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The Cyrenaics
Cyrenaics
or Kyrenaics (Ancient Greek: Κυρηναϊκοί; Kyrēnaïkoí) were a sensual hedonist Greek school of philosophy founded in the 4th century BCE, supposedly by Aristippus
Aristippus
of Cyrene, although many of the principles of the school are believed to have been formalized by his grandson of the same name, Aristippus
Aristippus
the Younger. The school was so called after Cyrene, the birthplace of Aristippus. It was one of the earliest Socratic schools. The Cyrenaics taught that the only intrinsic good is pleasure, which meant not just the absence of pain (as it did for Epicurus), but positively enjoyable sensations. Of these, momentary pleasures, especially physical ones, are stronger than those of anticipation or memory. They did, however, recognize the value of social obligation and that pleasure could be gained from altruistic behaviour. The school died out within a century and was replaced by the philosophy of Epicureanism.

Contents

1 History of the school 2 Philosophy

2.1 Epistemology 2.2 Ethics 2.3 Later Cyrenaics

3 Notes 4 Citations 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links

History of the school[edit]

Part of a series on

Hedonism

Thinkers

Ajita Kesakambali Jeremy Bentham Julien Offray de La Mettrie Aristippus Epicurus Fred Feldman Theodorus the Atheist Michel Onfray Aristippus
Aristippus
the Younger Hermarchus Lucretius Pierre Gassendi Metrodorus of Lampsacus David Pearce Zeno of Sidon Yang Zhu Torbjörn Tännsjö Esperanza Guisán

Schools of hedonism

Cārvāka Cyrenaics Epicureanism Christian hedonism Utilitarianism Yangism

Key concepts

Aponia Ataraxia Eudaimonia Happiness Hedone Pain Pleasure Sensation Suffering Tetrapharmakos

Related articles

Paradox of hedonism Hedonic treadmill

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The history of the Cyrenaic school begins with Aristippus
Aristippus
of Cyrene, who was born around 435 BCE. He came to Athens
Athens
as a young man and became a pupil of Socrates. We have only limited knowledge of his movements after the execution of Socrates
Socrates
in 399 BCE, although he is said to have lived for a time in the court of Dionysius of Syracuse. It is uncertain precisely which doctrines ascribed to the Cyrenaic school were formulated by Aristippus.[1] Diogenes
Diogenes
Laërtius, based on the authority of Sotion and Panaetius, provided a long list of books said to have been written by Aristippus. However, Diogenes
Diogenes
also wrote that Sosicrates had stated that Aristippus
Aristippus
had written nothing.[2] Among Aristippus' pupils was his daughter, Arete of Cyrene, who passed on his teachings to her own son Aristippus
Aristippus
the Younger. It was he, according to Aristocles,[3] who turned the teachings of his grandfather into a comprehensive system.[4] At the least, however, it can be said that the foundations of Cyrenaic philosophy were ideas originated by the elder Aristippus.[5] After the time of the younger Aristippus, the school broke up into different factions, represented by Anniceris, Hegesias, and Theodorus, who all developed rival interpretations of Cyrenaic doctrines, many of which were responses to the new system of hedonistic philosophy laid down by Epicurus.[6] By the middle of the 3rd century BC, the Cyrenaic school was obsolete; Epicureanism
Epicureanism
had successfully beaten its Cyrenaic rivals by offering a system which was more sophisticated.[7] Philosophy[edit] The Cyrenaics
Cyrenaics
were hedonists and held that pleasure was the supreme good in life, especially physical pleasure, which they thought more intense and more desirable than mental pleasures.[8] Pleasure
Pleasure
is the only good in life and pain is the only evil. Socrates
Socrates
had held that virtue was the only human good, but he had also accepted a limited role for its utilitarian side, allowing pleasure to be a secondary goal of moral action.[5][9] Aristippus
Aristippus
and his followers seized upon this, and made pleasure the sole final goal of life, denying that virtue had any intrinsic value. Epistemology[edit] The Cyrenaics
Cyrenaics
were known for their skeptical theory of knowledge. They reduced logic to a basic doctrine concerning the criterion of truth.[10] They thought that we can know with certainty our immediate sense-experiences (for instance, that I am having a sweet sensation now) but can know nothing about the nature of the objects that cause these sensations (for instance, that the honey is sweet).[5] They also denied that we can have knowledge of what the experiences of other people are like.[11] All knowledge is of one's own immediate sensation. These sensations are motions which are purely subjective, and are painful, indifferent or pleasant, according as they are violent, tranquil or gentle.[5][12] Further they are entirely individual, and can in no way be described as being of the world objectively. Feeling, therefore, is the only possible criterion of knowledge and of conduct.[5] Our ways of being affected are alone knowable. Thus the sole aim for everyone should be pleasure. Ethics[edit] Cyrenaicism deduces a single, universal aim for all people which is pleasure. Furthermore, all feeling is momentary and homogeneous. It follows that past and future pleasure have no real existence for us, and that among present pleasures there is no distinction of kind.[12] Socrates
Socrates
had spoken of the higher pleasures of the intellect; the Cyrenaics
Cyrenaics
denied the validity of this distinction and said that bodily pleasures, being more simple and more intense, were preferable.[8] Momentary pleasure, preferably of a physical kind, is the only good for humans. However some actions which give immediate pleasure can create more than their equivalent of pain. The wise person should be in control of pleasures rather than be enslaved to them, otherwise pain will result, and this requires judgement to evaluate the different pleasures of life.[13] Regard should be paid to law and custom, because even though these things have no intrinsic value on their own, violating them will lead to unpleasant penalties being imposed by others.[8] Likewise, friendship and justice are useful because of the pleasure they provide.[8] Thus the Cyrenaics
Cyrenaics
believed in the hedonistic value of social obligation and altruistic behavior. Like many of the leading modern utilitarians, they combined with their psychological distrust of popular judgments of right and wrong, and their firm conviction that all such distinctions are based solely on law and convention, the equally unwavering principle that the wise person who would pursue pleasure logically must abstain from that which is usually thought wrong or unjust. This idea, which occupies a prominent position in systems like those of Jeremy Bentham,[12] Volney, and even William Paley, was clearly of prime importance to the Cyrenaics. Later Cyrenaics[edit] The later Cyrenaics, Anniceris, Hegesias, and Theodorus, all developed variations on the standard Cyrenaic doctrine. For Anniceris, pleasure is achieved through individual acts of gratification which are sought for the pleasure that they produce,[14] but Anniceris laid great emphasis on the love of family, country, friendship and gratitude, which provide pleasure even when they demand sacrifice.[15] Hegesias believed that happiness is impossible to achieve,[14] and hence the goal of life becomes the avoidance of pain and sorrow.[13] Conventional values such as wealth, poverty, freedom, and slavery are all indifferent and produce no more pleasure than pain.[16] For Hegesias, Cyrenaic hedonism was simply the least irrational strategy for dealing with the pains of life.[14] For Theodorus, the goal of life is mental pleasure not bodily pleasure,[17] and he placed greater emphasis on the need for moderation and justice.[18] He was also famous for being an atheist.[17] To some extent these philosophers were all trying to meet the challenge laid down by Epicureanism,[16] and the success of Epicurus
Epicurus
was in developing a system of philosophy which would prove to be more comprehensive and sophisticated than its rivals'.[7] The philosophy of the Cyrenaics
Cyrenaics
around the time of Hegesias of Cyrene evolved in a way that has similarities with Skepticism, Epicurianism and also Buddhism.[19] There are striking similarities with the tenets of Buddhism,[19] in particular the Four Noble Truths
Four Noble Truths
and the concept of Dukkha
Dukkha
or "suffering". Coincidentally, the rulers of Cyrene around the time Hegesias flourished, the Ptolemaic king of Egypt
Egypt
Ptolemy II Philadelphus and from 276 BC the independent king Magas of Cyrene, are both claimed to have been recipients of Buddhist
Buddhist
missionaries from the Indian king Ashoka
Ashoka
according to the latter's Edicts.[19][20][21] It is therefore sometimes thought that Hegesias may have been directly influenced by Buddhist
Buddhist
teachings through contacts with the alleged missionaries sent to his rulers in the 3rd century BC.[a][24] Notes[edit]

^ "The philosopher Hegesias of Cyrene
Hegesias of Cyrene
(nicknamed Peisithanatos, "The Death-Persuader") was contemporary of Magas and was probably influenced by the teachings of the Buddhist
Buddhist
missionaries to Cyrene and Alexandria. His influence was such that he was ultimately prohited to teach" —Jean-Marie Lafont . Les Dossiers d'Archéologie (254): 78, INALCO
INALCO
[22]. Jean-Marie Guyau
Jean-Marie Guyau
also paralleled his teachings to Buddhism.[23]

Citations[edit]

^ Annas 1995, p. 229 ^ Diogenes
Diogenes
Laërtius, ii. 84f ^ Aristocles ap. Eusebius, Praeparatio Evangelica, xiv. 18 ^ Reale & Catan 1986, p. 272 ^ a b c d e Copleston 2003, p. 121 ^ Long 2005, p. 633 ^ a b Long 2005, p. 639 ^ a b c d Annas 1995, p. 231 ^ Reale & Catan 1986, p. 271 ^ Reale & Catan 1986, p. 274 ^ Reale & Catan 1986, pp. 274–5 ^ a b c Annas 1995, p. 230 ^ a b Copleston 2003, p. 122 ^ a b c Annas 1995, p. 233 ^ Copleston 2003, p. 123 ^ a b Annas 1995, p. 232 ^ a b Annas 1995, p. 235 ^ Long 2005, p. 637 ^ a b c Berenice II and the Golden Age of Ptolemaic Egypt, Dee L. Clayman, Oxford University Press, 2014, p.33 ^ Ashoka: The Search for India's Lost Emperor, Charles Allen, Hachette UK, 2012, p.117 ^ Berenice II Euergetis: Essays in Early Hellenistic Queenship, Branko van Oppen de Ruiter, Springer, 2016, p.22 ^ Lafont, INALCO. ^ Éric Volant, Culture et mort volontaire, quoted in ^ Historical Dictionary of Ancient Greek Philosophy, Anthony Preus, Rowman & Littlefield, 2015, p.184

References[edit]

Annas, Julia (1995), The Morality of Happiness, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-509652-5 

Copleston, Frederick Charles (2003), A History of Philosophy: Book 1, Continuum International, ISBN 0-8264-6895-0 

Long, A. A. (2005), "The Socratic Legacy", in Algra, Keimpe; Barnes, Jonathon; Mansfeld, Jaap; Schofield, Malcolm, The Cambridge History of Hellenistic Philosophy, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-61670-0 

Reale, Giovanni; Catan, John R. (1986), A History of Ancient Philosophy: From the Origins to Socrates, SUNY Press, ISBN 0-88706-290-3 

Further reading[edit]

Diogenes
Diogenes
Laertius (1925). Lives of Eminent Philosophers. Translated by Robert Drew Hicks. 2 vols. Vol. 1, The Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Lampe, Kurt (2014). The Birth of Hedonism: The Cyrenaic Philosophers and Pleasure
Pleasure
as a Way of Life, Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-16113-5 Tsouna, Voula (1998). The Epistemology
Epistemology
of the Cyrenaic School, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-62207-7 Zilioli, Ugo (2012). The Cyrenaics, Acumen Publishing. ISBN 1-84465-290-4

External links[edit]

Cyrenaics
Cyrenaics
Resource Handbook of Cyrenaic resources, primary and secondary O'Keefe, Tim. "Cyrenaics". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.   Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Cyrenaic School of Philosophy". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 

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Ancient Greek schools of philosophy

Pre-Socratic

Schools

Atomism Eleatics Ionian

Ephesian Milesian

Pluralism Pythagoreanism Sophistic

Philosophers

Anaxagoras Anaximander Anaximenes Democritus Empedocles Heraclitus Leucippus Melissus Parmenides Protagoras Pythagoras Thales Zeno of Elea

Socratic

Schools

Cynicism Cyrenaics Eretrian school Megarian school Peripateticism Platonism

Philosophers

Antisthenes Aristippus Aristotle Diogenes
Diogenes
of Sinope Euclid of Megara Phaedo of Elis Plato Socrates

Hellenistic

Schools

Epicureanism Neoplatonism Neopythagoreanism Pyrrhonism Stoicism

Philosophers

Apollonius of Tyana Augustine Epictetus Epicurus John Philoponus Lucretius Plotinus Proclus Pyrrho Sextus Empiricus Zeno of Citium

Authority control

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