Crystallography
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Crystallography is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in crystalline solids (see
crystal structure In crystallography Crystallography is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in crystalline solids (see crystal structure). The word "crystallography" is derived from the Greek words ''crystallon'' "cold drop, frozen ...

crystal structure
). The word "crystallography" is derived from the
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
words ''crystallon'' "cold drop, frozen drop", with its meaning extending to all solids with some degree of transparency, and ''graphein'' "to write". In July 2012, the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for har ...

United Nations
recognised the importance of the science of crystallography by proclaiming that 2014 would be the International Year of Crystallography.UN announcement "International Year of Crystallography"
iycr2014.org. 12 July 2012
Before the development of X-ray diffraction crystallography (see below), the study of
crystal A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions. In addition, macrosco ...

crystal
s was based on physical measurements of their geometry using a
goniometer A goniometer is an instrument that either measures an angle or allows an object to be rotated to a precise angular position. The term goniometry derives from two Greek words, γωνία (''gōnía'') 'angle In Euclidean geometry, an angle is ...

goniometer
. This involved measuring the angles of crystal faces relative to each other and to theoretical reference axes (crystallographic axes), and establishing the
symmetry Symmetry (from Greek συμμετρία ''symmetria'' "agreement in dimensions, due proportion, arrangement") in everyday language refers to a sense of harmonious and beautiful proportion and balance. In mathematics, "symmetry" has a more pre ...
of the crystal in question. The position in 3D space of each crystal face is plotted on a stereographic net such as a
Wulff net In geometry Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; ''wikt:γῆ, geo-'' "earth", ''wikt:μέτρον, -metron'' "measurement") is, with arithmetic, one of the oldest branches of mathematics. It is concerned with properties of space t ...
or Lambert net. The
pole Pole may refer to: Astronomy *Celestial pole, the projection of the planet Earth's axis of rotation onto the celestial sphere; also applies to the axis of rotation of other planets *Pole star, a visible star that is approximately aligned with the ...

pole
to each face is plotted on the net. Each point is labelled with its
Miller index Miller indices form a notation system in crystallography for planes in Bravais lattice, crystal (Bravais) lattices. In particular, a family of lattice planes is determined by three integers ''h'', ''k'', and ''ℓ'', the ''Miller indices''. ...
. The final plot allows the symmetry of the crystal to be established. Crystallographic methods now depend on analysis of the
diffraction Diffraction refers to various phenomena that occur when a wave In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), , is the natural science that ...

diffraction
patterns of a sample targeted by a beam of some type.
X-ray An X-ray, or, much less commonly, X-radiation, is a penetrating form of high-energy electromagnetic radiation In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motio ...

X-ray
s are most commonly used; other beams used include
electron The electron is a subatomic particle In physical sciences, subatomic particles are smaller than atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has ma ...

electron
s or
neutron The neutron is a subatomic particle, symbol or , which has a neutral (not positive or negative) charge, and a mass slightly greater than that of a proton. Protons and neutrons constitute the nuclei of atoms. Since protons and neutrons behav ...

neutron
s. Crystallographers often explicitly state the type of beam used, as in the terms ''
X-ray crystallography X-ray crystallography (XRC) is the experimental science determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a ...

X-ray crystallography
,
neutron diffraction The neutron is a subatomic particle, symbol or , which has a neutral (not positive or negative) charge, and a mass slightly greater than that of a proton. Protons and neutrons constitute the nuclei of atoms. Since protons and neutrons behav ...
'' and ''
electron diffraction#REDIRECT Electron diffractionElectron diffraction refers to the wave nature of electrons. However, from a technical or practical point of view, it may be regarded as a technique used to study matter by firing electrons at a sample and observing the ...

electron diffraction
''. These three types of radiation interact with the specimen in different ways. *X-rays interact with the spatial distribution of
electron The electron is a subatomic particle In physical sciences, subatomic particles are smaller than atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has ma ...

electron
s in the sample. *Electrons are
charged particle In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), , is the natural science that studies matter, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spa ...
s and therefore interact with the total
charge distribution In electromagnetism, charge density is the amount of electric charge per unit length, surface area, or volume. Volume charge density (symbolized by the Greek letter ρ) is the quantity of charge per unit volume, measured in the Systeme Internati ...

charge distribution
of both the
atomic nuclei The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger-Marsden experiments, Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment. After the d ...
and the electrons of the sample. *Neutrons are scattered by the atomic nuclei through the
strong nuclear force In nuclear physics Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions. Other forms of nuclear matter are also studied. Nuclear physics should not be confused with atomic physics, which ...
s, but in addition, the
magnetic moment The magnetic moment is the magnetic strength and orientation of a or other object that produces a . Examples of objects that have magnetic moments include: loops of (such as s), permanent magnets, s (such as s), various s, and many astronomical ...

magnetic moment
of neutrons is non-zero. They are therefore also scattered by
magnetic field A magnetic field is a vector field In vector calculus and physics, a vector field is an assignment of a vector to each point in a subset of space. For instance, a vector field in the plane can be visualised as a collection of arrows with ...

magnetic field
s. When neutrons are scattered from
hydrogen Hydrogen is the chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same ...

hydrogen
-containing materials, they produce diffraction patterns with high noise levels. However, the material can sometimes be treated to substitute
deuterium Deuterium (or hydrogen-2, symbol or deuterium, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes The term stable isotope has a meaning similar to stable nuclide, but is preferably used when speaking of nuclides of a specific elemen ...

deuterium
for hydrogen. Because of these different forms of interaction, the three types of radiation are suitable for different crystallographic studies.


Theory

With conventional imaging techniques such as
optical microscopy Optics is the branch of physics that studies the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of optical instruments, instruments that use or Photodetector, detect it. Optics usually describes the ...
, obtaining an image of a small object requires collecting light with a magnifying
lens A lens is a transmissive optical Optics is the branch of physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, s ...

lens
. The resolution of any optical system is limited by the diffraction-limit of light, which depends on its wavelength. Thus, the overall clarity of resulting crystallographic electron density maps is highly dependent upon the resolution of the diffraction data, which can be categorized as: low, medium, high and atomic. For example, visible light has a wavelength of about 4000 to 7000
ångström The angstromEntry "angstrom" in the Oxford online dictionary. Retrieved on 2019-03-02 from https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/angstrom.Entry "angstrom" in the Merriam-Webster online dictionary. Retrieved on 2019-03-02 from https://www.me ...

ångström
, which is three
orders of magnitude An order of magnitude is an approximation of the logarithm of a value relative to some contextually understood reference value, usually ten, interpreted as the base of the logarithm and the representative of values of magnitude one. Logarithmic ...
longer than the length of typical atomic bonds and
atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be touched are ultimately composed of atom ...

atom
s themselves (about 1 to 2 Å). Therefore, a conventional optical microscope cannot resolve the spatial arrangement of atoms in a crystal. To do so, we would need radiation with much shorter wavelengths, such as
X-ray An X-ray, or, much less commonly, X-radiation, is a penetrating form of high-energy electromagnetic radiation In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motio ...

X-ray
or neutron beams. Unfortunately, focusing X-rays with conventional optical lens can be a challenge. Scientists have had some success focusing X-rays with microscopic
Fresnel zone plate Image:Zonenplatte Cosinus.png, 210px, Sinusoidal zone plate: This type has a single focal point. A zone plate is a device used to Focus (optics), focus light or other things exhibiting wave character.G. W. Webb, I. V. Minin and O. V. Minin, “Va ...
s made from gold, and by critical-angle reflection inside long tapered capillaries. Diffracted X-ray or neutron beams cannot be focused to produce images, so the sample structure must be reconstructed from the
diffraction Diffraction refers to various phenomena that occur when a wave In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), , is the natural science that ...

diffraction
pattern. Diffraction patterns arise from the constructive
interference Interference is the act of interfering, invading, or poaching. Interference may also refer to: Communications * Interference (communication), anything which alters, modifies, or disrupts a message * Adjacent-channel interference, caused by extran ...

interference
of incident radiation (x-rays, electrons, neutrons), scattered by the periodic, repeating features of the sample. Because of their highly ordered and repetitive atomic structure (
Bravais lattice In geometry and crystallography, a Bravais lattice, named after , is an infinite array of discrete points generated by a set of Translation operator (quantum mechanics)#Discrete Translational Symmetry, discrete translation operations described in th ...
), crystals diffract x-rays in a coherent manner, also referred to as
Bragg's reflection.
Bragg's reflection.


Notation

*Coordinates in ''square
bracket A bracket is either of two tall fore- or back-facing punctuation Punctuation (or sometimes interpunction) is the use of spacing, conventional signs (called punctuation marks), and certain typographical devices as aids to the understanding ...

bracket
s'' such as /nowiki> denote a direction vector (in real space). *Coordinates in ''angle brackets'' or ''chevrons'' such as <100> denote a ''family'' of directions which are related by symmetry operations. In the cubic
crystal system In crystallography Crystallography is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in crystalline solids (see crystal structure). The word "crystallography" is derived from the Greek language, Greek words ''crystallon'' "col ...
for example, <100> would mean 10 /nowiki> or the negative of any of those directions. *
Miller indices Miller indices form a notation system in crystallography Crystallography is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in crystalline solids (see crystal structure). The word "crystallography" is derived from the Greek w ...
in ''parentheses'' such as (100) denote a plane of the crystal structure, and regular repetitions of that plane with a particular spacing. In the cubic system, the normal to the (hkl) plane is the direction kl but in lower-symmetry cases, the normal to (hkl) is not parallel to kl *Indices in ''curly brackets'' or ''braces'' such as denote a family of planes and their normals. In cubic materials the symmetry makes them equivalent, just as the way angle brackets denote a family of directions. In non-cubic materials, is not necessarily perpendicular to .


Techniques

Some materials that have been analyzed crystallographically, such as
protein Proteins are large s and s that comprise one or more long chains of . Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including , , , providing and , and from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily ...

protein
s, do not occur naturally as crystals. Typically, such molecules are placed in solution and allowed to slowly crystallize through vapor
diffusion File:DiffusionMicroMacro.gif, 250px, Diffusion from a microscopic and macroscopic point of view. Initially, there are solute molecules on the left side of a barrier (purple line) and none on the right. The barrier is removed, and the solute diff ...

diffusion
. A drop of solution containing the molecule, buffer, and precipitants is sealed in a container with a reservoir containing a
hygroscopic Hygroscopy is the phenomenon of attracting and holding water molecules via either absorption (chemistry), absorption or adsorption from the surrounding Natural environment, environment, which is usually at normal or room temperature. If water mo ...
solution. Water in the drop diffuses to the reservoir, slowly increasing the concentration and allowing a crystal to form. If the concentration were to rise more quickly, the molecule would simply
precipitate Precipitation is the process of conversion of a chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All ever ...
out of solution, resulting in disorderly granules rather than an orderly and hence usable crystal. Once a crystal is obtained, data can be collected using a beam of radiation. Although many universities that engage in crystallographic research have their own X-ray producing equipment,
synchrotron A synchrotron is a particular type of cyclic , descended from the , in which the accelerating particle beam travels around a fixed closed-loop path. The which bends the particle beam into its closed path increases with time during the acceler ...
s are often used as X-ray sources, because of the purer and more complete patterns such sources can generate. Synchrotron sources also have a much higher intensity of X-ray beams, so data collection takes a fraction of the time normally necessary at weaker sources. Complementary neutron crystallography techniques are used to identify the positions of hydrogen atoms, since X-rays only interact very weakly with light elements such as hydrogen. Producing an image from a diffraction pattern requires sophisticated
mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), formulas and related structures (), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (), and quantities and their changes ( and ). There is no general consensus abo ...
and often an iterative process of modelling and refinement. In this process, the mathematically predicted diffraction patterns of a hypothesized or "model" structure are compared to the actual pattern generated by the crystalline sample. Ideally, researchers make several initial guesses, which through refinement all converge on the same answer. Models are refined until their predicted patterns match to as great a degree as can be achieved without radical revision of the model. This is a painstaking process, made much easier today by computers. The mathematical methods for the analysis of diffraction data only apply to ''patterns,'' which in turn result only when waves diffract from orderly arrays. Hence crystallography applies for the most part only to crystals, or to molecules which can be coaxed to crystallize for the sake of measurement. In spite of this, a certain amount of molecular information can be deduced from patterns that are generated by fibers and
powders A powder is a dry, bulk solid Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas and plasma). The molecules in a solid are closely packed together and contain the least amount of kinetic energy. A soli ...
, which while not as perfect as a solid crystal, may exhibit a degree of order. This level of order can be sufficient to deduce the structure of simple molecules, or to determine the coarse features of more complicated molecules. For example, the double-helical structure of
DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid (; DNA) is a molecule File:Pentacene on Ni(111) STM.jpg, A scanning tunneling microscopy image of pentacene molecules, which consist of linear chains of five carbon rings. A molecule is an electrically neutral gro ...

DNA
was deduced from an X-ray diffraction pattern that had been generated by a fibrous sample.


Materials science

Crystallography is used by materials scientists to characterize different materials. In single crystals, the effects of the crystalline arrangement of atoms is often easy to see macroscopically, because the natural shapes of crystals reflect the atomic structure. In addition, physical properties are often controlled by crystalline defects. The understanding of crystal structures is an important prerequisite for understanding
crystallographic defect Crystallography is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in crystalline solids (see crystal structure). The word "crystallography" is derived from the Greek words ''crystallon'' "cold drop, frozen drop", with its mean ...
s. Mostly, materials do not occur as a single crystal, but in poly-crystalline form (i.e., as an aggregate of small crystals with different orientations). Because of this, the
powder diffraction upright=2, X-ray powder diffraction of Y2Cu2O5 and yttrium_oxide.html"_;"title="Rietveld_refinement_with_two_phases,_showing_1%_of_yttrium_oxide">Rietveld_refinement_with_two_phases,_showing_1%_of_yttrium_oxide_impurity_(red_tickers). Powder_diff ...
method, which takes diffraction patterns of polycrystalline samples with a large number of crystals, plays an important role in structural determination. Other physical properties are also linked to crystallography. For example, the minerals in
clay Clay is a type of fine-grained natural soil File:Stagnogley.JPG, Surface-water-Gley soil, gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland. Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support ...

clay
form small, flat, platelike structures. Clay can be easily deformed because the platelike particles can slip along each other in the plane of the plates, yet remain strongly connected in the direction perpendicular to the plates. Such mechanisms can be studied by crystallographic
texture Texture may refer to: Science and technology * Surface texture, the texture means smoothness, roughness, or bumpiness of the surface of an object * Texture (roads), road surface characteristics with waves shorter than road roughness * Texture (co ...
measurements. In another example,
iron Iron () is a with Fe (from la, ) and 26. It is a that belongs to the and of the . It is, on , right in front of (32.1% and 30.1%, respectively), forming much of Earth's and . It is the fourth most common . In its metallic state, iron ...

iron
transforms from a
body-centered cubic 200px, A network model of a primitive cubic system In crystallography, the cubic (or isometric) crystal system is a crystal system where the unit cell is in the shape of a cube. This is one of the most common and simplest shapes found in cryst ...
(bcc) structure called ferrite to a
face-centered cubic 200px, A network model of a primitive cubic system In crystallography Crystallography is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in crystalline solids (see crystal structure). The word "crystallography" is derived fro ...

face-centered cubic
(fcc) structure called
austenite 250px, Iron-carbon phase diagram, showing the conditions under which austenite (γ) is stable in carbon steel. Austenite, also known as gamma-phase iron (γ-Fe), is a metallic, non-magnetic allotrope of iron or a solid solution of iron I ...
when it is heated. The fcc structure is a close-packed structure unlike the bcc structure; thus the volume of the iron decreases when this transformation occurs. Crystallography is useful in phase identification. When manufacturing or using a material, it is generally desirable to know what compounds and what phases are present in the material, as their composition, structure and proportions will influence the material's properties. Each phase has a characteristic arrangement of atoms. X-ray or neutron diffraction can be used to identify which patterns are present in the material, and thus which compounds are present. Crystallography covers the enumeration of the symmetry patterns which can be formed by atoms in a crystal and for this reason is related to
group theory The popular puzzle Rubik's cube invented in 1974 by Ernő Rubik has been used as an illustration of permutation group">Ernő_Rubik.html" ;"title="Rubik's cube invented in 1974 by Ernő Rubik">Rubik's cube invented in 1974 by Ernő Rubik has bee ...
.


Biology

X-ray crystallography X-ray crystallography (XRC) is the experimental science determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a ...

X-ray crystallography
is the primary method for determining the molecular conformations of biological
macromolecule macromolecule A macromolecule is a very large molecule File:Pentacene on Ni(111) STM.jpg, A scanning tunneling microscopy image of pentacene molecules, which consist of linear chains of five carbon rings. A molecule is an electrically neu ...
s, particularly
protein Proteins are large s and s that comprise one or more long chains of . Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including , , , providing and , and from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily ...

protein
and
nucleic acid Nucleic acids are biopolymer Biopolymers are natural polymers produced by the cells of Organism, living organisms. Biopolymers consist of monomeric units that are Covalent_bond, covalently bonded to form larger molecules. There are three main cla ...

nucleic acid
s such as
DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid (; DNA) is a molecule File:Pentacene on Ni(111) STM.jpg, A scanning tunneling microscopy image of pentacene molecules, which consist of linear chains of five carbon rings. A molecule is an electrically neutral gro ...

DNA
and
RNA Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymer A polymer (; Greek ''wikt:poly-, poly-'', "many" + ''wikt:-mer, -mer'', "part") is a Chemical substance, substance or material consisting of very large molecules, or macromolecules, composed of many Repe ...

RNA
. In fact, the double-helical structure of DNA was deduced from crystallographic data. The first crystal structure of a macromolecule was solved in 1958, a three-dimensional model of the myoglobin molecule obtained by X-ray analysis. The
Protein Data Bank The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is a database for the three-dimensional structural data of large biological molecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids. The data, typically obtained by X-ray crystallography, Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ...

Protein Data Bank
(PDB) is a freely accessible repository for the structures of proteins and other biological macromolecules. Computer programs such as
RasMol RasMol is a computer program written for molecular graphics visualization intended and used mainly to depict and explore Structural biology, biological macromolecule structures, such as those found in the Protein Data Bank. It was originally develo ...
, Pymol or Visual Molecular Dynamics, VMD can be used to visualize biological molecular structures. Neutron crystallography is often used to help refine structures obtained by X-ray methods or to solve a specific bond; the methods are often viewed as complementary, as X-rays are sensitive to electron positions and scatter most strongly off heavy atoms, while neutrons are sensitive to nucleus positions and scatter strongly even off many light isotopes, including hydrogen and deuterium. Electron crystallography has been used to determine some protein structures, most notably membrane proteins and viral capsids.


Contribution of women to X-ray crystallography

A number of women were pioneers in X-ray crystallography at a time when they were excluded from most other branches of physical science. Kathleen Lonsdale was a research student of William Henry Bragg, who with his son Lawrence Bragg, Lawrence founded the science of X-ray crystallography at the beginning of the 20th century. Bragg had 11 women research students out of a total of 18. Kathleen joined his crystallography research team at the Royal Institution in London in 1923, and after getting married and having children, went back to work with Bragg as a researcher. She confirmed the structure of the benzene ring, carried out studies of diamond, was one of the first two women to be elected to the Royal Society in 1945, and in 1949 was appointed the first female tenured professor of chemistry and head of the Department of crystallography at University College London. Kathleen always advocated greater participation of women in science and said in 1970: "Any country that wants to make full use of all its potential scientists and technologists could do so, but it must not expect to get the women quite so simply as it gets the men.... It is utopian, then, to suggest that any country that really wants married women to return to a scientific career, when her children no longer need her physical presence, should make special arrangements to encourage her to do so?". During this period, Kathleen began a collaboration with William T. Astbury on a set of 230 space group tables which was published in 1924 and became an essential tool for crystallographers. In 1932 Dorothy Hodgkin joined the laboratory of the physicist John Desmond Bernal, who was a former student of Bragg, in Cambridge, UK. She and Bernal took the first X-ray photographs of crystalline proteins. She was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1964 for her work using X-ray techniques to study the structures of penicillin, insulin and vitamin B12. She is the only List of female Nobel laureates, British woman ever to have won a Nobel Prize in a science subject. Rosalind Franklin took the X-ray photograph of a DNA fibre that proved key to James Watson and Francis Crick's discovery of the double helix, for which they both won the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1962. Watson revealed in his autobiographic account of the discovery of the structure of DNA, ''The Double Helix'', that he had used Rosalind's X-ray photograph without her permission. Franklin died of cancer in her 30s, before Watson received the Nobel Prize. Franklin also carried out important structural studies of carbon in coal and graphite, and of plant and animal viruses. Isabella Karle of the United States Naval Research Laboratory developed an experimental approach to the mathematical theory of crystallography. Her work improved the speed and accuracy of chemical and biomedical analysis. Yet only her husband Jerome shared the 1985 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Herbert Hauptman, "for outstanding achievements in the development of direct methods for the determination of crystal structures". Other prize-giving bodies have showered Isabella with awards in her own right. Women have written many textbooks and research papers in the field of X-ray crystallography. For many years Lonsdale edited the ''International Tables for Crystallography'', which provide information on crystal lattices, symmetry, and space groups, as well as mathematical, physical and chemical data on structures. Olga Kennard of the University of Cambridge, founded and ran the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre, an internationally recognized source of structural data on small molecules, from 1965 until 1997. Jenny Pickworth Glusker, a British scientist, co-authored ''Crystal Structure Analysis: A Primer'', first published in 1971 and as of 2010 in its third edition. Eleanor Dodson, an Australian-born biologist, who began as Dorothy Hodgkin's technician, was the main instigator behind CCP4 (file format), CCP4, the collaborative computing project that currently shares more than 250 software tools with protein crystallographers worldwide.


Reference literature

The ''International Tables for Crystallography'' is an eight-book series that outlines the standard notations for formatting, describing and testing crystals. The series contains books that covers analysis methods and the mathematical procedures for determining organic structure through x-ray crystallography, electron diffraction, and neutron diffraction. The International tables are focused on procedures, techniques and descriptions and do not list the physical properties of individual crystals themselves. Each book is about 1000 pages and the titles of the books are: :Vol A - ''Space Group Symmetry'', :Vol A1 - ''Symmetry Relations Between Space Groups'', :Vol B - ''Reciprocal Space'', :Vol C - ''Mathematical, Physical, and Chemical Tables'', :Vol D - ''Physical Properties of Crystals'', :Vol E - ''Subperiodic Groups'', :Vol F - ''Crystallography of Biological Macromolecules'', and :Vol G - ''Definition and Exchange of Crystallographic Data''.


Scientists of note


See also

*Abnormal grain growth *Atomic packing factor *Beevers–Lipson strip *Condensed matter physics *Crystal engineering *Crystal growth *Crystal optics *Crystal structure *Crystallite *Crystallization processes *Crystallographic database *Crystallographic point group *Crystallographic group *Dynamical theory of diffraction *Electron crystallography *Euclidean plane isometry *Fixed points of isometry groups in Euclidean space *Fractional coordinates *Group action (mathematics), Group action *International Year of Crystallography *Laser-heated pedestal growth *Materials science *Metallurgy *Mineralogy *Modeling of polymer crystals *Neutron crystallography *Open-pool Australian lightwater reactor, Neutron diffraction at OPAL *Institut Laue–Langevin, Neutron diffraction at the ILL *NMR crystallography *Permutation group *Point group *Precession electron diffraction *Quantum mineralogy *Quasicrystal *Solid state chemistry *Space group *Symmetric group *
X-ray crystallography X-ray crystallography (XRC) is the experimental science determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a ...

X-ray crystallography
*Lattice constant


References


External links


American Crystallographic AssociationCrystal Lattice Structures100 Years of Crystallography
Royal Institution animation
Vega Science Trust Interviews on Crystallography
Freeview video interviews with Max Perutz, Rober Huber and Aaron Klug.
International Union of CrystallographyInteractive Crystallography Timeline
from the Royal Institution
Nature Milestones in Crystallography
(editorial in Acta Crystallographica Section A) * {{Authority control Crystallography, Chemistry Condensed matter physics Instrumental analysis Materials science Neutron-related techniques Synchrotron-related techniques