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The Crown
The Crown
of the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
(Polish: Korona Królestwa Polskiego, Latin: Corona Regni Poloniae), or simply the Polish Crown or just the Crown, is the common name for the historic (but unconsolidated) Late Middle Ages
Middle Ages
territorial possessions of the King of Poland, including Poland
Poland
proper. The Polish Crown was at the helm of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Union of Lublin 1.2 Constitution of 1791

2 Politics

2.1 Geography

3 Provinces

3.1 Greater Poland
Poland
Province 3.2 Lesser Poland
Poland
Province 3.3 Royal Prussia
Royal Prussia
Province (1569–1772)

4 Other holdings or fiefs

4.1 Towns in Spisz (Szepes) County (1412–1795) 4.2 Duchy of Siewierz
Duchy of Siewierz
(1443–1795) 4.3 Prince-Bishopric of Warmia
Prince-Bishopric of Warmia
(1466–1772) 4.4 Lauenburg and Bütow Land 4.5 Duchy of Livonia 4.6 Duchy of Courland
Duchy of Courland
and Semigallia 4.7 Duchy of Prussia
Duchy of Prussia
(1525–1618)

5 See also 6 Notes 7 References

History[edit]

Banner of the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
until the 15th century

The kingdom has been traditionally dated back to c. 966, when Mieszko I and his pagan Slavic realm joined Christian
Christian
Europe (Baptism of Poland), thus culminating the process of creation of the state of Poland
Poland
started by his Polan Piast
Piast
dynasty ancestors. His oldest son and successor, Prince Bolesław I Chrobry, Duke of Poland, became the first crowned King of Poland
King of Poland
in 1025. Union of Lublin[edit] Main article: Union of Lublin The Union of Lublin
Union of Lublin
(Polish: unia lubelska); (Lithuanian: Liublino unija) created the single state of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth on July 1, 1569 with a real union between the Crown and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Before then, the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
only had a personal union. The Union of Lublin
Lublin
also made the Crown an elective monarchy; this in turn ended the Jagiellonian dynasty
Jagiellonian dynasty
once Henry de Valois was elected on May 16, 1573 as monarch. On May 30, 1574, two months after Henry de Valois was coronated King of Poland
Poland
and Grand Duke of Lithuania on February 22, 1574, he was made King of France, and was coronated King of France on February 13, 1575. He left the throne of the Crown on May 12, 1575, two months after he was coronated King of France. Anna Jagiellon
Anna Jagiellon
was elected after him. Constitution of 1791[edit] Main article: Constitution of May 3, 1791

First page of the original Constitution

The Constitution of May 3, 1791
Constitution of May 3, 1791
is the second-oldest, codified national constitution in history, and the oldest codified national constitution in Europe; the oldest being the United States Constitution. It was called the Government Act (Ustawa Rządowa) Drafting for it began on October 6, 1788 and lasted 32 months. Stanisław II Augustus
Stanisław II Augustus
was the principal author of the Constitution, and he wanted the Crown to be a constitutional monarchy, similar to the one in Great Britain. On May 3, 1791, the Great Sejm
Great Sejm
convened, and they read and adopted the new constitution. It enfranchised the bourgeoisie, separated the government into three branches, abolished liberum veto, and stopped the abuses of the Repnin Sejm. It made Poland
Poland
a constitutional monarchy with the King as the head of the executive branch with his cabinet of ministers, called the Guardians of the Laws. The legislative branch was bicameral with an elected Sejm
Sejm
and an appointed Senate; the King was given the power to break ties in the Senate, and the head of the Sejm
Sejm
was the Sejm Marshal. The Crown
The Crown
Tribunal, the highest appellate court in the Crown, was reformed. The Sejm
Sejm
would elect their judges for the Sejm
Sejm
Court (the Crown's parliamentary court) from their deputies (posłowie). The Government Act angered Catherine II
Catherine II
who believed that Poland needed permission from the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
for any political reform; she argued that Poland
Poland
had fallen pray to radical Jacobinism that was prominent in France at the time. Russia
Russia
invaded the Commonwealth in 1792.[2][3] The Constitution was in place for less than 19 months; it was annulled by the Grodno Sejm.[4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12] Politics[edit]

Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, 1635

High-level administrative map of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
and its fiefdoms in 1619 (superimposed on the modern map of Central and Eastern Europe).    The Crown
The Crown
possessions of the Kingdom of Poland   Grand Duchy of Lithuania.    Duchy of Prussia
Duchy of Prussia
(semi-independent Polish fiefdom).    Duchy of Courland
Duchy of Courland
and Semigallia, Lithuanian fief.   Duchy of Livonia.

The creation of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
was a milestone in the evolution of Polish statehood and the European identity. It represented the concept of the Polish kingdom (nation) as distinctly separate from the person of the monarch.[13] The introduction of the concept marked the transformation of the Polish government from a patrimonial monarchy (a hereditary monarchy) to a "quasi-constitutional monarchy" (monarchia stanowa)[13] in which power resided in the nobility, the clergy and (to some extent) the working class, also referred to as an "elective monarchy". A related concept that evolved soon afterward was that of Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
("Commonwealth"), which was an alternate to the Crown as a name for the Polish state after the Treaty of Lublin
Lublin
in 1569.[13] The Crown
The Crown
of the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
was also related to other symbols of Poland, such as the capital (Kraków), the Polish coat of arms
Polish coat of arms
and the flag of Poland.[13] Geography[edit] The concept of the Crown also had geographical aspects, particularly related to the indivisibility of the Polish Crown's territory.[13] It can be also seen as a unit of administrative division, the territories under direct administration of the Polish state from the Middle Ages to the late 18th century (currently part of Poland, Ukraine
Ukraine
and some border counties of Russia, Belarus, Moldova, Slovakia, and Romania, among others). Parts formed part at the early Kingdom of Poland, then, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
until its final collapse in 1795. At the same time, the Crown also referred to all lands that the Polish state (not the monarch) could claim to have the right to rule over, including those that were not within Polish borders.[13] The term distinguishes those territories federated with the Crown Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
(     ) from various fiefdom territories (which enjoyed varying degrees of autonomy or semi-independence from the King), such as the Duchy of Prussia (     ) and the Duchy of Courland (     ). Prior to the 1569 Union of Lublin, Crown territories may be understood as those of Poland
Poland
proper, inhabited by Poles, or other areas under the sovereignty of Polish nobility. With the Union of Lublin, however, most of present-day Ukraine
Ukraine
(which had a negligible Polish population and had until then been governed by the Lithuania), passed onto Polish administration, thus becoming Crown territory. During that period, a term for a Pole from the Crown territory was koroniarz (plural: koroniarze) - or Crownlander(s) in English - derived from Korona - the Crown. Depending on context, the Polish "Crown" may also refer to "The Crown", a term used to distinguish the personal influence and private assets of the Commonwealth's current monarch from government authority and property. It often meant a distinction between persons loyal to the elected king (royalists) and persons loyal to Polish magnates (confederates). Provinces[edit] Crown lands were divided into two provinces: Lesser Poland
Poland
(Polish: Małopolska) and Greater Poland
Poland
(Polish: Wielkopolska). These were further divided into administrative units known as voivodeships (the Polish names of the voivodships and towns are shown below in brackets). Greater Poland
Poland
Province[edit] Main article: Greater Poland
Poland
Province of the Polish Crown

(in Polish) Voivodeships of the Commonwealth of the Two Nations

(in Polish) (in English) Map showing voivodeships of the Commonwealth of the Two Nations

Brześć Kujawski
Brześć Kujawski
Voivodeship
Voivodeship
(województwo brzesko-kujawskie, Brześć Kujawski) Gniezno
Gniezno
Voivodeship
Voivodeship
(województwo gnieźnieńskie, Gniezno) from 1768 Inowrocław
Inowrocław
Voivodeship
Voivodeship
(województwo inowrocławskie, Inowrocław) Kalisz
Kalisz
Voivodeship
Voivodeship
(województwo kaliskie, Kalisz) Łęczyca
Łęczyca
Voivodeship
Voivodeship
(województwo łęczyckie, Łęczyca) Mazovian Voivodeship
Voivodeship
(województwo mazowieckie, of Mazowsze, Warsaw) Poznań
Poznań
Voivodeship
Voivodeship
(województwo poznańskie, Poznań) Płock
Płock
Voivodeship
Voivodeship
(województwo płockie, Płock) Podlaskie Voivodeship
Voivodeship
(województwo podlaskie, Drohiczyn) Rawa Voivodeship
Voivodeship
(województwo rawskie, Rawa) Sieradz
Sieradz
Voivodeship
Voivodeship
(województwo sieradzkie, Sieradz) Prince-Bishopric
Prince-Bishopric
of Warmia

Lesser Poland
Poland
Province[edit] Main article: Lesser Poland
Poland
Province of the Polish Crown

Bełz
Bełz
Voivodeship
Voivodeship
(województwo bełzkie, Bełz) Bracław Voivodeship
Voivodeship
(województwo bracławskie, Bracław) Czernichów Voivodeship
Voivodeship
(województwo czernichowskie, Czernichów) Kijów Voivodeship
Voivodeship
(województwo kijowskie, Kijów) Kraków
Kraków
Voivodeship
Voivodeship
(województwo krakowskie, Kraków) Lublin
Lublin
Voivodeship
Voivodeship
(województwo lubelskie, Lublin) Podole Voivodeship
Voivodeship
(województwo podolskie, Kamieniec Podolski) Ruś Voivodeship
Voivodeship
(województwo ruskie, Lwów) Sandomierz
Sandomierz
Voivodeship
Voivodeship
(województwo sandomierskie, Sandomierz) Wołyń Voivodeship
Voivodeship
(województwo wołyńskie, Łuck) Duchy of Siewierz
Duchy of Siewierz
(Siewierz)

Royal Prussia
Royal Prussia
Province (1569–1772)[edit] Main article: Royal Prussia Royal Prussia
Royal Prussia
(Polish: Prusy Królewskie) was a province of the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
from 1466 and then of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1569 to 1772. Royal Prussia
Royal Prussia
included Pomerelia, Chełmno Land
Chełmno Land
(Kulmerland), Malbork Voivodeship
Voivodeship
(Marienburg), Gdańsk (Danzig), Toruń
Toruń
(Thorn), and Elbląg
Elbląg
(Elbing). Polish historian Henryk Wisner writes that Royal Prussia
Royal Prussia
belonged to the Province of Greater Poland.[14] Other holdings or fiefs[edit] Towns in Spisz (Szepes) County (1412–1795)[edit] Main article: Szepes_county § The Pawning of Szepes towns and the Province of 13 Szepes Towns As one of the terms of the Treaty of Lubowla, the Hungarian crown exchanged, for a loan of sixty times the amount of 37,000 Prague groschen (approximately seven tonnes of pure silver), 16 rich salt-producing towns in the area of Spisz (Zips), as well as a right to incorporate them into Poland
Poland
until the debt was repaid. The towns affected were: Biała, Lubica, Wierzbów, Spiska Sobota, Poprad, Straże, Spiskie Włochy, Nowa Wieś, Spiska Nowa Wieś, Ruszkinowce, Wielka, Spiskie Podgrodzie, Maciejowce, Twarożne. Duchy of Siewierz
Duchy of Siewierz
(1443–1795)[edit] Main article: Duchy of Siewierz Wenceslaus I sold the Duchy of Siewierz
Duchy of Siewierz
to the Archbishop of Kraków, Zbigniew Cardinal Oleśnicki, for 6,000 silver groats in 1443.[15] After that point it was considered to be associated with the Lesser Poland
Poland
Province[16] and was the only ecclesiastical duchy in Lesser Poland. The junction of the duchy with the Lesser Poland
Poland
Province was concluded in 1790 when the Great Sejm
Great Sejm
formally incorporated the Duchy, as part of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, into the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Prince-Bishopric of Warmia
Prince-Bishopric of Warmia
(1466–1772)[edit] Main article: Prince-Bishopric
Prince-Bishopric
of Warmia The Prince-Bishopric
Prince-Bishopric
of Warmia[17] (Polish: Biskupie Księstwo Warmińskie,[18]) was a semi independent ecclesiastical state, ruled by the incumbent ordinary of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Warmia, and a protectorate of Kingdom of Poland, later part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
after the Peace of Thorn (1466-1772)[19] Lauenburg and Bütow Land[edit] Main article: Lauenburg and Bütow Land After the childless death of the last of the House of Pomerania, Bogislaw XIV in 1637, Lauenburg and Bütow Land
Lauenburg and Bütow Land
again became a terra (land, ziemia) of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland. In 1641 it became part of the Pomeranian Voivodeship
Voivodeship
of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. After the 1657 Treaty of Bydgoszcz, which amended the Treaty of Wehlau, it was granted to the Hohenzollern dynasty of Brandenburg-Prussia
Brandenburg-Prussia
in return for her help against Sweden in the Swedish-Polish War
Swedish-Polish War
under the same favorable conditions the House of Pomerania had enjoyed before. Lauenburg and Bütow Land
Lauenburg and Bütow Land
was officially a Polish fiefdom until the First Partition of Poland
Poland
in 1772 when King Frederick II of Prussia
Frederick II of Prussia
incorporated the territory into Prussia
Prussia
and the subsequent Treaty of Warsaw
Warsaw
in 1773[20] made the former conditions obsolete. Duchy of Livonia[edit] Main article: Duchy of Livonia The Duchy of Livonia
Duchy of Livonia
was held as a condominium (joint domain) with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Duchy of Courland
Duchy of Courland
and Semigallia[edit] Main article: Duchy of Courland
Duchy of Courland
and Semigallia The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia
Duchy of Courland and Semigallia
was held as a condominium (joint domain) with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Duchy of Prussia
Duchy of Prussia
(1525–1618)[edit] Main article: Duchy of Prussia See also[edit]

Administrative division
Administrative division
of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen Lands of the Crown of Saint Wenceslaus

Notes[edit]

^ " Gaude Mater Polonia
Gaude Mater Polonia
Creation and History". Retrieved November 14, 2017.  ^ Henry Smith Williams (1904). The Historians' History of the World: Poland, The Balkans, Turkey, Minor eastern states, China, Japan. Outlook Company. pp. 88–91. Retrieved November 19, 2017.  ^ Jerzy Lukowski; W. H. Zawadzki (2001). A Concise History of Poland: Jerzy Lukowski and Hubert Zawadzki. Cambridge University Press. pp. 101–103. ISBN 978-0-521-55917-1. Retrieved November 19, 2017.  ^ Bill Moyers (May 5, 2009). Moyers on Democracy. Random House Digital, Inc. p. 68. ISBN 978-0-307-38773-8. Retrieved November 19, 2017.  ^ Sandra Lapointe; Jan Wolenski; Mathieu Marion (2009). The Golden Age of Polish Philosophy: Kazimierz Twardowski's Philosophical Legacy. Springer. p. 4. ISBN 978-90-481-2400-8. Retrieved November 19, 2017.  ^ Norman Davies (1996). Europe: A History. Oxford University Press. p. 699. ISBN 0-19-820171-0.  ^ Dorothy Carrington (July 1973). "The Corsican constitution of Pasquale Paoli (1755–1769)". The English Historical Review. 88 (348): 481. doi:10.1093/ehr/lxxxviii.cccxlviii.481. JSTOR 564654.  ^ Jacek Jędruch (1998). Constitutions, elections, and legislatures of Poland, 1493–1977: a guide to their history. EJJ Books. p. 175. ISBN 978-0-7818-0637-4. Retrieved November 19, 2017.  ^ Jerzy Lukowski (August 3, 2010). Disorderly liberty: the political culture of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
in the eighteenth century. Continuum International Publishing Group. pp. 227–228. ISBN 978-1-4411-4812-4. Retrieved November 19, 2017.  ^ Jacek Jędruch (1998). Constitutions, elections, and legislatures of Poland, 1493–1977: a guide to their history. EJJ Books. pp. 181–182. ISBN 978-0-7818-0637-4. Retrieved November 19, 2017.  ^ Joseph Kasparek-Obst (June 1, 1980). The constitutions of Poland
Poland
and of the United States: kinships and genealogy. American Institute of Polish Culture. p. 51. ISBN 978-1-881284-09-3.  ^ Jacek Jędruch (1998). Constitutions, elections, and legislatures of Poland, 1493–1977: a guide to their history. EJJ Books. pp. 181–182. ISBN 978-0-7818-0637-4. Retrieved November 19, 2017.  ^ a b c d e f Juliusz Bardach, Boguslaw Lesnodorski, and Michal Pietrzak, Historia panstwa i prawa polskiego (Warsaw: Paristwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, 1987, p.85-86 ^ Henryk Wisner, Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
Wazów. Czasy Zygmunta III i Władysława IV. Wydawnictwo Neriton, Instytut Historii PAN, Warszawa 2002, page 26 ^ Davies, Norman (2005). God's Playground: A History of Poland. Columbia University Press. p. 174. ISBN 978-0-231-12817-9.  ^ Zygmunt Gloger Geografia historyczna ziem dawnej Polski "Właściwą Małopolskę stanowiły województwa: Krakowskie, Sandomierskie i Lubelskie, oraz kupione (w wieku XV) przez Zbigniewa Oleśnickiego, biskupa krakowskiego, u książąt śląskich księstwo Siewierskie" ^ Lubieniecki, Stanisław; George Huntston Williams (1995). History of the Polish Reformation. Fortress Press. ISBN 978-0-8006-7085-6.  ^ Biskupie Księstwo Warmińskie @ Google books ^ Lukowski, Jerzy; Hubert Zawadzki (2006). A Concise History of Poland. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-85332-3.  ^ Translation of a treaty between the King of Prussia
Prussia
and the King and Republic of Poland. In: The Scots Magazine, vol. XXXV, Edinburgh 1773, pp. 687–691.

References[edit]

Henryk Litwin, Central European Superpower, BUM Magazine, October 2016. Jan Herburt, Statuta Regni Poloniae: in ordinem alphabeti digesta, Cracoviae (Kraków) 1563. Jan Dąbrowski(author), Korona Królestwa Polskiego w XIV wieku:studium z dziejów rozwoju polskiej monarchii stanowej, Zakład im. Ossolińskich, 1956. Stanisław Szczur, Historia Polski Średniowiecze (History of Poland
Poland
- Middle Ages), Wydawnictwo Literackie 2002, ISBN 83-08-03272-9

v t e

Administrative division
Administrative division
of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

Province of Greater Poland

Brześć Kujawski Chełmno Gniezno Inowrocław Kalisz Łęczyca Malbork Masovian Płock Pomeranian Poznań Rawa Sieradz Prince-Bishopric
Prince-Bishopric
of Warmia

Province of Lesser Poland

Bełz Bracław Chernihów Kiev Kraków Lublin Podlaskie Podolian Ruthenian Sandomierz Volhynia Duchy of Siewierz

Grand Duchy of Lithuania

Brest Litovsk Minsk Mstsislaw Nowogródek Połock Smolensk Trakai Vilnius Vitebsk Duchy of Samogitia

Polish Livonia

Duchy of Livonia
Duchy of Livonia
(1561–1621): Dorpat, Parnawa, Wenden Inflanty (1621–1772)

Fiefs

Lauenburg and Bütow Land Duchy of Prussia Duchy of Courland
Duchy of Courland
and Semigallia

v t e

Crown lands

Lands of the Bohemian Crown

Bohemia Moravia Silesia Upper Lusatia Lower Lusatia

Lands of the German Crown

Duchy of Saxony Lower Lorraine Upper Lorraine Duchy of Franconia Duchy of Swabia Duchy of Bavaria

Lands of the Hungarian Crown

Hungary proper Transylvania Croatia

Crown of the Kingdom of Poland

Greater Poland Lesser Poland R

.