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The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic
Czechoslovak Socialist Republic
(Czech/Slovak: Československá socialistická republika, ČSSR) was the Czechoslovak state under Communist
Communist
rule from 1948 until 23 April 1990, when the name was changed following the 1989 Velvet Revolution. It has been regarded as a satellite state of the Soviet Union.[1] Following the coup d'état of February 1948, when the Communist
Communist
Party of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
seized power with the support of the Soviet Union, the country was declared a people's republic after the Ninth-of-May Constitution became effective. The traditional name Československá republika (Czechoslovak Republic) was changed on 11 July 1960 following implementation of the 1960 Constitution of Czechoslovakia
1960 Constitution of Czechoslovakia
as a symbol of the "final victory of socialism" in the country, and remained so until the Velvet Revolution
Velvet Revolution
in Czechoslovakia. Several other state symbols were changed in 1960.

Contents

1 Name 2 Formation 3 History 4 Geography 5 Administrative divisions 6 Politics 7 Economy 8 Resource base 9 Society and social groups 10 Emigration 11 Religion 12 Health, social welfare and housing 13 Mass media 14 Military 15 Heads of state and government 16 International agreements and membership 17 See also 18 Notes 19 References 20 External links

Name[edit] The official name of the country was the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. Conventional wisdom suggested that it would be known as simply the "Czechoslovak Republic"—its official name from 1920-1938 and from 1945-1960. However, Slovak politicians felt this diminished Slovakia's equal stature, and demanded that the country's name be spelled with a hyphen (i.e. "Czecho-Slovak Republic"), as it was spelled from Czechoslovak independence in 1918 until 1920, and again in 1938 and 1939. President Havel then changed his proposal to "Republic of Czecho-Slovakia"—a proposal that did not sit well with Czech politicians who saw reminders of the 1938 Munich Agreement, in which Nazi Germany annexed a part of that territory. The name is also means the "Land of the Czechs
Czechs
and Slovaks" while Latinised from the country's original name – "the Czechoslovak Nation"[2] – upon independence in 1918, from the Czech endonym Češi – via its Polish orthography[3] The name "Czech" derives from the Czech endonym Češi via Polish,[3] from the archaic Czech Čechové, originally the name of the West Slavic tribe whose Přemyslid dynasty
Přemyslid dynasty
subdued its neighbors in Bohemia around AD 900. Its further etymology is disputed. The traditional etymology derives it from an eponymous leader Čech who led the tribe into Bohemia. Modern theories consider it an obscure derivative, e.g. from četa, a medieval military unit.[4] Meanwhile, the name "Slovak" was taken from the Slavic "Slavs" as the origin of the word Slav itself remains uncertain. During the state's existence, it was simply referred to "Czechoslovakia" or sometimes the "CSSR" and "CSR" in short. Formation[edit]

Eastern Bloc

Soviet Socialist Republics

Armenia Azerbaijan Byelorussia Estonia Georgia Kazakhstan Kirghizia Latvia Lithuania Moldavia Russian SFSR Tajikistan Turkmenia Ukraine Uzbekistan

Allied states

Hungarian People's Republic Polish People's Republic Czechoslovak Socialist Republic

Socialist Republic of Romania

German Democratic Republic People's Republic
People's Republic
of Bulgaria

Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (to 1948)

People's Socialist Republic of Albania (to 1961)

Republic of Cuba People's Revolutionary Government of Grenada People's Republic
People's Republic
of Benin People's Republic
People's Republic
of the Congo People's Republic
People's Republic
of Angola People's Republic
People's Republic
of Mozambique People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Somali Democratic Republic (to 1977)

People's Democratic Republic of Yemen Democratic Republic of Afghanistan Mongolian People's Republic

People's Republic
People's Republic
of China (to 1961)

Democratic People's Republic
People's Republic
of Korea Socialist Republic of Vietnam Lao People's Democratic Republic People's Republic
People's Republic
of Kampuchea

Related organizations

Cominform COMECON Warsaw Pact

World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU) World Federation of Democratic Youth (WFDY)

Dissent and opposition

Forest Brothers

in Lithuania in Latvia in Estonia

Operation "Jungle"

Ukrainian Insurgent Army Goryani
Goryani
movement (Bulgaria) Romanian anti-communism Polish Cursed Soldiers

1953 uprisings

in Plzeň in East Germany

1956 protests

in Georgia in Poznań

Hungarian Revolution of 1956 Novocherkassk massacre
Novocherkassk massacre
(Russia)

1968 events

Prague
Prague
Spring Invasion of Czechoslovakia Red Square demonstration

Charter 77
Charter 77
(Czechoslovakia)

Solidarity (Poland)

Jeltoqsan
Jeltoqsan
(Kazakhstan)

Braşov Rebellion (Romania)

January Events (Lithuania)

The Barricades
The Barricades
(Latvia)

April 9 tragedy
April 9 tragedy
(Georgia)

Black January
Black January
(Azerbaijan)

Cold War
Cold War
events

Marshall Plan

1948 Czechoslovak coup

Tito–Stalin split

Berlin Blockade

1961 Berlin Wall
Berlin Wall
crisis

Cuban Missile Crisis

1980 Moscow
Moscow
Olympics

Decline

Singing Revolution

Polish Round Table Agreement

Revolutions of 1989

Fall of the Berlin Wall

January 1991

in Lithuania in Latvia

Breakup of Yugoslavia

Yugoslav Wars

End of the Soviet Union

Fall of communism in Albania

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Before the Soviet liberation of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
in 1945, Edvard Beneš, the Czechoslovak leader, agreed to Soviet leader Joseph Stalin's demands for unconditional agreement with Soviet foreign policy and the Beneš decrees.[5] While Beneš was not a Moscow
Moscow
cadre and several domestic reforms of other Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
countries were not part of Beneš' plan, Stalin did not object because the plan included property expropriation and he was satisfied with the relative strength of communists in Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
compared to other Eastern Bloc countries.[5] In April 1945, the Third Republic was formed, led by a National Front of six parties. Because of the Communist
Communist
Party of Czechoslovakia's strength and Beneš' loyalty, unlike in other Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
countries, the Kremlin did not require Bloc politics or "reliable" cadres in Czechoslovak power positions, and the executive and legislative branches retained their traditional structures.[6] The Communists were the big winners in the 1946 elections, taking a total of 114 seats (they ran a separate list in Slovakia). Not only was this the only time a Communist
Communist
Party won a free election anywhere in Europe during the Cold War
Cold War
era, but it was one of only two free elections ever held in the Soviet bloc.[citation needed] Klement Gottwald, leader of the KSČ, became Prime Minister of Czechoslovakia. However, thereafter, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
was disappointed that the government failed to eliminate "bourgeois" influence in the army, expropriate industrialists and large landowners and eliminate parties outside of the "National Front".[7] Hope in Moscow
Moscow
was waning for a Communist
Communist
victory in the 1948 elections following a May 1947 Kremlin report concluded that "reactionary elements" praising Western democracy had strengthened.[8] Following Czechoslovakia's brief consideration of taking Marshall Plan funds,[9] and the subsequent scolding of Communist
Communist
parties by the Cominform
Cominform
at Szklarska Poręba
Szklarska Poręba
in September 1947, Rudolf Slánský returned to Prague
Prague
with a plan for the final seizure of power, including the StB's elimination of party enemies and purging of dissidents.[10] Thereafter, Soviet Ambassador Valerian Zorin arranged the Czechoslovak coup d'état, followed by the occupation of non- Communist
Communist
ministers' ministries, while the army was confined to barracks.[11] On 25 February 1948, Beneš, fearful of civil war and Soviet intervention, capitulated and appointed a Communist-dominated government who was sworn in two days later. Although members of the other National Front parties still nominally figured, this was, for all intents and purposes, the start of out-and-out Communist
Communist
rule in the country.[12][13][14] Foreign Minister Jan Masaryk, the only prominent Minister still left who wasn't either a Communist
Communist
or fellow traveler, was found dead two weeks later.[15] On 30 May, a single list of candidates from the National Front—now an organization dominated by the Communists—was elected to the National Assembly. After passage of the Ninth-of-May Constitution on 9 June 1948, the country became a People's Republic
People's Republic
until 1960. Although it was not a completely Communist
Communist
document, it was close enough to the Soviet model that Beneš refused to sign it. He'd resigned a week before it was finally ratified, and died in September. The Ninth-of-May Constitution confirmed that the KSČ possessed absolute power, as other Communist parties had in the Eastern Bloc. On 11 July 1960, the 1960 Constitution of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
was promulgated, changing the name of the country from the "Czechoslovak Republic" to the "Czechoslovak Socialist Republic". History[edit] Main articles: History of Czechoslovakia, History of Czechoslovakia (1948–1989), and History of Czechoslovakia
History of Czechoslovakia
(1989–1992)

Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
in 1969.

With the exception of the Prague
Prague
Spring in the late-1960s, Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
was characterised by the absence of democracy and competitiveness with the Western European nations as part of the Cold War. In 1969, the country became a federation of the Czech Socialist Republic and Slovak Socialist Republic. Under the federation, social and economic inequities between the Czech and Slovak halves of the state were largely eliminated. A number of ministries, such as Education, were formally transferred to the two republics. However, the centralised political control by the Communist Party severely limited the effects of federalisation. The 1970s saw the rise of the dissident movement in Czechoslovakia, represented (among others) by Václav Havel. The movement sought greater political participation and expression in the face of official disapproval, making itself felt by limits on work activities (up to a ban on any professional employment and refusal of higher education to the dissident's children), police harassment and even prison time. In late-1989, the country became a democratic country again through the Velvet Revolution. In 1992, the federal parliament decided to split the country into the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
and Slovakia, as of 1 January 1993. Geography[edit] The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic
Czechoslovak Socialist Republic
was bounded on the West by West Germany and East Germany, on the North by Poland, on the East by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(Ukraine) and on the South by Hungary and Austria. Administrative divisions[edit] Main article: Administrative divisions of Czechoslovakia

Part of a series on the

Czechoslovak Socialist Republic

History Politics Economy Industry Agriculture Foreign trade Transport Education Demographics Government structure Health and social welfare Mass media Resource base Religion Society

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1960–1992: 10 regions (kraje), Prague, and (since 1970) Bratislava; divided in 109–114 districts (okresy); the kraje were abolished temporarily in Slovakia
Slovakia
in 1969–1970 and for many functions since 1991 in Czechoslovakia; in addition, the two republics Czech Socialist Republic and Slovak Socialist Republic
Slovak Socialist Republic
were established in 1969.

Politics[edit] Main article: Politics of Communist
Communist
Czechoslovakia Further information: Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
politics The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia
Communist Party of Czechoslovakia
(KSČ) led initially by First Secretary Klement Gottwald, held a monopoly on politics. Following the 1948 Tito-Stalin split
Tito-Stalin split
and the Berlin Blockade, increased party purges occurred throughout the Eastern Bloc, including a purge of 550,000 party members of the KSČ, which comprised 30% of its members.[16][17] Approximately 130,000 people were sent to prisons, labor camps and mines.[17] The evolution of the resulting harshness of purges in Czechoslovakia, like much of its history after 1948, was a function of the late takeover by the communists, with many of the purges focusing on the sizable numbers of party members with prior memberships in other parties.[18] The purges accompanied various show trials, including those of Rudolf Slánský, Vladimír Clementis, Ladislav Novomeský and Gustáv Husák
Gustáv Husák
(Clementis was later executed).[16] Slánský and eleven others were convicted together of being "Trotskyist-zionist-titoist-bourgeois-nationalist traitors" in one series of show trials, after which they were executed and their ashes were mixed with material being used to fill roads on the outskirts of Prague.[16] Antonín Novotny
Antonín Novotny
served as First Secretary of the KSČ from 1953 to 1968. Gustáv Husák
Gustáv Husák
was elected first secretary of KSČ in 1969 (changed to general secretary in 1971) and president of Czechoslovakia in 1975. Other parties and organizations existed but functioned in subordinate roles to KSČ. All political parties, as well as numerous mass organizations, were grouped under the umbrella of National Front of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. Human rights activists and religious activists were severely repressed. In terms of political positions, the KSČ maintained the cadre and the nomenklatura lists, with the latter containing every post in each country that was important to the smooth application of party policy, including military posts, administrative positions, directors of local enterprises, social organization administrators, newspapers, etc.[19] The KSČ's nomenklatura lists were thought to contain 100,000 post listings.[19] The names of those that the party considered to be trustworthy enough to secure a nomenklatura post were compiled on the cadre list.[19] Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Communist
Communist
Czechoslovakia Further information: Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
economies The Czechoslovak economy was a centrally planned command economy with links controlled by the communist party, similar to the Soviet Union. It had a large metallurgical industry, but was dependent on imports for iron and nonferrous ores. Like the rest of the Eastern Bloc, producer goods were favored over consumer goods, causing consumer goods to be lacking in quantity and quality. This resulted in shortage economies.[20][21] Economic growth rates lagged well behind Czechoslovakia's western European counterparts.[22] Investments made in industry did not yield the results expected, and consumption of energy and raw materials was excessive. Czechoslovak leaders themselves decried the economy's failure to modernize with sufficient speed.

Industry: Extractive and manufacturing industries dominated sector. Major branches included machinery, chemicals, food processing, metallurgy, and textiles. Industry was wasteful of energy, materials, and labor and slow to upgrade technology, but was a source of high-quality machinery and arms for other communist countries. Agriculture: Minor sector but supplied bulk of food needs. Dependent on large imports of grains (mainly for livestock feed) in years of adverse weather. Meat production constrained by shortage of feed, but high per capita consumption of meat. Foreign Trade: Exports estimated at US$17.8 billion in 1985, of which 55% was machinery, 14% fuels and materials, and 16% manufactured consumer goods. Imports at estimated US$17.9 billion in 1985, of which 41% was fuels and materials, 33% machinery, and 12% agricultural and forestry products. In 1986, about 80% of foreign trade was with communist countries. Exchange Rate: Official, or commercial, rate Kcs 5.4 per US$1 in 1987; tourist, or noncommercial, rate Kcs 10.5 per US$1. Neither rate reflected purchasing power. The exchange rate on the black market was around Kcs 30 per US$1, and this rate became the official one once the currency became convertible in the early 1990s. Fiscal Year: Calendar year. Fiscal Policy: State almost exclusive owner of means of production. Revenues from state enterprises primary source of revenues followed by turnover tax. Large budget expenditures on social programs, subsidies, and investments. Budget usually balanced or small surplus.

Resource base[edit] Main article: Resource base of Communist
Communist
Czechoslovakia After World War II, the country was short on energy, relying on imported crude oil and natural gas from the Soviet Union, domestic brown coal, and nuclear and hydroelectric energy. Energy constraints were a major factor in 1980s. Society and social groups[edit] Main article: Society of Communist
Communist
Czechoslovakia Homosexuality was decriminalized in 1961.[23] Emigration[edit] Further information: Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
emigration and defection Historically, emigration has always been an option for Czechs
Czechs
and Slovaks
Slovaks
dissatisfied with the situation at home. Each wave of emigration had its own impetus. In the 19th century, the reasons were primarily economic. In the 20th century, emigration was largely prompted by political turmoil, though economic factors still played a role. The first major wave of emigration in the 20th century came after the communists came to power, and the next wave began after the Prague
Prague
Spring was suppressed. In the 1980s, the most popular way to emigrate to the West was to travel to Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
by automobile and, once there, take a detour to Greece, Austria, or Italy (Yugoslav border restrictions were not as strict as those of the Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
nations). Only a small percentage of those who applied to emigrate legally could do so. The exact details of the process have never been published, but a reasonably clear picture can be gleaned from those who succeeded. It was a lengthy and costly process. Those applicants allowed to even consider emigration were required to repay the state for their education, depending on their level of education and salary, at a rate ranging from 4,000 Kčs to 10,000 Kčs. (The average yearly wage was about Kčs33,600 in 1984.) The applicant was likely to lose his job and be socially ostracized. Technically, at least, such emigres would be allowed to return for visits. Those who had been politically active, such as Charter 77 signatories, found it somewhat easier to emigrate, but they were not allowed to return and reportedly had to pay the state exorbitant fees—Kčs23,000 to as much as Kčs80,000—if they had graduated from a university. Old-age pensioners had no problem visiting or emigrating to the West. The reasons for this were purely economic; if they decided to stay in the West, the state no longer had to pay their pension.[citation needed] There is (and always was) a huge discrepancy between "official statistics" (i.e. numbers issued by the communist regime) on how many people emigrated from Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
and "illegal refugee" statistics published by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). This discrepancy was not specific to Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
only; a similar situation applied for all Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
countries, as their totalitarian regimes preferred to downplay and suppress real numbers.[citation needed] Official statistics for the early 1980s show that, on the average, 3,500 people emigrated legally each year. From 1965 to 1983, a total of 33,000 people emigrated legally. This figure undoubtedly included a large number of ethnic Germans resettled in East Germany. The largest émigré communities are located in Austria, West Germany, the United States, Canada, and Australia. Unofficial figures are much larger. It is estimated that between 1948 and 1989 close to 1 million people left communist Czechoslovakia. The largest exoduses occurred following the communist takeover in February 1948 and following the Warsaw pact occupation of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
in 1968, with around 200,000 people leaving in each wave.[citation needed] A very similar 200,000-strong refugee wave left Hungary in 1956 after their failed anti-communist revolution. In the fifties, when the regime was at its harshest and the "Iron Curtain" was close to impenetrable, emigration was very low. It increased between 1969 and 1989, when close to 40,000 people were leaving the country each year. All of them were sentenced to imprisonment in absentia by the communist regime for leaving the country illegally. Religion[edit] Main article: Religion in Communist
Communist
Czechoslovakia Religion was oppressed and attacked in the Czechoslovak socialist republic.[24] In 1991, 46.4% were Roman Catholics, Atheists made up 29.5%, 5.3% were Evangelical Lutherans, and 16.7% were n/a, but there were huge differences between the 2 constituent republics – see Czech Republic
Czech Republic
and Slovakia. Health, social welfare and housing[edit] Main article: Health and Social Welfare in Communist
Communist
Czechoslovakia After World War II, free health care was available to all citizens. National health planning emphasized preventive medicine; factory and local health-care centers supplemented hospitals and other inpatient institutions. Substantial improvement in rural health care in 1960s and 1970s. Mass media[edit] Main article: Mass media in Communist
Communist
Czechoslovakia Further information: Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
information dissemination The mass media in Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
was controlled by the Communist
Communist
Party of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
(KSČ). Private ownership of any publication or agency of the mass media was generally forbidden, although churches and other organizations published small periodicals and newspapers. Even with this informational monopoly in the hands of organizations under KSČ control, all publications were reviewed by the government's Office for Press and Information. Military[edit] Main article: Czechoslovak People's Army Heads of state and government[edit]

List of presidents of Czechoslovakia List of Prime Ministers of Czechoslovakia

International agreements and membership[edit] Active participant in Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (Comecon), Warsaw Pact, UN and its specialized agencies, and Non-Aligned Movement; signatory of conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe See also[edit]

Government structure of Communist
Communist
Czechoslovakia Economy of Communist
Communist
Czechoslovakia Resource base of Communist
Communist
Czechoslovakia Society of Communist
Communist
Czechoslovakia Health and social welfare in Communist
Communist
Czechoslovakia Mass media in Communist
Communist
Czechoslovakia Prague
Prague
Spring

Notes[edit]

^ Rao, B. V. (2006), History of Modern Europe Ad 1789–2002: A.D. 1789–2002, Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. ^ Masaryk, Tomáš. Czechoslovak Declaration of Independence. 1918. ^ a b Czech. CollinsDictionary.com. Collins English Dictionary – Complete & Unabridged 11th Edition. Retrieved 6 December 2012. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary. "Czech". Retrieved 11 February 2011. ^ a b Wettig 2008, p. 45 ^ Wettig 2008, p. 86 ^ Wettig 2008, p. 152 ^ Wettig 2008, p. 110 ^ Wettig 2008, p. 138 ^ Grogin 2001, p. 134 ^ Grenville 2005, p. 371 ^ Grenville 2005, pp. 370–371 ^ Grogin 2001, pp. 134–135 ^ Saxonberg 2001, p. 15 ^ Grogin 2001, p. 135 ^ a b c Crampton 1997, p. 262 ^ a b Bideleux & Jeffries 2007, p. 477 ^ Crampton 1997, p. 270 ^ a b c Crampton 1997, p. 249 ^ Dale 2005, p. 85 ^ Bideleux & Jeffries 2007, p. 474 ^ Hardt & Kaufman 1995, p. 17 ^ http://www.radio.cz/fr/rubrique/histoire/vers-la-decriminalisation-de-lhomosexualite-sous-le-communisme ^ Catholics in Communist
Communist
Czechoslovakia: A Story of Persecution and Perseverance

References[edit]

Bideleux, Robert; Jeffries, Ian (2007), A History of Eastern Europe: Crisis and Change, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-36626-7  Black, Cyril E.; English, Robert D.; Helmreich, Jonathan E.; McAdams, James A. (2000), Rebirth: A Political History of Europe since World War II, Westview Press, ISBN 0-8133-3664-3  Crampton, R. J. (1997), Eastern Europe in the twentieth century and after, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-16422-2  Dale, Gareth (2005), Popular Protest in East Germany, 1945–1989: Judgements on the Street, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-7146-5408-9  Frucht, Richard C. (2003), Encyclopedia of Eastern Europe: From the Congress of Vienna to the Fall of Communism, Taylor & Francis Group, ISBN 0-203-80109-1  Grenville, John Ashley Soames (2005), A History of the World from the 20th to the 21st Century, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-28954-8  Grenville, John Ashley Soames; Wasserstein, Bernard (2001), The Major International Treaties of the Twentieth Century: A History and Guide with Texts, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 0-415-23798-X  Grogin, Robert C. (2001), Natural Enemies: The United States and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in the Cold War, 1917–1991, Lexington Books, ISBN 0-7391-0160-9  Hardt, John Pearce; Kaufman, Richard F. (1995), East-Central European Economies in Transition, M.E. Sharpe, ISBN 1-56324-612-0  Saxonberg, Steven (2001), The Fall: A Comparative Study of the End of Communism
Communism
in Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary and Poland, Routledge, ISBN 90-5823-097-X  Wettig, Gerhard (2008), Stalin and the Cold War
Cold War
in Europe, Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 0-7425-5542-9 

External links[edit]

RFE/RL Czechoslovak Unit, Open Society Archives, Budapest. Czechoslovakia—Believe it or not!, a pro-CSR text from 1986.

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Timeline of Czechoslovak statehood

Pre-1918 1918–1938 1938–1945 1945–1948 1948–1989 1989–1992 1993–

Bohemia Moravia Silesia Austrian Empire First Republica Sudetenlandb Third Republic Czechoslovak Republice 1948–1960 Czechoslovak Socialist Republicf 1960–1990 Czech and Slovak Federative Republic 1990–1992 Czech Republic

Second  Republicc 1938–1939 Protectorate of Bohemia
Bohemia
and Moravia 1939–1945

Slovakia Kingdom of Hungary Slovak Republic 1939–1945 Slovak Republic (Slovakia)

Southern Slovakia
Slovakia
and Carpatho-Ukrained

Carpathian Ruthenia Zakarpattia Oblastg 1944 / 1946 – 1991 Zakarpattia Oblasth 1991–present

Austria-Hungary

Czechoslovak government-in-exile

a ČSR; boundaries and government established by the 1920 constitution. b Annexed by Nazi Germany. c ČSR; included the autonomous regions of Slovakia
Slovakia
and Carpathian Ruthenia. d Annexed by Hungary (1939–1945).

e ČSR; declared a "people's democracy" (without formal name change) under the Ninth-of-May Constitution following the 1948 coup. f ČSSR; from 1969, after the Prague
Prague
Spring, consisted of the Czech Socialist Republic (ČSR) and Slovak Socialist Republic
Slovak Socialist Republic
(SSR). g Oblast of the Ukrainian SSR. h Oblast of Ukraine.

v t e

Countries of Eastern and Central Europe during their Communist
Communist
period

Albania Bulgaria Czechoslovakia East Germany Hungary Poland Romania Yugoslavia

Soviet Russia / Soviet Union: 1917–27 1927–53 1953–64 1964–82 1982–91

Byelorussia Ukraine

Eastern Bloc Warsaw Pact Comecon

v t e

Eastern Bloc

Soviet Union Communism

Formation

Secret Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact protocol Soviet invasion of Poland Soviet occupations

Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina Baltic states Hungary Romania

Yalta Conference

Annexed as, or into, SSRs

Eastern Finland Estonia Latvia Lithuania Memel East Prussia West Belarus Western Ukraine Moldavia

Satellite states

Hungarian People's Republic Polish People's Republic Czechoslovak Socialist Republic Socialist Republic of Romania German Democratic Republic People's Republic
People's Republic
of Albania (to 1961) People's Republic
People's Republic
of Bulgaria Federal People's Republic
People's Republic
of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
(to 1948)

Annexing SSRs

Russian SFSR Ukrainian SSR Byelorussian SSR

Organizations

Cominform COMECON Warsaw Pact World Federation of Trade Unions
World Federation of Trade Unions
(WFTU) World Federation of Democratic Youth
World Federation of Democratic Youth
(WFDY)

Revolts and opposition

Welles Declaration Goryani
Goryani
Movement Forest Brothers Ukrainian Insurgent Army Operation Jungle Baltic state continuity Baltic Legations (1940–1991) Cursed soldiers Rebellion of Cazin 1950 1953 uprising in Plzeň 1953 East German uprising 1956 Georgian demonstrations 1956 Poznań protests 1956 Hungarian Revolution Novocherkassk massacre 1965 Yerevan demonstrations Prague
Prague
Spring / Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
invasion of Czechoslovakia Brezhnev Doctrine 1968 Red Square demonstration 1968 student demonstrations in Belgrade 1968 protests in Kosovo 1970 Polish protests Croatian Spring 1972 unrest in Lithuania
1972 unrest in Lithuania
SSR June 1976 protests Solidarity / Soviet reaction / Martial law 1981 protests in Kosovo Reagan Doctrine Jeltoqsan Karabakh movement April 9 tragedy Romanian Revolution Black January

Cold War
Cold War
events

Marshall Plan Berlin Blockade Tito–Stalin split 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état 1961 Berlin Wall
Berlin Wall
crisis

Conditions

Emigration and defection (list of defectors) Sovietization of the Baltic states Information dissemination Politics Economies Telephone tapping

Decline

Revolutions of 1989 Fall of the Berlin Wall Romanian Revolution Fall of communism in Albania Singing Revolution Collapse of the Soviet Union Dissolution of Czechoslovakia January 1991 events in Lithuania January 1991 events in Latvia

Post- Cold War
Cold War
topics

Baltic Assembly Collective Security Treaty Organization Commonwealth of Independent States Craiova Group European Union European migrant crisis Eurasian Economic Union NATO Post-Soviet states Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Visegrad Group

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1997 referendum Language law

Geography

Carpathians Cities and towns Districts Islands Municipalities National parks Protected areas Regions Rivers Tourism regions Traditional regions Wildlife World Heritage Sites

Politics

Constitution Elections Foreign relations Government Human rights

LGBT

Law enforcement Military National Council (parliament) Political parties

Economy

Central bank Energy Euro
Euro
(currency) Privatisation Stock exchange "Tatra Tiger" Telecommunications Tourism Transport

Society

Crime Demographics

Slovaks

list

Hungarians

Education Language Public holidays Remembrance days

Culture

Anthem Cinema Coat of arms Cuisine Flag Literature Music Newspapers Religion Shepherd's axe Sport Radio Television

Outline

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