Crucifixion is a method of capital punishment in which the victim is
tied or nailed to a large wooden beam and left to hang for several
days until eventual death from exhaustion and asphyxiation.
The crucifixion of Jesus is a central narrative in Christianity, and
the cross (sometimes depicting Jesus nailed onto it) is the main
religious symbol for many
2.2 Nail placement
2.3 Cause of death
3 Archaeological evidence
4 History and religious texts
4.1 Pre-Roman states
4.2 Ancient Rome
4.2.2 Society and law
4.3 In Islam
5 Modern use
5.1 Legal execution
5.3 Other terrorist incidents
6 In culture and arts
7 As a devotional practice
8 Famous crucifixions
9 See also
12 External links
Cross § Name
Ancient Greek has two verbs for crucify: ana-stauro
(ἀνασταυρόω), from stauros, "stake", and apo-tumpanizo
(ἀποτυμπανίζω) "crucify on a plank", together with
anaskolopizo (ἀνασκολοπίζω "impale"). In earlier
pre-Roman Greek texts anastauro usually means "impale".
New Testament Greek uses four verbs, three of them based upon stauros
(σταυρός), usually translated "cross". The most common term is
stauroo (σταυρόω), "to crucify", occurring 43 times; sustauroo
(συσταυρόω), "to crucify with" or "alongside" occurs five
times, while anastauroo (ἀνασταυρόω), "to crucify again"
occurs only once at the Epistle to the Hebrews 6:6. prospegnumi
(προσπήγνυμι), "to fix or fasten to, impale, crucify"
occurs only once at the Acts of the Apostles 2:23.
The English term cross derives from the
Latin word crux. The Latin
term crux classically referred to a tree or any construction of wood
used to hang criminals as a form of execution. The term later came to
refer specifically to a cross.
The English term crucifix derives from the
Latin crucifixus or cruci
fixus, past participle passive of crucifigere or cruci figere, meaning
"to crucify" or "to fasten to a cross".
This crucifix is attributed to Michelangelo, notable for showing naked
Crucifixion was most often performed to dissuade its witnesses from
perpetrating similar (usually particularly heinous) crimes. Victims
were sometimes left on display after death as a warning to any other
Crucifixion was usually intended to provide a
death that was particularly slow, painful (hence the term
excruciating, literally "out of crucifying"), gruesome, humiliating,
and public, using whatever means were most expedient for that goal.
Crucifixion methods varied considerably with location and time period.
The Greek and
Latin words corresponding to "crucifixion" applied to
many different forms of painful execution, from impaling on a stake to
affixing to a tree, to an upright pole (a crux simplex) or to a
combination of an upright (in Latin, stipes) and a crossbeam (in
Seneca the Younger
Seneca the Younger wrote: "I see crosses there, not
just of one kind but made in many different ways: some have their
victims with head down to the ground; some impale their private parts;
others stretch out their arms on the gibbet".
In some cases, the condemned was forced to carry the crossbeam to the
place of execution. A whole cross would weigh well over
135 kg (300 lb), but the crossbeam would not be quite as
burdensome, weighing around 45 kg (100 lb). The Roman
Tacitus records that the city of Rome had a specific place
for carrying out executions, situated outside the Esquiline Gate,
and had a specific area reserved for the execution of slaves by
crucifixion. Upright posts would presumably be fixed permanently
in that place, and the crossbeam, with the condemned person perhaps
already nailed to it, would then be attached to the post.
The person executed may have been attached to the cross by rope,
though nails and other sharp materials are mentioned in a passage by
the Judean historian Josephus, where he states that at the Siege of
Jerusalem (70), "the soldiers out of rage and hatred, nailed those
they caught, one after one way, and another after another, to the
crosses, by way of jest". Objects used in the crucifixion of
criminals, such as nails, were sought as amulets with perceived
While a crucifixion was an execution, it was also a humiliation, by
making the condemned as vulnerable as possible. Although artists have
traditionally depicted the figure on a cross with a loin cloth or a
covering of the genitals, the person being crucified was usually
stripped naked. Writings by
Seneca the Younger
Seneca the Younger state some victims
suffered a stick forced upwards through their groin. Despite
its frequent use by the Romans, the horrors of crucifixion did not
escape criticism by some eminent Roman orators. Cicero, for example,
described crucifixion as "a most cruel and disgusting punishment",
and suggested that "the very mention of the cross should be far
removed not only from a Roman citizen's body, but from his mind, his
eyes, his ears". Elsewhere he says, "To bind a Roman citizen is a
crime, to flog him is an abomination, to kill him is almost an act of
murder: to crucify him is -- What? There is no fitting word that can
possibly describe so horrible a deed." 
Frequently, the legs of the person executed were broken or shattered
with an iron club, an act called crurifragium, which was also
frequently applied without crucifixion to slaves. This act
hastened the death of the person but was also meant to deter those who
observed the crucifixion from committing offenses.
Crux simplex, a simple wooden stake. Image by Justus Lipsius.
The crucifixion of Jesus. Image by Justus Lipsius
See also: Instrument of Jesus' crucifixion
The gibbet on which crucifixion was carried out could be of many
Josephus describes multiple tortures and positions of
crucifixion during the Siege of
Titus crucified the
Seneca the Younger
Seneca the Younger recounts: "I see crosses there, not
just of one kind but made in many different ways: some have their
victims with head down to the ground; some impale their private parts;
others stretch out their arms on the gibbet."
At times the gibbet was only one vertical stake, called in
simplex. This was the simplest available construction for
torturing and killing the condemned. Frequently, however, there was a
cross-piece attached either at the top to give the shape of a T (crux
commissa) or just below the top, as in the form most familiar in
Christian symbolism (crux immissa). The most ancient image of a
Roman crucifixion depicts an individual on a T-shaped cross. It is a
graffito found in a taberna (hostel for wayfarers) in Puteoli, dating
to the time of
Hadrian (late 1st century to early 2nd
Some 2nd-century writers took it for granted that a crucified person's
arms would be stretched out, not connected to a single stake: Lucian
Prometheus as crucified "above the ravine with his hands
outstretched" and explains that the letter T (the Greek letter tau)
was looked upon as an unlucky letter or sign (similar to the way the
number thirteen is looked upon today as an unlucky number), saying
that the letter got its "evil significance" because of the "evil
instrument" which had that shape, an instrument on which tyrants
crucified people. Jehovah's Witnesses argue that Jesus was crucified
on a crux simplex, and that the crux immissa was an invention of
Emperor Constantine. Other forms were in the shape of the letters
X and Y.
The New Testament writings about the crucifixion of Jesus do not speak
specifically about the shape of that cross, but the early writings
that do speak of its shape, from about the year AD 100 on, describe it
as shaped like the letter T (the Greek letter tau) or as composed
of an upright and a transverse beam, sometimes with a small projection
in the upright.
Crucifixion window by Henry E. Sharp, 1872, in St. Matthew's German
Evangelical Lutheran Church, Charleston, South Carolina
In popular depictions of the crucifixion of Jesus (possibly because in
translations of John 20:25 the wounds are described as being "in his
hands"), Jesus is shown with nails in his hands. But in Greek the word
"χείρ", usually translated as "hand", could refer to the entire
portion of the arm below the elbow, and to denote the hand as
distinct from the arm some other word could be added, as "ἄκρην
οὔτασε χεῖρα" (he wounded the end of the χείρ, i.e.,
"he wounded her in the hand".
A possibility that does not require tying is that the nails were
inserted just above the wrist, between the two bones of the forearm
(the radius and the ulna).
An experiment that was the subject of a documentary on the National
Geographic Channel's Quest For Truth: The Crucifixion, showed that
nailed feet provided enough support for the body, and that the hands
could have been merely tied. Nailing the feet to the side of the cross
relieves strain on the wrists by placing most of the weight on the
Another possibility, suggested by Frederick Zugibe, is that the nails
may have been driven in at an angle, entering in the palm in the
crease that delineates the bulky region at the base of the thumb, and
exiting in the wrist, passing through the carpal tunnel.
A foot-rest (suppedaneum) attached to the cross, perhaps for the
purpose of taking the person's weight off the wrists, is sometimes
included in representations of the crucifixion of Jesus, but is not
discussed in ancient sources. Some scholars interpret the Alexamenos
graffito, the earliest surviving depiction of the Crucifixion, as
including such a foot-rest. Ancient sources also mention the
sedile, a small seat attached to the front of the cross, about halfway
down, which could have served a similar purpose.
In 1968, archaeologists discovered at
Giv'at ha-Mivtar in northeast
Jerusalem the remains of one Jehohanan, who had been crucified in the
1st century. The remains included a heel bone with a nail driven
through it from the side. The tip of the nail was bent, perhaps
because of striking a knot in the upright beam, which prevented it
being extracted from the foot. A first inaccurate account of the
length of the nail led some to believe that it had been driven through
both heels, suggesting that the man had been placed in a sort of
sidesaddle position, but the true length of the nail, 11.5 cm
(4.53 inches), suggests instead that in this case of crucifixion
the heels were nailed to opposite sides of the upright.
The skeleton from
Giv'at ha-Mivtar is currently the only recovered
example of ancient crucifixion in the archaeological record.
Cause of death
"Burmese Dacoits Readied for Execution", photography by Willough
Wallace Hooper (c. 1880). "Dacoit" is the Anglicized form of the
Hindustani word for "bandit".
The length of time required to reach death could range from hours to
days depending on method, the victim's health, and the environment. A
literature review by Maslen and Mitchell identified scholarly
support for several possible causes of death: cardiac rupture,
heart failure, hypovolemic shock, acidosis, asphyxia,
arrhythmia, and pulmonary embolism. Death could result from
any combination of those factors or from other causes, including
sepsis following infection due to the wounds caused by the nails or by
the scourging that often preceded crucifixion, eventual dehydration,
or animal predation.
A theory attributed to Pierre Barbet holds that, when the whole body
weight was supported by the stretched arms, the typical cause of death
was asphyxiation. He wrote that the condemned would have severe
difficulty inhaling, due to hyper-expansion of the chest muscles and
lungs. The condemned would therefore have to draw himself up by the
arms, leading to exhaustion, or have his feet supported by tying or by
a wood block. When no longer able to lift himself, the condemned would
die within a few minutes. Some scholars, including Frederick Zugibe,
posit other causes of death. Zugibe suspended test subjects with their
arms at 60° to 70° from the vertical. The test subjects had no
difficulty breathing during experiments, but did suffer rapidly
increasing pain, which is consistent with the Roman use of
crucifixion to achieve a prolonged, agonizing death. However, Zugibe's
positioning of the test subjects' feet are not supported by any
archaeological or historical evidence.
Since death does not follow immediately on crucifixion, survival after
a short period of crucifixion is possible, as in the case of those who
choose each year as a devotional practice to be non-lethally
There is an ancient record of one person who survived a crucifixion
that was intended to be lethal, but that was interrupted. Josephus
recounts: "I saw many captives crucified, and remembered three of them
as my former acquaintance. I was very sorry at this in my mind, and
went with tears in my eyes to Titus, and told him of them; so he
immediately commanded them to be taken down, and to have the greatest
care taken of them, in order to their recovery; yet two of them died
under the physician's hands, while the third recovered." Josephus
gives no details of the method or duration of the crucifixion of his
three friends before their reprieve.
Although the ancient Jewish historian Josephus, as well as other
sources,[which?] refers to the crucifixion of thousands of people by
the Romans, there is only a single archaeological discovery of a
crucified body dating back to the
Roman Empire around the time of
Jesus. This was discovered at Givat HaMivtar,
Jerusalem in 1968.
It is not necessarily surprising that there is only one such
discovery, because a crucified body was usually left to decay on the
cross and therefore would not be preserved. The only reason these
archaeological remains were preserved was because family members gave
this particular individual a customary burial.
The remains were found accidentally in an ossuary with the crucified
man's name on it, 'Jehohanan, the son of Hagakol'. Nicu Haas,
an anthropologist at the Hebrew University Medical School in
Jerusalem, examined the ossuary and discovered that it contained a
heel bone with a nail driven through its side, indicating that the man
had been crucified. The position of the nail relative to the bone
indicates that the feet had been nailed to the cross from their side,
not from their front; various opinions have been proposed as to
whether they were both nailed together to the front of the cross or
one on the left side, one on the right side. The point of the nail had
olive wood fragments on it indicating that he was crucified on a cross
made of olive wood or on an olive tree. Since olive trees are not very
tall, this would suggest that the condemned was crucified at eye
Additionally, a piece of acacia wood was located between the bones and
the head of the nail, presumably to keep the condemned from freeing
his foot by sliding it over the nail. His legs were found broken,
possibly to hasten his death. It is thought that because in Roman
times iron was rare, the nails were removed from the dead body to
conserve costs. According to Haas, this could help to explain why only
one nail has been found, as the tip of the nail in question was bent
in such a way that it could not be removed.
Haas had also identified a scratch on the inner surface of the right
radius bone of the forearm, close to the wrist. He deduced from the
form of the scratch, as well as from the intact wrist bones, that a
nail had been driven into the forearm at that position. However, much
of Haas' findings have been challenged. For instance, it was
subsequently determined that the scratches in the wrist area were
non-traumatic – and, therefore, not evidence of crucifixion –
while reexamination of the heel bone revealed that the two heels were
not nailed together, but rather separately to either side of the
upright post of the cross.
History and religious texts
Crucifixion (or impalement), in one form or another, was used by
Persians, Carthaginians, and Macedonians.
The Greeks were generally opposed to performing crucifixions.
However, in his Histories, ix.120–122, the Greek writer Herodotus
describes the execution of a Persian general at the hands of Athenians
in about 479 BC: "They nailed him to a plank and hung him up ...
Artayctes who suffered death by crucifixion." The Commentary
Herodotus by How and Wells remarks: "They crucified him with hands
and feet stretched out and nailed to cross-pieces; cf. vii.33. This
barbarity, unusual on the part of Greeks, may be explained by the
enormity of the outrage or by Athenian deference to local
Christian theologians, beginning with
Paul of Tarsus
Paul of Tarsus writing in
Galatians 3:13, have interpreted an allusion to crucifixion in
Deuteronomy 21:22-23. This reference is to being hanged from a tree,
and may be associated with lynching or traditional hanging. However,
Rabbinic law limited capital punishment to just 4 methods of
execution: stoning, burning, strangulation, and decapitation, while
the passage in
Deuteronomy was interpreted as an obligation to hang
the corpse on a tree as a form of deterrence. The fragmentary
Aramaic Testament of Levi (DSS 4Q541) interprets in column 6: "God ...
(partially legible)-will set ... right errors. ... (partially
legible)-He will judge ... revealed sins. Investigate and seek and
know how Jonah wept. Thus, you shall not destroy the weak by wasting
away or by ... (partially legible)-crucifixion ... Let not the nail
The Jewish king Alexander Jannaeus, king of Judea from 103 BC to 76
BC, crucified 800 rebels, said to be Pharisees, in the middle of
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great is reputed to have crucified 2,000 survivors from
his siege of the Phoenician city of Tyre, as well as the doctor
who unsuccessfully treated Alexander's friend Hephaestion. Some
historians have also conjectured that Alexander crucified
Callisthenes, his official historian and biographer, for objecting to
Alexander's adoption of the Persian ceremony of royal adoration.
In Carthage, crucifixion was an established mode of execution, which
could even be imposed on generals for suffering a major
The hypothesis that the Ancient Roman custom of crucifixion may have
developed out of a primitive custom of arbori suspendere—hanging on
an arbor infelix ("inauspicious tree") dedicated to the gods of the
nether world—is rejected by William A. Oldfather, who shows that
this form of execution (the supplicium more maiorum, punishment in
accordance with the custom of our ancestors) consisted of suspending
someone from a tree, not dedicated to any particular gods, and
flogging him to death.
Tertullian mentions a 1st-century AD case
in which trees were used for crucifixion, but Seneca the Younger
earlier used the phrase infelix lignum (unfortunate wood) for the
transom ("patibulum") or the whole cross.
the two main sources for accounts of criminals carrying their own
patibula to the upright stipes.
Notorious mass crucifixions followed the
Third Servile War
Third Servile War in 73–71
BC (the slave rebellion under Spartacus), other
Roman civil wars in
the 2nd and 1st centuries BC, and the destruction of
Jerusalem in AD
Crassus crucified 6,000 of Spartacus' followers hunted down and
captured after his defeat in battle.
Josephus tells a story of the
Romans crucifying people along the walls of Jerusalem. He also says
that the Roman soldiers would amuse themselves by crucifying criminals
in different positions.
Constantine the Great, the first
Christian emperor, abolished
crucifixion in the
Roman Empire in 337 out of veneration for Jesus
Christ, its most famous victim.
Society and law
The Alexamenos graffito, a satirical representation of the Christian
worship, depicting a man worshiping a crucified donkey (Rome, c AD 85
to 3rd century). It is inscripted ΑΛΕΞΑΜΕΝΟΣ
(ΑΛΕΞΑΜΕΝΟϹ) ΣΕΒΕΤΕ (ϹΕΒΕΤΕ) ΘΕΟΝ, which
translates as "Alexamenos respects god". Visible at the museum on the
Palatine Hill, Rome, Italy (left). A modern-day tracing (right).
Crucifixion was intended to be a gruesome spectacle: the most painful
and humiliating death imaginable. It was used to punish
slaves, pirates, and enemies of the state. It was originally reserved
for slaves (hence still called "supplicium servile" by Seneca), and
later extended to citizens of the lower classes (humiliores). The
victims of crucifixion were stripped naked and put on public
display while they were slowly tortured to death so that they
would serve as a spectacle and an example.
According to Roman law, if a slave killed his or her master, all of
the master's slaves would be crucified as punishment. Both men and
women were crucified.
Tacitus writes in his Annals that
when Lucius Pedanius Secondus was murdered by a slave, some in the
Senate tried to prevent the mass crucifixion of four hundred of his
slaves because there were so many women and children, but in the
end tradition prevailed and they were all executed. Although not
conclusive evidence for female crucifixion by itself, the most ancient
image of a Roman crucifixion may depict a crucified woman, whether
real or imaginary.[a]
Crucifixion was such a gruesome and humiliating
way to die that the subject was somewhat of a taboo in Roman culture,
and few crucifixions were specifically documented. One of the only
specific female crucifixions we have documented is that of Ida, a
freedwoman (former slave) who was crucified by order of
Crucifixion was typically carried out by specialized teams, consisting
of a commanding centurion and his soldiers. First, the condemned
would be stripped naked and scourged. This would cause the
person to lose a large amount of blood, and approach a state of shock.
The convict then usually had to carry the horizontal beam (patibulum
in Latin) to the place of execution, but not necessarily the whole
During the death march, the prisoner, probably still nude after
the scourging, would be led through the most crowded streets
bearing a titulus - a sign board proclaiming the prisoner's name and
crime. Upon arrival at the place of execution, selected to
be especially public, the convict would be stripped of any
remaining clothing, then nailed to the cross naked. If
the crucifixion took place in an established place of execution, the
vertical beam (stipes) might be permanently embedded in the
ground. In this case, the condemned person's wrists would
first be nailed to the patibulum, and then he or she would be hoisted
off the ground with ropes to hang from the elevated patibulum while it
was fastened to the stipes. Next the feet or ankles would be
nailed to the upright stake. The 'nails' were tapered iron
spikes approximately 5 to 7 inches (13 to 18 cm) long, with a
square shaft 3⁄8 inch (10 mm) across. The titulus would
also be fastened to the cross to notify onlookers of the person's name
and crime as they hung on the cross, further maximizing the public
There may have been considerable variation in the position in which
prisoners were nailed to their crosses and how their bodies were
supported while they died.
Seneca the Younger
Seneca the Younger recounts: "I see
crosses there, not just of one kind but made in many different ways:
some have their victims with head down to the ground; some impale
their private parts; others stretch out their arms on the gibbet."
One source claims that for Jews (apparently not for others), a man
would be crucified with his back to the cross as is traditionally
depicted, while a woman would be nailed facing her cross, probably
with her back to onlookers, or at least with the stipes providing some
semblance of modesty if viewed from the front. Such concessions
were "unique" and not made outside a Jewish context. Several
sources mention some sort of seat fastened to the stipes to help
support the person's body, thereby prolonging the person's
suffering and humiliation by preventing the asphyxiation
caused by hanging without support.
Justin Martyr calls the seat a
cornu, or "horn," leading some scholars to believe it may have had
a pointed shape designed to torment the crucified person. This
would be consistent with Seneca's observation of victims with their
private parts impaled.
In Roman-style crucifixion, the condemned could take up to a few days
to die, but death was sometimes hastened by human action. "The
attending Roman guards could leave the site only after the victim had
died, and were known to precipitate death by means of deliberate
fracturing of the tibia and/or fibula, spear stab wounds into the
heart, sharp blows to the front of the chest, or a smoking fire built
at the foot of the cross to asphyxiate the victim." The Romans
sometimes broke the prisoner's legs to hasten death and usually
forbade burial. On the other hand, the person was often
deliberately kept alive as long as possible to prolong his suffering
and humiliation, so as to provide the maximum deterrent effect.
Corpses of the crucified were typically left on the crosses to
decompose and be eaten by animals.
Further information: Hirabah
Islam spread in a region where many societies, including the Persian
and Roman empires, had used crucifixion to punish traitors, rebels,
robbers and criminal slaves. The Qur'an refers to crucifixion in
six passages, of which the most significant for later legal
developments is verse 5:33:
The punishment of those who wage war against Allah and His Apostle,
and strive with might and main for mischief through the land is:
execution, or crucifixion, or the cutting off of hands and feet from
opposite sides, or exile from the land: that is their disgrace in this
world, and a heavy punishment is theirs in the Hereafter.
The corpus of hadith provides contradictory statements about the first
use of crucifixion under Islamic rule, attributing it variously to
Muhammad himself (for murder and robbery of a shepherd) or to the
Umar (applied to two slaves who murdered their
mistress). Classical Islamic jurisprudence applies the verse 5:33
chiefly to highway robbers, as a hadd (scripturally prescribed)
punishment. The preference for crucifixion over the other
punishments mentioned in the verse or for their combination (which
Sadakat Kadri has called "Islam's equivalent of the hanging, drawing
and quartering that medieval Europeans inflicted on traitors") is
subject to "complex and contested rules" in classical
jurisprudence. Most scholars required crucifixion for highway
robbery combined with murder, while others allowed execution by other
methods for this scenario. The main methods of crucifixion
Exposure of the culprit's body after execution by another method,
ascribed to "most scholars" and in particular to Ibn Hanbal
and Al-Shafi'i; or Hanbalis and Shafi'is.
Crucifying the culprit alive, then executing him with a lance thrust
or another method, ascribed to Malikis, most Hanafis and most Twelver
Shi'is; the majority of the Malikis; Malik, Abu Hanifa, and
al-Awza'i; or Malikis, Hanafis, and Shafi'is.
Crucifying the culprit alive and sparing his life if he survives for
three days, ascribed to Shiites.
Most classical jurists limit the period of crucifixion to three
Crucifixion involves affixing or impaling the body to a
beam or a tree trunk. Various minority opinions also prescribed
crucifixion as punishment for a number of other crimes. Cases of
crucifixion under most of the legally prescribed categories have been
recorded in the history of Islam, and prolonged exposure of crucified
bodies was especially common for political and religious
Meiji period crucifixion (c. 1865–1868), Yokohama, Japan. A
25-year-old servant, Sokichi, was executed by crucifixion for
murdering his employer's son during the course of a robbery. He was
affixed by tying, rather than nailing, to a stake with two
Crucifixion was introduced into
Japan during the Sengoku period
(1467–1573), after a 350-year period with no capital
punishment. It is believed to have been suggested to the Japanese
by the introduction of
Christianity into the region, although
similar types of punishment had been used as early as the Kamakura
period. Known in Japanese as haritsuke (磔), crucifixion was used in
Japan before and during the Tokugawa Shogunate. Several related
crucifixion techniques were used. Petra Schmidt, in "Capital
Punishment in Japan", writes:
Execution by crucifixion included, first of all, hikimawashi (i.e,
being paraded about town on horseback); then the unfortunate was tied
to a cross made from one vertical and two horizontal poles. The cross
was raised, the convict speared several times from two sides, and
eventually killed with a final thrust through the throat. The corpse
was left on the cross for three days. If one condemned to crucifixion
died in prison, his body was pickled and the punishment executed on
the dead body. Under Toyotomi Hideyoshi, one of the great 16th-century
unifiers, crucifixion upside down (i.e, sakasaharitsuke) was
frequently used. Water crucifixion (mizuharitsuke) awaited mostly
Christians: a cross was raised at low tide; when the high tide came,
the convict was submerged under water up to the head, prolonging death
for many days
The Twenty Six Martyrs of Japan
In 1597 twenty-six
Christian Martyrs were nailed to crosses at
Nagasaki, Japan. Among those executed were Saints Paulo Miki, Philip
of Jesus and Pedro Bautista, a Spanish
Franciscan who had worked about
ten years in the Philippines. The executions marked the beginning of a
long history of persecution of
Christianity in Japan, which continued
until its decriminalization in 1871.
Crucifixion was used as a punishment for prisoners of war during World
War II. Ringer Edwards, an Australian prisoner of war, was crucified
for killing cattle, along with two others. He survived 63 hours before
being let down.
In Burma, crucifixion was a central element in several execution
rituals. Felix Carey, a missionary in
Burma from 1806 to 1812,
wrote the following:
Four or five persons, after being nailed through their hands and feet
to a scaffold, had first their tongues cut out, then their mouths slit
open from ear to ear, then their ears cut off, and finally their
bellies ripped open.
Six people were crucified in the following manner: their hands and
feet nailed to a scaffold; then their eyes were extracted with a blunt
hook; and in this condition they were left to expire; two died in the
course of four days; the rest were liberated, but died of
mortification on the sixth or seventh day.
Four persons were crucified, viz. not nailed but tied with their hands
and feet stretched out at full length, in an erect posture. In this
posture they were to remain till death; every thing they wished to eat
was ordered them with a view to prolong their lives and misery. In
cases like this, the legs and feet of the criminals begin to swell and
mortify at the expiration of three or four days; some are said to live
in this state for a fortnight, and expire at last from fatigue and
mortification. Those which I saw, were liberated at the end of three
or four days.
Poster showing a German soldier nailing a US soldier to a tree, as
American soldiers come to his rescue. Published in Manila by Bureau of
During World War I, there were persistent rumors that German soldiers
had crucified a Canadian soldier on a tree or barn door with bayonets
or combat knives. The event was initially reported in 1915 by Private
George Barrie of the 1st Canadian Division. Two investigations, one a
post-war official investigation, and the other an independent
investigation by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, concluded that
there was no evidence to support the story. However, British
Iain Overton in 2001 published an article claiming
that the story was true, identifying the soldier as Harry
Band. Overton's article was the basis for a 2002 episode of
Channel 4 documentary show Secret History.
It has been reported that crucifixion was used in several cases
against the German civil population of
East Prussia when it was
occupied by Soviet forces at the end of the Second World War.
Prisoner kneeling on chains, thumbs supporting arms, photographic
print on stereo card, Mukden, China (c. 1906)
Crucifixion is still used as a rare method of execution in some
countries. The punishment of crucifixion (șalb) imposed in Islamic
law is variously interpreted as exposure of the body after execution,
crucifixion followed by stabbing in the chest, or crucifixion for
three days, survivors of which are allowed to live.
Several people have been executed by crucifixion in
Saudi Arabia in
the 2000s, although on occasion they were first beheaded and then
crucified. Most recently, in March 2013, a robber was set to be
executed by being crucified for three days. However, the method
Ali Mohammed Baqir al-Nimr
Ali Mohammed Baqir al-Nimr was arrested in 2012 when he was 17 years
old for taking part in an anti-government protests in Saudi Arabia
during the Arab Spring. In May 2014, Ali al-Nimr was sentenced to
be publicly beheaded and crucified.
Theoretically, crucifixion is still one of the
Hadd punishments in
Iran. If a crucified person were to survive three days of
crucifixion, that person would be allowed to live. Execution by
hanging is described as follows: "In execution by hanging, the
prisoner will be hung on a hanging truss which should look like a
cross, while his (her) back is toward the cross, and (s)he faces the
Mecca [in Saudi Arabia], and his (her) legs are vertical
and distant from the ground."
Sudan's penal code, based upon the government's interpretation of
shari'a, includes execution followed by crucifixion as
a penalty. When, in 2002, 88 people were sentenced to death for crimes
relating to murder, armed robbery, and participating in ethnic
Amnesty International wrote that they could be executed by
either hanging or crucifixion.
Crucifixion is a legal punishment in the United Arab
On 5 February 2015 the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the
Child (CRC) reported that the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant
(ISIL) had committed "several cases of mass executions of boys, as
well as reports of beheadings, crucifixions of children and burying
On 30 April 2014 Islamic extremists carried out a total of seven
public executions in Raqqa, northern Syria. The pictures,
originally posted to
Twitter by a student at Oxford University, were
retweeted by a
Twitter account owned by a known member of the Islamic
State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) causing major media outlets to
incorrectly attribute the crucifixions to the militant group. In
most of these cases of "crucifixion" the victims are shot first then
their bodies are displayed but there have also been reports of
"crucifixion" preceding shootings or decapitations as well as a
case where a man was said to have been "crucified alive for eight
hours" with no indication of whether he died.
Other terrorist incidents
The human rights group Karen Women Organization documented a case of
Tatmadaw forces crucifying several Karen villagers in 2000 in the
Dooplaya District in Burma's Kayin State.
On 22 January 2014, an anti-government activist and member of
AutoMaidan was kidnapped by unknown parties and tortured for a week.
His captors kept him in the dark, beat him, cut off a piece of his
ear, and nailed him to a cross. His captors ultimately left him in a
Kiev after forcing him to confess to being an American
spy and accepting money from the US Embassy in Ukraine to organize
protests against then-President Viktor Yanukovych.
In 2015, a video surfaced depicting members of the Azov Battalion, an
official regiment of the Ukrainian Armed Forces, allegedly crucifying
a separatist rebel of Novorossiya and burning him alive. Therein they
declare, "all the separatists, traitors of Ukraine and militia
fighters [sic] will be treated the same". The
Azov Battalion is
associated with neo-Nazism and flaunts symbols associated with the SS
such as the wolfsangel and black sun. They allegedly sent the video to
the pro-Russian hacktivist organization CyberBerkut, which responded
by threatening to take no Ukrainian Army soldiers or militia fighters
as prisoners from then on. The authenticity of this video is
In culture and arts
Crucifixion in the arts
Sculpture construction: Crucifixion, homage to Mondrian, by Barbara
Hepworth, United Kingdom (2007)
Allegory of Poland (1914-1918), postcard by Sergey Solomko
The Holy Cross, article of the Novine (September 3, 1933)
Car-float at the feast of the Virgin of San Juan de los Lagos, Colonia
Mexico City (2011)
Antisemitic American political cartoon, Sound Money magazine, April
15, 1896 issue
Protester tied to a cross in Washington D.C. (1970)
As a devotional practice
Devotional crucifixion in San Fernando, Pampanga, Philippines, Easter
Crucifixion in the Philippines
Catholic Church frowns upon self-crucifixion as a form of
devotion: "Penitential practices leading to self-crucifixion with
nails are not to be encouraged." Nevertheless, the practice is
In the Philippines, some Catholics are voluntarily, non-lethally
crucified for a limited time on
Good Friday to imitate the sufferings
of Christ. Pre-sterilised nails are driven through the palm of the
hand between the bones, while there is a footrest to which the feet
are nailed. Rolando del Campo, a carpenter in Pampanga, vowed to be
Good Friday for 15 years if God would carry his wife
through a difficult childbirth, while in San Pedro Cutud, Ruben
Enaje has been crucified 27 times. The Church in the Philippines
has repeatedly voiced disapproval of crucifixions and
self-flagellation, while the government has noted that it cannot deter
devotees. The Department of Health insists that participants in the
rites should have tetanus shots and that the nails used should be
In other cases, a crucifixion is only simulated within a passion play,
as in the ceremonial re-enactment that has been performed yearly in
the town of Iztapalapa, on the outskirts of Mexico City, since
1833, and in the more famous Oberammergau Passion Play. Also,
since at least the mid-19th century, a group of flagellants in New
Mexico, called Hermanos de Luz ("Brothers of Light"), have annually
conducted reenactments of Christ's crucifixion during Holy Week, in
which a penitent is tied—but not nailed—to a cross.
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The rebel slaves of the Third Servile War: Between 73 BC and 71 BC a
band of slaves, eventually numbering about 120,000, under the (at
least partial) leadership of
Spartacus were in open revolt against the
Roman republic. The rebellion was eventually crushed and, while
Spartacus himself most likely died in the final battle of the revolt,
approximately 6,000 of his followers were crucified along the
Appian Way between Capua and Rome as a warning to any
other would-be rebels.
Jesus of Nazareth: his death by crucifixion under
Pontius Pilate (c.
AD 30 or 33), recounted in the four 1st-century canonical Gospels, is
referred to repeatedly as something well known in the earlier letters
of Saint Paul, for instance, five times in his First Letter to the
Corinthians, written in 57 AD (1:13, 1:18, 1:23, 2:2, 2:8). Pilate was
the Roman governor of
Iudaea province at the time, and he is
explicitly linked with the condemnation of Jesus not only by the
Gospels but also by Tacitus, (see Responsibility for the death of
Jesus for details). The civil charge was a claim to be King of the
Christian apostle, who according to tradition was
crucified upside-down at his own request (hence the
Cross of St.
Peter), because he did not feel worthy enough to die the same way as
Christian apostle and Saint Peter's brother, who is
traditionally said to have been crucified on an X-shaped cross (hence
the St. Andrew's Cross).
Simeon of Jerusalem: second Bishop of Jerusalem, crucified in either
106 or 107.
Mani: the founder of Manicheanism, he was depicted by followers as
having died by crucifixion in 274 AD.
Little Saint Hugh of Lincoln: an English boy whose disappearance in
1255 prompted a blood libel against the local Jews. A Jewish man was
tortured until he confessed to killing the child. The story of Little
Saint Hugh became well known through medieval ballad poetry.
Eulalia of Barcelona
Eulalia of Barcelona was venerated as a saint. According to her
hagiography, she was stripped naked, tortured, and ultimately
crucified on an X-shaped cross.
Wilgefortis was venerated as a saint and represented as a crucified
woman, however her legend comes from a misinterpretation of a
full-clothed crucifix known as the Volto Santo of Lucca.
List of methods of capital punishment
Crucifixion of Jesus
Seven Sorrows of Mary
^ It is a graffito found in a taberna (hostel for wayfarers) in
Puteoli, dating to the time of
Hadrian (late 1st century to
early 2nd century AD). An inscription over the person's left shoulder
reads "Ἀλκίμιλα" (Alkimila), a female name. It is not clear,
however, whether the inscription was written by the same person who
drew the picture, or added by another person later. It is also not
known whether the grafitto is intended to depict an actual event, as
distinguished from, perhaps, the writer's desire for someone to be
crucified, or as a jest. As such, the grafitto does not itself provide
conclusive evidence of female crucifixion.
^ a b Josephus. The Jewish War. 5.11.1. , Perseus Project
^ Edwards, William D. (March 21, 1986). "On the Physical Death of
Jesus Christ". JAMA. 255 (11): 1455.
^ Byard, Roger W. (March 5, 2016). "Forensic and historical aspects of
crucifixion". Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology. 12 (2):
^ LSJ apotumpanizo ἀποτυμπα^ν-ίζω (later
ἀποτύμπα^ν-τυπ- UPZ119 (2nd century BC), POxy.1798.1.7),
A. crucify on a plank, D.8.61,9.61:—Pass., Lys.13.56, D.19.137,
Arist. Rh. 1383a5, Beros. ap. J.Ap.1.20. 2. generally, destroy,
^ LSJ anastauro ἀνασταυρ-όω, = foreg., Hdt.3.125, 6.30,
al.; identical with ἀνασκολοπίζω, 9.78:—Pass., Th.
1.110, Pl.Grg.473c. II. in Rom. times, affix to a cross, crucify, Plb.
1.11.5, al., Plu.Fab.6, al. 2. crucify afresh, Ep.Hebr.6.6.
Plutarch Fabius Maximus 6.3 "Hannibal now perceived the mistake in
his position, and its peril, and crucified the native guides who were
responsible for it."
^ Polybius 1.11.5  Καρχηδόνιοι δὲ τὸν μὲν
στρατηγὸν αὐτῶν ἀνεσταύρωσαν,
νομίσαντες αὐτὸν ἀβούλως, ἅμα δ᾽
ἀνάνδρως προέσθαι τὴν ἀκρόπολιν:[in
English?] Historiae. Polybius. Theodorus Büttner-Wobst after L.
Dindorf. Leipzig. Teubner. 1893-.
^ "Online Etymology Dictionary, "cross"". Etymonline.com. Retrieved
^ Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A
Latin Dictionary: crux, ŭcis,
f. (m., Enn. ap. Non. p. 195, 13; Gracch. ap. Fest. s. v. masculino,
p. 150, 24, and 151, 12 Müll.) [perh. kindred with circus]. I. Lit.
A. In gen., a tree, frame, or other wooden instruments of execution,
on which criminals were impaled or hanged, Sen. Prov. 3, 10; Cic. Rab.
Perd. 3, 10 sqq.— B. In partic., a cross, Ter. And. 3, 5, 15; Cic.
Verr. 2, 1, 3, § 7; 2, 1, 4, § 9; id. Pis. 18, 42; id. Fin. 5, 30,
92; Quint. 4, 2, 17; Tac. A. 15, 44; Hor. S. 1, 3, 82; 2, 7, 47; id.
Ep. 1, 16, 48 et saep.: "dignus fuit qui malo cruce periret, Gracch.
ap. Fest. l. l.: pendula", the pole of a carriage, Stat. S. 4, 3, 28.
^ "Collins English Dictionary, "crucify"". Collins. 31 December 2011.
Retrieved 12 December 2012.
^ "Compact Oxford English Dictionary, "crucify"". Oxford University
Press. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
^ "Webster New World College Dictionary, "crucify"".
yourdictionary.com/. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
^ "Online Etymology Dictionary, "crucify"". Etymonline.com. Retrieved
^ Dialogue "To Marcia on Consolation", 6.20.3 at The
Latin Library in
^ a b Fallow, Thomas Macall (1911). "
Cross and Crucifixion". In
Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 7 (11th ed.). Cambridge
University Press. p. 506.
^ Ball, DA (1989). "The crucifixion and death of a man called Jesus".
Journal of the Mississippi State Medical Association. 30 (3): 77–83.
^ "Annales 2:32.2". Thelatinlibrary.com. Retrieved 2009-12-19.
^ "Annales 15:60.1". Thelatinlibrary.com. Retrieved 2009-12-19.
^ Flavius, Josephus. "Jewish War, Book V Chapter 11". ccel.org.
Retrieved 1 June 2015.
^ Mishna, Shabbath 6.10: see David W. Chapman, Ancient Jewish and
Christian Perceptions of
Crucifixion (Mohn Siebeck 2008
ISBN 978-31-6149579-3), p. 182
^ a b c Seneca, Dialogue "To Marcia on Consolation", in Moral Essays,
6.20.3, trans. John W. Basore, The Loeb Classical Library (Cambridge,
Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1946) 2:69
^ Wikisource:Of Consolation: To Marcia#XX.
^ Licona, Michael (2010). The Resurrection of Jesus: A New
Historiographical Approach. InterVarsity Press. p. 304.
ISBN 978-0-8308-2719-0. OCLC 620836940.
^ Conway, Colleen M. (2008). Behold the Man: Jesus and Greco-Roman
Oxford University Press. p. 67.
ISBN 978-0-19-532532-4. (citing Cicero, pro Rabirio
Perduellionis Reo 5.16).
^ Stott, John R. (1986). The
Cross of Christ. InterVarsity Press.
p. 24. ISBN 0-87784-998-6. (citing Cicero, Against
Verres II.v.66, para. 170)
^ a b Koskenniemi, Erkki; Kirsi Nisula; Jorma Toppari (2005). "Wine
Mixed with Myrrh (Mark 15.23) and Crurifragium (John 19.31-32): Two
Details of the Passion Narratives". Journal for the Study of the New
Testament. SAGE Publications. 27 (4): 379–391.
doi:10.1177/0142064X05055745. Retrieved 2008-06-13.
^ Justus Lipsius: De cruce, p. 47
^ Barclay, William (1998). The Apostles' Creed. p. 78.
^ "The ... oldest depiction of a crucifixion ... was
uncovered by archaeologists more than a century ago on the Palatine
Hill in Rome. It is a second-century graffiti scratched into a wall
that was part of the imperial palace complex. It includes a
caption — not by a Christian, but by someone taunting and
deriding Christians and the crucifixions they underwent. It shows
crude stick-figures of a boy reverencing his 'God', who has the head
of a jackass and is upon a cross with arms spread wide and with hands
nailed to the crossbeam. Here we have a Roman sketch of a Roman
crucifixion, and it is in the traditional cross shape." Clayton F.
Bower, Jr. "
^ a b Cook, John Granger (2012). "
Crucifixion as Spectacle in Roman
Campania". Novum Testamentum. 54 (1): 60, 92–98.
^ "Why do Watch Tower publications show Jesus on a stake with hands
over his head instead of on the traditional cross?". Watch Tower Bible
and Tract Society of Pennsylvania.
^ Epistle of Barnabas, Chapter 9. The document no doubt belongs to the
end of the 1st or beginning of the 2nd century.
^ "The very form of the cross, too, has five extremities, two in
length, two in breadth, and one in the middle, on which [last] the
person rests who is fixed by the nails" (
Irenaeus (c. 130–202),
Adversus Haereses II, xxiv, 4 ).
Justin Martyr (c. 100–165)
Dialogue with Trypho
Dialogue with Trypho "Chapter XC –
The stretched-out hands of Moses signified beforehand the cross",
"Chapter XCI" "For the one beam is placed upright, from which the
highest extremity is raised up into a horn, when the other beam is
fitted on to it, and the ends appear on both sides as horns joined on
to the one horn."
"Chapter CXI" "stretching out his hands, remained till evening on the
hill, his hands being supported; and this reveals a type of no other
thing than of the cross"
^ In the
Homeric Greek of the
Iliad XX, 478–480, a spear-point is
said to have pierced the χεῖρ "where the sinews of the elbow
join" (ἵνα τε ξενέχουσι τένοντες /
ἀγκῶνος, τῇ τόν γε φίλης διὰ χειρὸς
ἔπειρεν / αἰχμῇ χακλκείῃ).
^ χείρ. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English
Lexicon at the Perseus Project
^ Wynne-Jones, Jonathan (16 March 2008). "Why the BBC thinks Christ
did not die this way". London: Daily Telegraph. Retrieved
^ "a brief news article". MSNBC. 2005-03-25. Retrieved
^ Viladesau, Richard (2006). The beauty of the cross: the passion of
Christ in theology and the arts, from the catacombs to the eve of the
Oxford University Press. p. 21.
ISBN 978-0-19-518811-0. OCLC 58791208.
^ a b c d e f g h i j "Crucifixion". Jewish Encyclopedia. Retrieved
^ a b "Some Notes on Crucifixion" (PDF). Archived from the original
(PDF) on 2011-07-18. Retrieved 2009-12-19.
^ David W. Chapman, Ancient Jewish and
Christian perceptions of
crucifixion (Mohr Siebeck, 2008), p. 86–89
^ a b c "Joe Zias,
Crucifixion in Antiquity — The
Anthropological Evidence". Joezias.com. Archived from the original on
2004-03-11. Retrieved 2009-12-19.
^ "The Bioarchaeology of Crucifixion". PoweredbyOsteons.org. Retrieved
^ Maslen, Matthew; Piers D Mitchell (April 2006). "Medical theories on
the cause of death in crucifixion". Journal of the Royal Society of
Medicine. 99 (4): 185–188. doi:10.1258/jrsm.99.4.185.
PMC 1420788 . PMID 16574970.
^ William Stroud; Sir James Young Simpson (1871). Treatise on the
Physical Cause of the Death of Christ and Its Relation to the
Principles and Practice of Christianity. Hamilton, Adams &
Company. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
^ Davis, CT (1962). "THE CRUCIFIXION OF JESUS. THE PASSION OF CHRIST
FROM A MEDICAL POINT OF VIEW". Arizona Medicine. 22: 182.
^ Frederick T. Zugibe (30 April 2005). The
Crucifixion of Jesus: A
Forensic Inquiry. Rowman & Littlefield.
ISBN 978-1-59077-070-2. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
^ Wijffels, F (2000). "Death on the cross: did the Turin Shroud once
envelop a crucified body?". Br Soc Turin Shroud Newsl. 52 (3).
^ Pierre Barbet (1953). A Doctor at Calvary: The Passion of Our Lord
Jesus Christ as Described by a Surgeon. Kenedy. Retrieved 12 March
^ Edwards, WD; Gabel WJ; Hosmer FE (1986). "On the physical cause of
death of Jesus Christ" (PDF). Journal of the American Medical
Association. 255 (11): 1455–1463.
^ Brenner, B (2005). "Did
Jesus Christ die of pulmonary embolism?". J
Thromb Haemost. 3: 1–2.
^ Edwards WD, Gabel WJ, Hosmer FE (March 1986). "On the physical death
of Jesus Christ". JAMA. 255 (11): 1455–63.
CiteSeerX 10.1.1.621.365 .
doi:10.1001/jama.1986.03370110077025. PMID 3512867.
^ a b Retief FP, Cilliers L (December 2003). "The history and
pathology of crucifixion". South African Medical Journal. 93 (12):
938–41. PMID 14750495.
^ Columbia University page of Pierre Barbet on Crucifixion
^ Zugibe, Frederick T (1988). The cross and the shroud: a medical
inquiry into the crucifixion. New York: Paragon House.
ISBN 0-913729-75-2. [page needed]
^ Zugibe, Frederick T. (2005). The
Crucifixion Of Jesus: A Forensic
Inquiry. New York: M. Evans and Company.
ISBN 1-59077-070-6. [page needed]
^ Maslen, MW; Mitchell, PD (2006). "Medical theories on the cause of
death in crucifixion". J R Soc Med. 99 (4): 185–8.
doi:10.1258/jrsm.99.4.185. PMC 1420788 .
^ The Life Of Flavius Josephus, 75.
^ Tzaferis, V. 1970 Jewish Tombs at and near Giv'at ha-Mivtar. Israel
Exploration Journal Vol.20 pp. 18-32.
^ Haas, Nicu. "Anthropological observations on the skeletal remains
from Giv'at ha-Mivtar", Israel Exploration Journal 20 (1-2), 1970:
38-59; Tzaferis, Vassilios. "Crucifixion – The Archaeological
Evidence", Biblical Archaeology Review 11 (February, 1985): 44–53;
Zias, Joseph. "The Crucified Man from Giv'at Ha-Mivtar: A
Reappraisal", Israel Exploration Journal 35 (1), 1985: 22–27;
Crucifixion in the ancient world and the folly of the
message of the cross (Augsburg Fortress, 1977).
ISBN 0-8006-1268-X. See also Spectacles of Death in Ancient Rome,
by Donald G. Kyle p. 181, note 93
^ by Paul L. Maier (1997). In the Fullness of Time. Google Books.
^ Zias J. & Sekeles, E. (1985). "The Crucified Man from Giv'at
ha-Mivtar: A Reappraisal". Israel Exploration Journal (35).
pp. 22–27. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
^ Stavros, Scolops (σταῦρός, σκόλοψ). The cross;
^ Translation by Aubrey de Selincourt. The original, "σανίδα
προσπασσαλεύσαντες, ἀνεκρέμασαν ...
Τούτου δὲ τοῦ Ἀρταύκτεω τοῦ
ἀνακρεμασθέντος ...", is translated by Henry Cary
(Bohn's Classical Library:
Herodotus Literally Translated. London, G.
Bell and Sons 1917, pp. 591–592) as: "They nailed him to a
plank and hoisted him aloft ... this
Artayctes who was hoisted
^ W.W. How and J. Wells, A Commentary on
Herodotus (Clarendon Press,
Oxford 1912), vol. 2, p. 336
^ See Mishnah, Sanhedrin 7:1, translated in Jacob Neusner, The
Mishnah: A New Translation 591 (1988), supra note 8, at 595-96
(indicating that court ordered execution by stoning, burning,
decapitation, or strangulation only)
^ Levi,Aramaic Testament of Levi 4Q541 column 6
^ Shi, Wenhua (2008). Paul's Message of the
Cross As Body Language.
Mohr Siebeck. p. 46. ISBN 978-3-16-149706-3.
^ VanderKam, James C. (2012). The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Bible.
Eerdmans. p. 110. ISBN 978-0-8028-6679-0.
^ Quintus Curtius Rufus, History of
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great of Macedonia
^ Gabriel, Richard A. (2011). Hannibal. Potomac Books.
^ Liddell, Henry George (1855). A History of Rome. Oxford University
Press. p. 302.
^ Waterfield, Robin (2010). Polybius. The Histories. Oxford University
Press. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-19-953470-8.
^ "Livy I.26 and the Supplicium de More Maiorum".
Penelope.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 2009-12-19.
^ "Apologia, IX, 1". Grtbooks.com. Retrieved 2009-12-19.
^ After quoting a poem by
Maecenas that speaks of preferring life to
death even when life is burdened with all the disadvantages of old age
or even with acute torture ("vel acuta si sedeam cruce"), Seneca
disagrees with the sentiment, saying death would be better for a
crucified person hanging from the patibulum: "I should deem him most
despicable had he wished to live to the point of crucifixion ...
Is it worth so much to weigh down upon one's own wound, and hang
stretched out from a patibulum? ... Is anyone found who, after
being fastened to that accursed wood, already weakened, already
deformed, swelling with ugly weals on shoulders and chest, with many
reasons for dying even before getting to the cross, would wish to
prolong a life-breath that is about to experience so many torments?"
("Contemptissimum putarem, si vivere vellet usque ad crucem ...
Est tanti vulnus suum premere et patibulo pendere districtum ...
Invenitur, qui velit adactus ad illud infelix lignum, iam debilis, iam
pravus et in foedum scapularum ac pectoris tuber elisus, cui multae
moriendi causae etiam citra crucem fuerant, trahere animam tot
tormenta tracturam?" - Letter 101, 12-14)
Plautus Miles gloriosus Mason Hammond, Arthur M. Mack
- 1997 Page 109, "The patibulum (in the next line) was a crossbar
which the convicted criminal carried on his shoulders, with his arms
fastened to it, to the place for ... Hoisted up on an upright
post, the patibulum became the crossbar of the cross"
^ Encyclopædia Britannica. "Encyclopædia Britannica Online:
crucifixion". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2009-12-19.
^ Dictionary of Images and Symbols in Counselling By William Stewart
1998 ISBN 1-85302-351-5, p. 120
^ "Archaeology of the Bible". Bible-archaeology.info. Retrieved
^ a b Robison, John C. (June 2002). "
Crucifixion in the Roman World:
The Use of Nails at the Time of Christ". Studia Antiqua. 2.
^ a b c d e f Zias, Joseph (1998). "
Crucifixion in Antiquity: The
Evidence". www.mercaba.org. Retrieved March 10, 2018.
^ Matthew 27:35, Mark 15:24, Luke 23:34, John 19:23-25
^ a b c d Zias, Joseph. "
Crucifixion in Antiquity: The Anthropological
Evidence". Retrieved March 9, 2018.
^ a b c d e f g Samuelsson, Gunnar (2013).
Crucifixion in Antiquity:
An Inquiry into the Background and Significance of the New Testament
Terminology of Crucifixion. Mohr Siebeck. p. 7.
^ a b Barth, Markus; Blanke, Helmut (2000). The Letter to Philemon: A
New Translation with Notes and Commentary. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing.
p. 16. ISBN 9780802838292.
^ Barry, Strauss (2009). The
Spartacus War. Simon & Schuster.
p. 193. ISBN 9781439158395.
^ Josephus. Antiquities of the Jews. 18.3.4. .
^ Tacitus. Annals, Book 14, 42-45.
^ Barry, Strauss (2009). The
Spartacus War. Simon & Schuster.
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has no affiliation with ISIS. We regret the error.
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