Altstadt * Klangraum (20th-century classical music) * Kom(m)ödchen
Kom(m)ödchen
(Political cabaret) * Komödie Düsseldorf * Palais Wittgenstein * Puppentheater an der Helmholtzstraße (puppetry) * Robert-Schumann-Saal * Savoy-Theater * Seniorentheater in der Altstadt * Tanzhaus NRW (theatre for dance) * Tonhalle Düsseldorf
Tonhalle Düsseldorf
(concert hall for classical music , jazz, pop, cabaret) * Theater an der Kö * Theater an der Luegallee * Theateratelier Takelgarn * Theater Flin * Theater Glorreich

MUSEUMS, ARTS AND HISTORY INSTITUTES, AND OTHER ATTRACTIONS

Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen – K20 (Grabbeplatz) Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen – K21 (Ständehaus) Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
AquaZoo Entrance Rheinturm
Rheinturm
Building of the Folk high school (Volkshochschule) and the central library (Zentalbibliothek der Stadtbibliothek) of Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf

* Akademie-Galerie (exhibition space of the Art Academy Düsseldorf) * Andreaskirche * Aquazoo-Löbbecke-Museum (aquarium and zoological museum) * TvTower * BRAUSE – Vereinsheim des Metzgerei Schnitzel Kunstvereins e.V. * Film museum * Filmstiftung NRW (NRW Film Foundation) * Forum NRW * Goethe -Museum * Heinrich-Heine-Institut * Heinrich Heine
Heinrich Heine
Birth-house * Hetjens Museum (German museum of ceramics) * Imai – inter media art institute * Institut Français Düsseldorf * Institut für Kunstdokumentation und Szenografie (Institute for Art Documentation and Scenography) * Julia Stoschek Collection (video art) * KAI 10Raum für Kunst * Kulturbahnhof Eller * Kunstarchiv Kaiserswerth (works of Bernd and Hilla Becher /Kahmen Collection) * Kunst im Tunnel (KIT) * Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen (Art Collection Northrhine-Westphalia) – K20 (Grabbeplatz) and K21 (Ständehaus) * Kunsthalle Düsseldorf
Kunsthalle Düsseldorf
* Kunstverein für die Rheinlande und Westfalen (Society for the Promotion of the Fine Arts) * Museum Kunst Palast * Mahn- und Gedenkstätte für die Opfer des Nationalsozialmus (Memorial museum for victims of Nationalsocialism ) * Onomato * Polnisches Institut Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
* Puppentheater an der Helmholtzstraße * Rathaus * Reinraum e.V. – Verein zur Förderung von Kunst und Kultur * Rheinturm
Rheinturm
( Rhine
Rhine
Tower; highest building and landmark of Düsseldorf) * St. Lambertuskirche * Schiffahrt Museum * Schloss Jägerhof * Schlossturm * Schloss und Park Benrath (Palace and park of Benrath) * Stadtbibliothek * Stadtmuseum (City history museum) * Statue of Jan Wellem
Jan Wellem
* Theatermuseum, Düsseldorf * Triton Museum * Volkshochschule * Zakk – cultural centre with concerts, readings, debates and party

PARKS AND GARDENS

* Botanischer Garten Düsseldorf
Botanischer Garten Düsseldorf
, a modern botanical garden * Hofgarten * The Nordpark, with the Aquazoo * The Südfriedhof (The South Cemetery) * Volksgarten adjacent to Südpark

SPORTS

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*

The ISS-Dome , an ice hockey stadium opened in 2006 *

The Esprit Arena (former LTU) *

Logo during Eurovision Song Contest 2011 ESC *

Racecourse, general view from east *

Main Tribune of the Racecourse for horses/Galopprennbahn Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf

Düsseldorf's football team Fortuna Düsseldorf won the 1933 German championship, the German Cup in 1979 and 1980, and were finalists in the European Cup Winners Cup in 1979. After 15 years in lower leagues they were promoted following a play-off win over Hertha Berlin in 2012. As of 2014 , they are back in the second division of German soccer. Their new stadium, the Esprit arena , opened in January 2005 and has a capacity of 54,500. Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
was one of nine host cities for the 1974 FIFA World Cup
1974 FIFA World Cup
, and the Rochusclub Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
has hosted the tennis World Team Cup
World Team Cup
from 1978 till 2012. Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
also held the Grand Départ for the Tour de France
France
in July 2017.

Other sports in Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
are ice hockey (the Düsseldorfer EG which play in the new ISS-Dome ) and American football
American football
. The Düsseldorf Panther
Düsseldorf Panther
are one of the most successful teams in Germany with six German Bowl titles and the Eurobowl victory in 1995. In addition the Junior-Team is the most successful youth department in Germany
Germany
with fifteen Junior Bowl victories. Rhine
Rhine
Fire Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
was an established team of the NFL Europe
Europe
and won the World Bowl two times in 1998 and 2000. Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
has a successful rugby union team ( Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
Dragons), who play in the regional NRW league and consistently finish with a top-three position.

Table tennis
Table tennis
is also played (Borussia Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
– the most successful team in Germany
Germany
with Timo Boll
Timo Boll
), as are handball (HSG Düsseldorf), basketball ( Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
Giants ), baseball (Düsseldorf Senators) and dancing (Rot-Weiß Düsseldorf). Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
also has a Cricket
Cricket
team, the Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
Blackcaps, who play in the regional NRW league.

EDUCATION

Heinrich Heine
Heinrich Heine
University Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
is located in the southern part of the city. It has about 20,000 students and a wide range of subjects in natural sciences , mathematics, computer sciences , philosophy, social sciences , arts, languages, medicine, pharmacy, economy and the law.

Other academic institutions include

* the Clara Schumann
Clara Schumann
Musikschule (music school) * the Robert Schumann Hochschule * the Kunstakademie Düsseldorf (Academy of Fine Arts ) which is famous for high-profile artists like Joseph Beuys, Paul Klee, Nam June Paik, Gerhard Richter, the Bechers, and Andreas Gursky * the Hochschule Düsseldorf (University of Applied Sciences ) * the AMD Academy of Fashion
Fashion
and Design * the Max Planck Institute for Iron Research * the Goethe Institute * Verwaltungs- und Wirtschafts-Akademie Düsseldorf * WHU-Otto Beisheim School of Management ( Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
Campus)

International primary and secondary schools:

* International School of Düsseldorf * Lycée français de Düsseldorf * Japanische Internationale Schule in Düsseldorf

NOTABLE BUILDINGS

The Neuer Zollhof at Medienhafen

* Rheinturm
Rheinturm
(TV tower) the city's landmark (1982: 234 m , since 2004: 240.50 m ), the lights on which comprise the world's largest digital clock . * The Gehry buildings in the Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
media harbour (see picture above). * The Colorium, an 18-storey tower designed by Alsop and Partners, also in the Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
media harbour. * The Benrather Schloss (Benrath palace). * The Grupello-Haus probably designed by the Italian architect Matteo Alberti in 1706 for Duke Johann Wilhelm . * The Wilhem Marx House of 1922/24: at twelve storeys high, it was Germany's first high-rise building . * The Stahlhof of 1906, the administrative centre of Germany's steel economy until 1945. * The Stummhaus of 1925, another early German high-rise building. * Gerresheim Basilica . * St Suitbertus Basilica . * DRV Tower, 120-metre-high (394 ft) tower constructed in 1978. * GAP 15, an 85-metre-high (279 ft) building constructed in 2005 near Königsallee . * ARAG-Tower , at 131 m (430 ft) in height, it is Düsseldorf's highest office building ; designed by Sir Norman Foster
Sir Norman Foster
. * Eight bridges span the River Rhine
Rhine
at Düsseldorf; they, too, are city landmarks. * Eastern pylon of Reisholz Rhine
Rhine
Powerline Crossing , an electricity pylon under whose legs runs a rail.

NOTABLE PLACES

* Kö ( Königsallee ), a shopping street with luxuries shops * Schloss Benrath
Schloss Benrath
, rococo castle * Altstadt (Düsseldorf) , literally "old town", the historic town centre. Nowadays Düsseldorf's entertainment district with hundreds of pubs and restaurants, and proverbially known by Germans as "the longest bar in the world". * Düsseldorf-Hafen
Düsseldorf-Hafen
, the harbour is a modern build district * Kaiserswerth , historical district with the ruined castle of Barbarossa Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor
Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor
* Hofgarten , old city park

TWIN TOWNS – SISTER CITIES

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany
Germany

Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
is twinned with:

* Chemnitz
Chemnitz
, Germany
Germany
* Chongqing
Chongqing
, China
China
* Haifa
Haifa
, Israel
Israel
* Moscow
Moscow
, Russia
Russia
* Reading , UK, since 1947, officially since 1988 * Warsaw
Warsaw
, Poland, since 1989

In addition, Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
has friendship relations with:

* Belo Horizonte , Brazil
Brazil
* Chiba , Japan
Japan
* Guangzhou
Guangzhou
, China
China
* Lillehammer
Lillehammer
, Norway
Norway
* Mbombela , South Africa
South Africa
* Palermo
Palermo
, Italy
Italy
* Shenyang
Shenyang
, China
China
* Toulouse
Toulouse
, France
France

SONS AND DAUGHTERS OF THE TOWN

BORN BEFORE 1850

Heinrich Heine
Heinrich Heine
1831 Johann Georg Jacobi
Johann Georg Jacobi

* François-Charles de Velbrück , (1719–1784), Prince-Bishop of Liège
Liège
* Helena Curtens , (1722–1738), last victim of the witch trials in the Lower Rhine * Johann Georg Jacobi
Johann Georg Jacobi
, (1740–1814), writer * Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi , (1743–1819), philosopher and writer * Peter von Cornelius
Peter von Cornelius
, (1783–1867), painter * Heinrich Heine
Heinrich Heine
, (1797–1856), poet and writer * Paul Graf von Hatzfeld to Trachenberg , (1851–1901), Secretary of State and head of the Foreign Office
Office
of the German Reich 1881–1885 * Eugen Richter , (1838–1906), today part of Berlin, politician and publicist * Arnold Forstmann
Arnold Forstmann
, (1842–1914), landscape painter * Peter Janssen
Peter Janssen
, (1844–1908), painter, professor at the Art Academy

BORN 1851–1900

Georg Wenker

* Georg Wenker , (1852–1911), linguist, founder of linguistic atlas of the German Reich (Wenkeratlas) * Karl Janssen , (1855–1927), sculptor, professor at the Art Academy * Fritz Reiss, (1857–1915), lithographer, illustrator, graphic artist and painter * Bruno Schmitz , (1858–1916), architect * Otto Hupp , (1859–1949), signature graphic artist, engraver * Albert Herzfeld , (1865–1943), painter and author * Hanns Heinz Ewers , (1871–1943), writer and filmmaker * Wilhelm Levison , (1876–1947), historian * Elly Ney , (1882–1968), world-famous concert pianist * Carl Maria Weber, (1890–1953), writer * Willy Reetz , (1892–1963), painter, " Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
School" * Hermann Knüfken , (1893–1976), marine soldier, revolutionary, union activist, resistance fighter and secret agent * Ludwig Gehre
Ludwig Gehre
, (1895–1945) in Flossenbürg
Flossenbürg
, officer and resistance fighter * Hans Globke , (1898–1973), jurist, National Socialist, from 1949 Assistant Secretary, then Secretary of State in the Federal Chancellery (1953–1963) * Karl von Appen , (1900–1981), stage designer

BORN AFTER 1900

Helmut Käutner 1960

* Jacob Sporrenberg , (1902–1952, SS-group leader, lieutenant general of police and politician (NSDAP) * Toni Ulmen , (1906–1976), motorcycle and car race driver * Helmut Käutner , (1908–1980), film director („Des Teufels General “, „Das Haus in Montevideo “), actor * Hilarius Gilges , (1909–1933), Afro-German actor, victim of National Socialism * Jürgen Habermas , (born 1929), famous philosopher and sociologist * Wim Wenders , (born 1945), filmmaker, playwright, author * Marius Müller- Westernhagen , (born 1948), actor and musician * Andreas Gursky , (born 1955), photographer * Bettina Böttinger
Bettina Böttinger
, (born 1956), TV-presenter * Birgitt Bender , (born 1956), politician (The Greens), Member of Landtag and Bundestag * Andreas Frege , (born 1962), „Campino“, singer in the band Die Toten Hosen * René Obermann , (born 1963), manager, husband of Maybrit Illner * Michael Preetz
Michael Preetz
, (born 1967), former football-player * Heike Makatsch , (born 1971), actress and singer

THE FOLLOWING FIGURES ARE NOT SONS AND DAUGHTERS OF THE CITY, BUT HAVE A SPECIAL MEANING FOR DüSSELDORF

* William Thomas Mulvany , * 1806 Dublin
Dublin
, Ireland
Ireland
, † October 30, 1885 in Düsseldorf, entrepreneur * Robert Schumann , born June 8, 1810 in Zwickau , † July 29, 1856 in Endenich, composer, 1850–1854 urban music director in Düsseldorf * Alfred Rethel
Alfred Rethel
, born May 5, 1816 in Aachen
Aachen
; † December 1, 1859 in Düsseldorf, history painter * Ernestine Friedrichsen * June 29, 1824 in Danzig
Danzig
; † July 21, 1892 in Düsseldorf, genre painter * Clara Schumann
Clara Schumann
, born September 13, 1819 in Leipzig
Leipzig
, † May 20, 1896 in Frankfurt
Frankfurt
am Main; pianist and composer, wife of Robert Schumann, frequent host of Johannes Brahms
Johannes Brahms
in Düsseldorf (1850–1854) * Emanuel Leutze , born May 24, 1824 in Schwäbisch Gmünd
Schwäbisch Gmünd
, † July 18, 1868 in Washington, DC
Washington, DC
, painter, Düsseldorf School * Louise Dumont , born February 22, 1862 in Cologne
Cologne
; † 16 May 1932 in Düsseldorf, actress and 1904 founder of the Schauspielhaus Düsseldorf * Johanna "Mother" Ey , born March 4, 1864 in Wickrath (today Monchengladbach ); † August 27, 1947 in Düsseldorf, gallery owner * Peter Behrens , born April 14, 1868 in Hamburg-Borgfelde, † February 27, 1940 in Berlin
Berlin
, architect and director of the Düsseldorf Art Academy * Wilhelm Kreis , born March 17, 1873 in Eltville , † August 13, 1955 in Bad Honnef , architect and director of the School of Applied Arts Düsseldorf * Peter Kürten
Peter Kürten
, born May 26, 1883 in Mülheim am Rhein , † July 2, 1931 in Cologne, called "The Vampire of Düsseldorf", committed in Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
during the period between February and November 1929 series of sexual homicide * Adolf Uzarski , born April 14, 1885 in Ruhrort
Ruhrort
(today Duisburg
Duisburg
), † 14 July 1970 in Düsseldorf, writer, painter and graphic artist * Emil Fahrenkamp , born November 8, 1885 in Aachen
Aachen
, † 24 May 1966 in Ratingen-Breitscheid , architect and director of Düsseldorf Art Academy 1937–1945

SEE ALSO

* Japan
Japan
Day in Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
* OPENCities * 2017 Düsseldorf axe attack

REFERENCES

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Düsseldorf
Larger Urban Zone * ^ "Communla Administration of Düsseldorf, 28 of July 2008." (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 August 2009. Retrieved 16 April 2010. * ^ "Immobilien Zeitung: \'\'Mehr Räume für die große Modenschau\'\' vom 28. August 2008, 1 March 2009." (PDF). Retrieved 2010-04-16. * ^ "Cushman ">(PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 May 2012. Retrieved 4 June 2011. * ^ " Messe Düsseldorf Annual Report" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 July 2011. Retrieved 4 June 2011. * ^ 2010 survey by Jones Lang LaSalle; accessed 8 December 2014. (in German) * ^ "Mercer\'s 2011 Quality of Living survey highlights — Global". Mercer. 2011-06-15. Archived from the original on 2011-05-13. Retrieved 2011-06-15. * ^ Woolsey, Matt (28 April 2009). "World\'s 20 Best Places To Live". Forbes.com. * ^ Weidenhaupt, Hugo: Kleine Geschichte der Stadt Düsseldorf, Triltsch-Verlag, Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
1979; ISBN 3-7998-0000-X . (in German) * ^ A B Düsseldorfer Radschläger * ^ Birchall, Ian H./Pierre Broué/Brian Pearce, The German Revolution 1917–1923, p. 278. * ^ Stanton, Shelby, World War II Order of Battle: An Encyclopedic Reference to U.S. Army Ground Forces from Battalion through Division, 1939–1946 (Revised Edition, 2006), Stackpole Books, p. 174. * ^ "Bezirksregierung Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
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Düsseldorf
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Düsseldorf
on Amazing Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
Amazing Capitals". www.amazingcapitals.com. Retrieved 2016-11-09. * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2015-11-06. Verordnung über die Beförderungsentgelte und Beförderungsbedingungen im Gelegenheitsverkehr mit den in der Landeshauptstadt Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
zugelassenen Taxen (Taxentarifordnung) (German) * ^ Unknown. "Altbier". Brauer-bund.de. Archived from the original on 29 April 2007. Retrieved 8 December 2014. * ^ "Michael Jackson\'s Beer
Beer
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Düsseldorf
Breweries". Europeanbeerguide.net. Retrieved 8 July 2009. * ^ Prost! The Story of German Beer, Horst D. Dornbusch, Brewers Publications, 1997, pp 109–110; ISBN 0-937381-55-1 * ^ " Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
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Kraftwerk
were so far ahead of their time that the rest of the world has spent 25 years inventing new musical genres in an attempt to catch up. Another famous Synth-pop band to come from the city was Propaganda . House, techno, hip-hop, trip-hop, synthpop, trance, electroclash: Kraftwerk's influence looms over all of them. It's difficult to imagine what rock and pop music would sound like today if Kraftwerk
Kraftwerk
had never existed", The Guardian
The Guardian
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Düsseldorf
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Düsseldorf
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Düsseldorf
Christmas
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Market Christmas
Christmas
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Düsseldorf
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Düsseldorf
Blackcaps. Retrieved 8 December 2014. * ^ "Official Homepage". Kunstakademie-duesseldorf.de. Retrieved 8 December 2014. * ^ "Fachhochschule Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
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Düsseldorf
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BIBLIOGRAPHY

See also: Bibliography of the history of Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons has media related to DüSSELDORF .

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for DüSSELDORF .

* "Düsseldorf". Encyclopædia Britannica . 8 (11th ed.). 1911. * Wikidus.de The Wiki for Düsseldorf * Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
Official English website of the city * visitduesseldorf.de Official Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
Tourist Board * dusseldorf.guide Unofficial Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
Guide * Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
City Panoramas * Burrying the Hoppeditz: Carnival
Carnival
in Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
at the Wayback Machine (archived January 13, 2007) * The Lost City WW2

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