Crown Prince Rudolf
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en, Rudolph Francis Charles Joseph , caption = Rudolf in 1887 , spouse = , issue =
Elisabeth Marie, Princess Otto of Windisch-Graetz
Elisabeth Marie, Princess Otto of Windisch-Graetz
, house =
Habsburg-Lorraine The House of Habsburg-Lorraine (german: Haus Habsburg-Lothringen) originated from the marriage in 1736 of Francis III, Duke of Lorraine and Bar, and Maria Theresa of Austria, later successively Queen of Bohemia, Queen of Hungary and Archduc ...
, father =
Franz Joseph I of Austria Franz Joseph I or Francis Joseph I (german: Franz Josef Karl, hu, Ferenc József Károly, hr, Franjo Josip Karlo, cs, František Josef Karel, 18 August 1830 – 21 November 1916) was , , and , , and the of from 2 December 1848 until his death ...

Franz Joseph I of Austria
, mother =
Elisabeth in Bavaria Empress Elisabeth of Austria (born Duchess Elisabeth in Bavaria; 24 December 1837 – 10 September 1898) was Empress of Austria and List of Hungarian consorts, Queen of Hungary by marriage to Emperor Franz Joseph I. She was born into the royal B ...

Elisabeth in Bavaria
, birth_date = , birth_place =
Schloss Laxenburg Laxenburg castles are imperial palace A palace is a grand residence, especially a royal residence, or the home of a or some other high-ranking dignitary, such as a or . The word is derived from the name palātium, for in Rome which housed t ...
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Laxenburg__NOTOC__ Laxenburg (Central Bavarian: ''Laxnbuag'') is a market town in the district of Mödling District, Mödling, in the Austrian state of Lower Austria. Located about south of the Austrian capital Vienna, it is chiefly known for the Laxenburg ...

Laxenburg
,
Lower Austria Lower Austria (german: Niederösterreich; Austro-Bavarian Austro-Bavarian (also known as Austrian or Bavarian; or ; german: Bairisch ) is a West Germanic language spoken in parts of Bavaria and most of Austria. Before 1945, Austro-Bavarian wa ...
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Austrian Empire The Austrian Empire (german: Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling ') was a Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between Western Europe and Eastern Europe, based on a common History, historical, Society, social and cultural ...
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Mayerling Mayerling is a small village (pop. 200) in Lower Austria Lower Austria (german: Niederösterreich; Bavarian language, Austro-Bavarian: ''Niedaöstareich'', ''Niedaestareich'') is one of the nine states of Austria, located in the northeastern corn ...

Mayerling
,
Lower Austria Lower Austria (german: Niederösterreich; Austro-Bavarian Austro-Bavarian (also known as Austrian or Bavarian; or ; german: Bairisch ) is a West Germanic language spoken in parts of Bavaria and most of Austria. Before 1945, Austro-Bavarian wa ...
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Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a and in between 1867 and 1918. It was formed with the and was dissolved following its defeat in the . At its core was the which was a between th ...

Austria-Hungary
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Imperial Crypt The Imperial Crypt (german: Kaisergruft), also called the Capuchin Crypt (''Kapuzinergruft''), is a burial chamber beneath the Capuchin Church and monastery in Vienna en, Viennese , iso_code = AT-9 , registration_p ...
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Vienna Vienna ( ; german: Wien ; bar, Wean, label= ) is the , largest city, and one of of . Vienna is Austria's , with about 2 million inhabitants (2.6 million within the , nearly one third of the country's population), and its , , and centre. It ...

Vienna
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Roman Catholicism The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian r ...
Archduke Rudolf, Crown Prince of Austria (Rudolf Franz Karl Josef; 21 August 1858 – 30 January 1889), was the only son and third child of
Emperor Franz Joseph I en, Francis Joseph Charles , mother = Princess Sophie of Bavaria , religion = Roman Catholicism , signature = Franz joseph signature.png Franz Joseph I or Francis Joseph I (german: Franz Josef Karl, hu, Ferenc József; 18 Augus ...

Emperor Franz Joseph I
and
Elisabeth in Bavaria Empress Elisabeth of Austria (born Duchess Elisabeth in Bavaria; 24 December 1837 – 10 September 1898) was Empress of Austria and List of Hungarian consorts, Queen of Hungary by marriage to Emperor Franz Joseph I. She was born into the royal B ...
. He was
heir apparent An heir apparent is a person who is first in an order of succession An order of succession or right of succession is the line of individuals entitled to hold a high office when it becomes vacated such as head of state A head of state ...
to the Imperial throne of the
Austro-Hungarian Empire Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy, parliamentary monarchy, or democratic monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exer ...
from birth. In 1889, he died in a
suicide pact A suicide pact is an agreed plan between two or more individuals to commit suicide. The plan may be to die together, or separately and closely timed. General considerations Suicide pacts are an important concept in the suicidology, study of suic ...
with his
mistress Mistress is the feminine form of the English word "master" (''master'' + ''-ess'') and may refer to: Romance and relationships * Mistress (lover) A mistress is a woman who is in a relatively long-term sexual and romantic relationship with a ...
,
Mary Vetsera Marie Alexandrine '' Freiin'' von Vetsera (19 March 1871 – 30 January 1889) was a member of Austrian "second society" (new nobility) and one of Crown Prince Rudolf of Austria's mistresses. Vetsera and Rudolf were found dead by apparent suicide ...

Mary Vetsera
, at the Mayerling hunting lodge. The ensuing scandal made international headlines.


Background

Rudolf was born at
Schloss Laxenburg Laxenburg castles are imperial palace A palace is a grand residence, especially a royal residence, or the home of a or some other high-ranking dignitary, such as a or . The word is derived from the name palātium, for in Rome which housed t ...
, "Crown Prince Rudolf (1858–1889)" (museum notes), Natural History Museum of Vienna, 2006,
NHM-Wien-Rudolfe
a castle near
Vienna Vienna ( ; german: Wien ; bar, Wean, label= ) is the , largest city, and one of of . Vienna is Austria's , with about 2 million inhabitants (2.6 million within the , nearly one third of the country's population), and its , , and centre. It ...

Vienna
, as the son of
Emperor Franz Joseph I en, Francis Joseph Charles , mother = Princess Sophie of Bavaria , religion = Roman Catholicism , signature = Franz joseph signature.png Franz Joseph I or Francis Joseph I (german: Franz Josef Karl, hu, Ferenc József; 18 Augus ...

Emperor Franz Joseph I
and Elisabeth of Bavaria, Empress Elisabeth. He was named after the first Habsburg King of Germany, Rudolf I of Germany, Rudolf I, who reigned from 1273 to 1291. Rudolf was raised together with his older sister Archduchess Gisela of Austria, Gisela and the two were very close. At the age of six, Rudolf was separated from his sister as he began his education to become a future Emperor of Austria. This did not change their relationship and Gisela remained close to him until she left Vienna upon her marriage to Prince Leopold of Bavaria. Influenced by his tutor Ferdinand von Hochstetter (who later became the first superintendent of the Imperial Natural History Museum), Rudolf became very interested in natural sciences, starting a mineral collection at an early age. After his death, large portions of his mineral collection came into the possession of the University for Agriculture in Vienna. In 1877, the Bombelles, Count of Bombelles was master of the young prince. Bombelles had been the custodian of Rudolf's aunt Carlota of Mexico, Empress Charlotte of Mexico. In contrast with his deeply conservative father, Rudolf held Liberalism, liberal views that were closer to those of his mother. Nevertheless, his relationship with her was at times strained.


Marriage

In
Vienna Vienna ( ; german: Wien ; bar, Wean, label= ) is the , largest city, and one of of . Vienna is Austria's , with about 2 million inhabitants (2.6 million within the , nearly one third of the country's population), and its , , and centre. It ...

Vienna
, on 10 May 1881, Rudolf married Princess Stéphanie of Belgium, a daughter of King Leopold II of Belgium, at Augustinian Church, Vienna, the Augustinian Church in
Vienna Vienna ( ; german: Wien ; bar, Wean, label= ) is the , largest city, and one of of . Vienna is Austria's , with about 2 million inhabitants (2.6 million within the , nearly one third of the country's population), and its , , and centre. It ...

Vienna
. Although their marriage was initially a happy one, by the time their only child, the Archduchess Elisabeth Marie of Austria, Archduchess Elisabeth, was born on 2 September 1883, the couple had drifted apart, and he found solace in drink and other female companionship. Rudolf started having many affairs, and wanted to write to Pope Leo XIII about the possibility of Annulment (Catholic Church), annulling his marriage to Stéphanie, but the Emperor forbade it. In 1886, the spouses were diagnosed with gonorrhea, which rendered Stéphanie sterile.


Affairs and suicide

In 1886, Rudolf bought
Mayerling Mayerling is a small village (pop. 200) in Lower Austria Lower Austria (german: Niederösterreich; Bavarian language, Austro-Bavarian: ''Niedaöstareich'', ''Niedaestareich'') is one of the nine states of Austria, located in the northeastern corn ...

Mayerling
, a Jagdschloss, hunting lodge. In late 1888, the 30-year-old Crown Prince met the 17-year-old ''Freiin'' (Baroness) Marie von Vetsera, known by the more fashionable Anglophile name Mary, and began an affair with her. On 30 January 1889, he and the young Baroness were discovered dead in the lodge as a result of an apparent joint suicide. As suicide would prevent him from being given a church burial, Rudolf was officially declared to have been in a state of "mental unbalance", and he was buried in the Imperial Crypt (''Kapuzinergruft'') of the Capuchin Church, Vienna, Capuchin Church in
Vienna Vienna ( ; german: Wien ; bar, Wean, label= ) is the , largest city, and one of of . Vienna is Austria's , with about 2 million inhabitants (2.6 million within the , nearly one third of the country's population), and its , , and centre. It ...

Vienna
. Vetsera's body was smuggled out of Mayerling in the middle of the night and secretly buried in the village cemetery at Heiligenkreuz, Lower Austria, Heiligenkreuz. The Emperor had Mayerling converted into a penitential convent of Discalced Carmelites, Carmelite nuns and endowed a chantry so that daily prayers would eternally be said by the nuns for the repose of Rudolf's soul. Vetsera's private letters were discovered in a safe deposit box in an Austrian bank in 2015, and they revealed that she was preparing to commit suicide alongside Rudolf, out of love.


Aftermath of death

Rudolf's death plunged his mother into despair. She wore black or pearl grey, the colours of mourning, for the rest of her life and spent more and more time away from the imperial court in Vienna. Empress Elisabeth was murdered while abroad in Geneva, Switzerland, in 1898 by an Italian anarchist, Luigi Lucheni. Politically, Rudolf's death left Franz Joseph without a direct male heir. Franz-Joseph's younger brother, Archduke Karl Ludwig of Austria, Archduke Karl Ludwig, was next in line to the Austro-Hungarian throne, though it was falsely reported that he had renounced his succession rights. In any case, his death in 1896 from typhoid made his eldest son, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the new heir presumptive. In 1914, the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand precipitated World War I. Emperor Franz-Joseph died in November 1916 and was succeeded by his grandnephew, Charles I of Austria. The demands of American President Woodrow Wilson forced Emperor Charles I to renounce involvement in state affairs in Vienna in early November 1918. As a result, the Austro-Hungarian Empire ceased to exist and a republic came into being without revolution. Charles I and his family went into exile in Switzerland after spending a short time at Castle Eckartsau.


In popular culture

* ''Mayerling (1936 film), Mayerling'', a film directed by Anatole Litvak, with Charles Boyer and Danielle Darrieux, based on a novel by Claude Anet. * ''Sarajevo (1940 French film), Sarajevo'' (1940), a film directed Max Ophüls starts with Rudolf's death. * The musical ''Marinka (operetta), Marinka'' (1945), with book by George Marion Jr., and Karl Farkas, lyrics by George Marion, Jr., music by Emmerich Kalman. * Rudolf appears in the Austrian film ''The Angel with the Trumpet (1948 film), Der Engel mit der Posaune'' (1948) and in the British remake of that film, ''The Angel with the Trumpet (1950 film), The Angel with the Trumpet'' (1950). * ''Mayerling (1957 film), Mayerling'', a 1957 film, starring Mel Ferrer as Crown Prince Rudolf, Audrey Hepburn as Baroness Mary Vetsara with Lorne Greene as Kaiser Franz Josef. * ''Mayerling (1968 film), Mayerling'', a 1968 film, starring Omar Sharif as Crown Prince Rudolf, Catherine Deneuve as Mary with James Mason as Kaiser Franz Josef and Ava Gardner as Empress Elisabeth. * Japanese Takarazuka Revue's "Utakata no Koi"/"Ephemeral Love", based on the 1968 film. * ''Requiem for a Crown Prince'', one-hour episode of the British documentary/drama series ''Fall of Eagles'' (1974), directed by James Furman and written by David Turner, tracks in detail the events of 30 January 1889 and the following few days at Mayerling. * Miklós Jancsó's 1975 film ''Vizi privati, pubbliche virtù'' (Private Vices, Public Virtues), a reinterpretation in which the lovers and their friends are murdered by imperial authorities for treason and immorality. * Kenneth MacMillan's 1978 ballet, Mayerling (ballet), ''Mayerling''. * Rudolf appears as a character in the musical Elisabeth (musical), ''Elisabeth'' (1992) * Rudolf appears as a character in ''Lillie'', played by Patrick Ryecart, Granada TV's dramatisation of the life of Lillie Langtry. * Japanese manga by You Higuri, Higuri You, "Tenshi no Hitsugi" (Angel's Coffin) (2000). * ', film directed by Robert Dornhelm (2006) in two parts. * Composer Frank Wildhorn's musical ''Rudolf (musical), Rudolf – Affaire Mayerling'' (2006), produced in some territories as ''The Last Kiss'' or ''Rudolf – The Last Kiss.'' * The play ''Rudolf'' (2011) by David Logan dramatises the last few weeks of the life of Crown Prince Rudolf. * A highly fictionalized version of the incident at Mayerling is depicted in the 2006 film The Illusionist (2006 film), ''The Illusionist''. Crown Prince Leopold (played by Rufus Sewell) is a fictional analog of Rudolf.


Titles, styles and honours


Titles and styles

* 21 August 1858 – 30 January 1889: ''His Imperial and Royal Highness'' The Crown Prince of Austria, Hungary, Bohemia and Croatia Since 1780 official title used for princes ("''zu Ungarn, Böhmen, Dalmatien, Kroatien, Slawonien, Königlicher Erbprinz''")


Honours

;Domestic
Hof- und Staats-Handbuch der Österreichisch-Ungarischen Monarchie
' (1889), Genealogy pp. 1–2
* Order of the Golden Fleece#Austrian Order, Knight of the Golden Fleece, ''1858'' * Grand Cross of the Order of St. Stephen of Hungary, Royal Hungarian Order of St. Stephen, ''1877''"A Szent István Rend tagjai"
;Foreign


Ancestors


Gallery

File:Young Crown Prince Rudolf.jpg, Crown Prince Rudolf during his early adulthood, c. 1879. File:Stefanie en Rudolf.jpg, Official engagement photo of Crown Prince Rudolf and Princess Stéphanie of Belgium, 1881. File:Görlich - Allegory on the betrothal of Crown Prince Rudolf and Stephanie of Belgium.jpg, Painting "Allegory on the betrothal of Crown Prince Rudolf and Stephanie of Belgium" by Sophia and Marie Görlich, dated 1881. File:Mayerling 1889.jpg, Mayerling Lodge as it appeared before Crown Prince Rudolf's death there in 1889. File:Mayerling.final letter.jpg, Crown Prince Rudolf's letter of farewell to his wife. File:Crown Prince Rudolf 1889.jpg, Crown Prince Rudolf placed in a bed for private viewing by his family at the Hofburg Palace in Vienna. His head had to be bandaged in order to cover gunshot wounds. When he later lay-in-state, his skull was reconstructed using wax so that his appearance was normal. File:Wien - Kapuzinergruft, Franz-Joseph-Gruft.JPG, Crown Prince Rudolf's coffin lies to the right of his parents' coffins in the Imperial Crypt in Vienna. File:Miklós Ligeti- Rudolf, Crown Prince of Austria.jpg, Statue in memory of Crown Prince Rudolf in the City Park (Budapest), City Park of Budapest.


See also

*Lake Rudolf *Alma V. Hayne *Rudolf Island *List of heirs to the Austrian throne


Notes


Further reading

* Barkeley, Richard. ''The Road to Mayerling: Life and Death of Crown Prince Rudolph of Austria''. London: Macmillan, 1958. * Franzel, Emil. ''Crown Prince Rudolph and the Mayerling Tragedy: Fact and Fiction''. Vienna : V. Herold, 1974. * Hamann, Brigitte. ''Kronprinz Rudolf: Ein Leben''. Wien: Amalthea, 2005, . * Listowel, Judith Márffy-Mantuano Hare, Countess of. ''A Habsburg Tragedy: Crown Prince Rudolf''. London: Ascent Books, 1978. * Lonyay, Károly. ''Rudolph: The Tragedy of Mayerling''. New York: Scribner, 1949. * Morton, Frederic. ''A Nervous Splendor: Vienna 1888/1889''. Penguin 1979 * Rudolf, Crown Prince of Austria. ''Majestät, ich warne Sie... Geheime und private Schriften''. Edited by Brigitte Hamann. Wien: Amalthea, 1979, (reprinted München: Piper, 1998, ). * Salvendy, John T. ''Royal Rebel: A Psychological Portrait of Crown Prince Rudolf of Austria-Hungary''. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1988.


External links

*
A profile of Marie VetseraIMDB on various Mayerling FilmsCrown Prince Rudolfs death
* {{DEFAULTSORT:Rudolf Of Austria, Crown Prince Rudolf, Crown Prince of Austria, House of Habsburg-Lorraine Heirs apparent who never acceded Austrian Roman Catholics Suicides by firearm in Austria Joint suicides 1858 births 1889 deaths 1880s suicides 19th-century Austrian people People from Laxenburg Austrian princes Franz Joseph I of Austria Knights of the Golden Fleece of Austria Grand Crosses of the Order of Saint Stephen of Hungary Recipients of the Order of the Netherlands Lion Knights of Malta Grand Crosses of the Order of Christ (Portugal), 2 Grand Crosses of the Order of Aviz, 2 Grand Crosses of the Order of the Star of Romania Recipients of the Order of the Cross of Takovo Extra Knights Companion of the Garter Recipients of the Order of the White Eagle (Russia) Recipients of the Order of St. Anna, 1st class Recipients of the Order of Saint Stanislaus (Russian), 1st class Grand Croix of the Légion d'honneur Knights of the Order of Saint Joseph