The Crow, called the Apsáalooke in their own Siouan language, or
variants including the Absaroka, are Native Americans, who in
historical times lived in the
Yellowstone River valley, which extends
from present-day Wyoming, through
Montana and into North Dakota, where
it joins the Missouri River. In the 21st century, the Crow people are
Federally recognized tribe known as the Crow Tribe of Montana,
and have a reservation located in the south central part of the
Pressured by the
Cree peoples (the Iron Confederacy), who
had earlier and better access to guns through the fur trade, the Crow
had migrated to this area from the Ohio Eastern Woodland area of
present-day Ohio, settling south of Lake Winnipeg. From there, they
were pushed to the west by the Cheyenne. Both the Crow and the
Cheyenne were pushed farther west by the Lakota (Sioux), who took over
the territory west of the Missouri River, reaching past the Black
South Dakota to the
Big Horn Mountains
Big Horn Mountains of
Cheyenne eventually became allies of the Lakota, as they
sought to expel European Americans from the area. The Crow remained
bitter enemies of both the
Sioux and Cheyenne. The Crow were generally
friendly with the whites and managed to retain a large reservation of
more than 9300 km2 despite territorial losses.
Since the 19th century, Crow people have been concentrated on their
reservation established south of Billings, Montana. They also live in
several major, mainly western, cities. Tribal headquarters are located
at Crow Agency, Montana.
1.1 In the Northern Plains
1.2 Enemies and allies
1.3 Historical subgroups
1.4 Gradual displacement from tribal lands
Crow Indian history - a chronological record
2.2 Habitation and transportation
2.3 Clothing and beadwork
2.4 Gender and kinship system
3 The modern Crow Tribe Apsáalooke Nation
4 In popular culture
5 Notable Crow
5.1 Mountain Crow (Awaxaawaxammilaxpáake)
5.2 River Crow (Binnéessiippeele)
5.3 Kicked In The Bellies (Eelalapito)
5.4 Warrior women/female leaders
5.5 Crow scouts
5.6 Other known Crows
6 See also
9 External links
The name of the tribe, Apsáalooke [ə̀ˈpsáːɾòːɡè], meaning
"children of the large-beaked bird," was given to them by the
Hidatsa, a neighboring Siouan-speaking tribe. French interpreters
translated the name as gens du corbeaux ("people of [the] crows"), and
they became known in English as the Crow. Other tribes also refer to
the Apsáalooke as "crow" or "raven" in their own languages.
In 1743 the Absaroka encountered their first people of European
descent, the two La Vérendrye brothers from
New France (eastern
Canada). The explorers called the Apsáalooke beaux hommes (handsome
men). The Crow called the French explorers baashchíile (persons with
In the Northern Plains
The early home of the Crow-
Hidatsa ancestral tribe was in the Ohio
country, near Lake Erie. Driven from there by every day by armed,
aggressive neighbors, they settled for a while south of Lake Winnipeg
in Manitoba.[page needed] Later the people moved to the
Devil's Lake region of
North Dakota before the Crow split from the
Hidatsa and moved westward. The Crow have largely pushed westward due
to intrusion and influx of the
Cheyenne and subsequently the Sioux,
also known as the Lakota.
To acquire control of their new territory, they warred against
Shoshone bands (called Bikkaashe—"People of the Grass Lodges"),
and drove them westward. They allied with local
Kiowa Apache bands later migrated
southward, and the Crow remained dominant in their established area
through the 18th and 19th centuries, the era of the fur trade.
Crow Nation land
Their tribal territory stretched from what is now Yellowstone National
Park and the headwaters of the Yellowstone Riverblack
Elk River") in the west, north to the
Musselshell River, then northeast to the Yellowstone's mouth at the
Missouri River, then southeast to the confluence of the Yellowstone
and Powder rivers (Bilap chashee—"Powder River" or "Ash River"),
south along the South Fork of the Powder River, confined in the SE by
the Rattlesnake Mountains and westwards in the SW by the Wind River
Range. Their tribal area included the river valleys of the Judith
River (Buluhpa'ashe—"Plum River"), Powder River, Tongue River, Big
Horn River and Wind River as well as the Bighorn Mountains
Pryor Mountains (Baahpuuo
Wolf Mountains (Cheetiish—"Wolf Teeth Mountains")
Absaroka Range (also called Absalaga Mountains).
Once established in the Valley of the Yellowstone River and its
tributaries on the Northern Plains in
Montana and Wyoming, the Crow
divided into four groups: the Mountain Crow, River Crow, Kicked in the
Bellies, and Beaver Dries its Fur. Formerly semi-nomad hunters and
farmers in the northeastern woodland, they adapted to the nomadic
lifestyle of the
Plains Indians as hunters and gatherers, and hunted
bison. Before 1700, they were using dog travois for carrying
Enemies and allies
Ledger drawing of a
Cheyenne war chief and warriors (left) coming to a
truce with a Crow war chief and warriors (right)
A scout on a horse, 1908 by Edward S. Curtis
From about 1740, the Plains tribes rapidly adopted the horse, which
allowed them to move out on to the Plains and hunt buffalo more
effectively. However, the severe winters in the North kept their herds
smaller than those of Plains tribes in the South. The Crow, Hidatsa,
Shoshone and Northern
Shoshone soon became noted as horse
breeders and dealers and developed relatively large horse herds. At
the time, other eastern and northern tribes were also moving on to the
Plains, in search of game for the fur trade, bison, and more horses.
The Crow were subject to raids and horse thefts by horse-poor tribes,
including the powerful
Blackfoot Confederacy, Gros Ventre,
Assiniboine, Pawnee, and Ute. Later they had to face the
Lakota and their allies, the
Arapaho and Cheyenne, who also stole
horses from their enemies. Their greatest enemies became the tribes of
Blackfoot Confederacy and the Lakota-Cheyenne-
The Crow were generally friendly with the northern Plains tribes of
the Flathead (although sometimes they had conflicts); Nez Perce,
Kiowa Apache. The powerful Iron
Confederacy (Nehiyaw-Pwat), an alliance of northern plains Indian
nations based around the fur trade, developed as enemies of the Crow.
It was named after the dominating Plains
Cree and Assiniboine peoples,
and later included the Stoney, Saulteaux, Ojibwe, and Métis.
The Apsaalooke by the early 19th century were divided into three
independent groupings, who came together only for common defense:
Ashalaho (‘Many Lodges’, today called Mountain Crow),
Awaxaawaxammilaxpáake (‘Mountain People’), or Ashkúale (‘The
Center Camp’). The Ashalaho or Mountain Crow, the largest Crow
group, split from the Awatixa
Hidatsa and were the first to travel
west. (McCleary 1997: 2-3)., (Bowers 1992: 21) Their leader No
Intestines had received a vision and led his band on a long migratory
search for sacred tobacco, finally settling in southeastern Montana.
They lived in the Rocky Mountains and foothills along the Upper
Yellowstone River, on the present-day Wyoming-
Montana border, in the
Big Horn and
Absaroka Range (also Absalaga Mountains); the Black Hills
comprised the eastern edge of their territory.
Binnéessiippeele (‘Those Who Live Amongst the River Banks’),
today called River Crow or Ashshipíte (‘The Black Lodges’) The
Binnéessiippeele, or River Crow, split from the
according to tradition because of a dispute over a bison stomach. As a
Hidatsa called the Crow Gixáa-iccá—"Those Who Pout
Over Tripe". They lived along the Yellowstone and Musselshell
rivers south of the
Missouri River and in the river valleys of the Big
Horn, Powder and Wind rivers. This area was historically known as the
Powder River Country. They sometimes traveled north up to the Milk
Eelalapito (Kicked In The Bellies) or Ammitaalasshé (‘Home Away
From The Center’, that is, away from the Ashkúale - Mountain
Crow). They claimed the area known as the Bighorn Basin, from
Bighorn Mountains in the east to the
Absaroka Range to the west,
and south to the
Wind River Range
Wind River Range in northern Wyoming. Sometimes they
settled in the Owl Creek Mountains, Bridger Mountains and along the
Sweetwater River in the south.
The oral tradition of the Apsaalooke mentions a fourth group, the
Bilapiluutche (‘Beaver Dries its Fur’), who are believed to have
merged with the
Kiowa in the second half of the eighteenth century.
Gradual displacement from tribal lands
Crow Indian territory (areas 517, 619 and 635) as described in Fort
Laramie treaty (1851), present
Montana and Wyoming
When European Americans arrived in numbers, the Crows were resisting
pressure from enemies who greatly outnumbered them. In the 1850s, a
vision by Plenty Coups, then a boy, but who later became their
greatest chief, was interpreted by tribal elders as meaning that the
whites would become dominant over the entire country, and that the
Crow, if they were to retain any of their land, would need to remain
on good terms with the whites.
By 1851 the more numerous Lakota and
Cheyenne were established just to
the south and east of Crow territory in Montana. These enemy
tribes coveted the hunting lands of the Crow and warred against them.
By right of conquest, they took over the eastern hunting lands of the
Crow, including the Powder and Tongue River valleys, and pushed the
less numerous Crow to the west and northwest upriver on the
Yellowstone. After about 1860, the Lakota
Sioux claimed all the former
Crow lands from the
Black Hills of
South Dakota to the Big Horn
Mountains of Montana. They demanded that the Americans deal with them
regarding any intrusion into these areas.
Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851
Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851 with the
United States confirmed as
Crow lands a large area centered on the Big Horn Mountains: the area
ran from the
Big Horn Basin
Big Horn Basin on the west, to the
Musselshell River on
the north, and east to the Powder River; it included the Tongue River
basin. But for two centuries the
Cheyenne and many bands of Lakota
Sioux had been steadily migrating westward across the plains, and were
still pressing hard on the Crows.
"Eight Crow prisoners under guard at Crow agency, Montana, 1887"
Red Cloud's War
Red Cloud's War (1866–1868) was a challenge by the Lakota
United States military presence on the Bozeman Trail, a route
along the eastern edge of the
Big Horn Mountains
Big Horn Mountains to the
Red Cloud's War
Red Cloud's War ended with victory for the Lakota Sioux. The
Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868)
Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868) with the
United States confirmed the
Lakota control over all the high plains from the
Black Hills of the
Dakotas westward across the
Powder River Basin
Powder River Basin to the crest of the Big
Horn Mountains. Thereafter bands of Lakota
Sioux led by Sitting
Bull, Crazy Horse,
Gall and others, along with their Northern Cheyenne
allies, hunted and raided throughout the length and breadth of eastern
Montana and northeastern Wyoming, which had been for a time ancestral
On 25 June 1876, the Lakota
Cheyenne achieved a major
victory over army forces under Colonel
George A. Custer
George A. Custer at the Battle
of the Little Big Horn in the
Crow Indian Reservation, but the
Sioux War (1876–1877) ended in the defeat of the
Cheyenne allies. Crow warriors enlisted with the US Army for
this war. The
Sioux and allies were forced from eastern
Wyoming: some bands fled to Canada, while others suffered forced
removal to distant reservations, primarily in present-day
Nebraska west of the Missouri River.
In 1918, the Crow organized a gathering to display their culture, and
they invited members of other tribes. The
Crow Fair is now celebrated
yearly on the third weekend of August, with wide participation from
Crow Indian history - a chronological record
A group of Indians went west after leaving the
Hidatsa villages of
earth lodges in the Knife River and Heart River area (present North
Dakota) around 1675-1700. They selected a site for a single earth
lodge on the lower Yellowstone River. Most families lived in tipis or
other perishable kinds of homes at the new place. These Indians had
Hidatsa villages and adjacent cornfields for good, but they
had yet to become "real" buffalo hunting Crows following the herds on
the open plains. Archaeologists know this "proto-Crow" site in
Montana as the Hagen site.
Some time before 1765 the Crows held a Sun Dance, attended by a poor
Arapaho. A Crow with power gave him a medicine doll, and he quickly
earned status and owned horses as no one else. During the next Sun
Dance, some Crows stole back the figure to keep it in the tribe.
Arapaho made a duplicate. Later in life, he married a
Kiowa woman and brought the doll with him. The Kiowas use it during
Sun Dance and recognize it as one of the most powerful tribal
medicines. They still credit the Crow tribe for the origin of their
sacred Tai-may figure.
The enmity between the Crow and the Lakota was reassured right from
the start of the 19th Century. The Crows killed a minimum of thirty
Lakotas in 1800-1801 according to two Lakota winter counts. The
next year, the Lakotas and their
Cheyenne allies killed all the men in
a Crow camp with thirty tipis.
In the summer of 1805, a Crow camp traded at the
Hidatsa villages on
Knife River in present North Dakota. Chiefs Red Calf and Spotted Crow
allowed the fur trader Francois-Antoine Larocque to join it on its way
across the plains to the Yellowstone area. He travelled with it to a
point west of the place where Billings, Montana, is today. The camp
Missouri River and Bighorn River on the way.
The next year, some Crows discovered a group of whites with horses on
the Yellowstone River. By stealth, they captured the mounts before
Lewis and Clark Expedition
Lewis and Clark Expedition did not see the Crows.
The first trading post in Crow country was constructed in 1807, known
Fort Raymond and Fort Lisa (1807-1813(?)). Like the succeeding
forts, Fort Benton (1822-1824) and Fort Cass (1832-1838), it was built
near the confluence of the Yellowstone and the Bighorn.
A Crow camp neutralized thirty Cheyennes bent on capturing horses in
1819. The Cheyennes and warriors from a Lakota camp destroyed a
whole Crow camp at Tongue River the following year. This was
likely the most severe attack on a Crow camp in historic time.
The Crows put up 300 tipis near a Mandan village on the Missouri in
1825. The representatives of the
US government waited for them.
Mountain Crow chief Long Hair (Red Plume at Forehead) and fifteen
other Crows signed the first treaty of friendship and trade between
the Crows and the
United States on August 4. With the signing of
the document, the Crows also recognized the supremacy of the United
States, if they actually understood the word. River Crow chief
Arapooish had left the treaty area in disgust. By help of the
thunderbird he had to send a farewell shower down on the whites and
the Mountain Crows.
In the summer of 1834, the Crows (maybe led by chief Arapooish) tried
to shut down Fort McKenzie at the Missouri in Blackfeet country. The
apparent motive was to stop the trading post's sale to their Indian
enemies. Although later described as a month long siege of the
fort, it lasted only two days. The opponents exchanged a few
shots and the men in the fort fired a canon, but no real harm came to
anyone. The Crows left four days before the arrival of a Blackfeet
band. The episode seems to be the worst armed conflict between the
Crows and a group of whites until the Sword Bearer uprising in 1887.
The death of chief Arapooish was recorded on September 17, 1834. The
news reached Fort Clark at the Mandan village Mitutanka. Manager F.A.
Chardon wrote he "was Killed by Black feet".
The smallpox epidemic of 1837 spread along the Missouri and "had
little impact" on the tribe according to one source. The River
Crows grew in number, when a group of Hidatsas joined them permanently
to escape the scourge sweeping through the
The River Crows charged a moving Blackfeet camp near Judith Gap in
1845. Father De Smet mourned the destructive attack on the "petite
Robe" band. The Blackfeet chief Small Robe had been mortally
wounded and many killed. De Smet worked out the number of women and
children taken captive to 160. By and by and with a fur trader as
intermediary, the Crows agreed to let 50 women return to their
The Oath Apsaroke by
Edward S. Curtis
Edward S. Curtis depicting Crow men giving a
symbolic oath with a bison meat offering on an arrow
The main food source for the Crow was the
American bison which was
hunted in a variety of ways. Before the use of horses the bison were
hunted on foot and required hunters to stalk close to the bison, often
with a wolf-pelt disguise, then pursue the animals quickly on foot
before killing them with arrows or lances. The horse allowed the Crow
to hunt bison more easily as well as hunt more at one time. Riders
would panic the herd into a stampede and shoot the targeted animals
with arrows or bullets from horseback or lance them through the heart.
In addition to bison the Crow also hunted bighorn sheep, mountain
goats, deer, elk, bear, and other game. Buffalo meat was often roasted
or boiled in a stew with prairie turnips. The rump, tongue, liver,
heart, and kidneys all were considered delicacies. Dried bison meat
was ground with fat and berries to make pemmican. In addition to
meat, wild edibles were gathered and eaten such as elderberries, wild
turnip, and Saskatoon berries.
The Crow often hunted bison by utilizing buffalo jumps. "Where
Buffaloes are Driven Over Cliffs at Long Ridge" was a favorite spot
for meat procurement by the Crow Indians for over a century, from 1700
to around 1870 when modern weapons were introduced. The Crow used
this place annually in the autumn, a place of multiple cliffs along a
ridge that eventually sloped to the creek. Early in the morning the
day of the jump a medicine man would stand on the edge of the upper
cliff, facing up the ridge. He would take a pair of bison hindquarters
and pointing the feet along the lines of stones he would sing his
sacred songs and call upon the Great Spirit to make the operation a
success. After this invocation the medicine man would give the two
head drivers a pouch of incense. As the two head drivers and their
helpers headed up the ridge and the long line of stones they would
stop and burn incense on the ground repeating this process four
times. The ritual was intended to make the animals come to the
line where the incense was burned, then bolt back to the ridge
Habitation and transportation
Crow Lodge of Twenty-five Buffalo Skins, 1832–33 by George Catlin
Crow men trading on horseback.
Three Crow men on their horses,
Edward S. Curtis
Edward S. Curtis 1908
The traditional Crow shelter is the tipi or skin lodge made with bison
hides stretched over wooden poles. The Crow are historically known to
construct some of the largest tipis.
Tipi poles were harvested from
the lodgepole pine which acquired its name from its use as support for
tipis. Inside the tipi, mattresses and buffalo-hide seats were
arranged around the edge, with a fireplace in the center. The smoke
from the fire escaped through a hole or smoke-flap in the top of the
tipi. At least one entrance hole with collapsible flap allowed entry
into the tipi. Often hide paintings adorned the outside and inside of
tipis with specific meanings attached to the images. Often specific
tipi designs were unique to the individual owner, family, or society
that resided in the tipi. Tipis are easily raised and collapsed and
are lightweight, which is ideal for nomadic people like the Crow who
move frequently and quickly. Once collapsed, the tipi poles are used
to create a travois.
Travois are a horse-pulled frame structure used
by plains Indians to carry and pull belongings as well as small
children. Many Crow families still own and use the tipi, especially
when traveling. The annual
Crow Fair has been described as the largest
gathering of tipis in the world.
The most widely used form of transportation used by the Crow was the
horse. Horses were acquired through raiding and trading with other
Plains nations. People of the northern plains like the Crow mostly got
their horses from people from the southern plains such as the Comanche
Kiowa who originally got their horses from the Spanish and
southwestern Indians such as the various Pueblo people. The Crow had
large horse herds which were among the largest owned by Plains
Indians; in 1914 they had approximately thirty to forty thousand head.
By 1921 the number of mounts had dwindled to just one thousand. Like
other plains people the horse was central to the Crow economy and were
a highly valuable trade item and were frequently stolen from other
tribes to gain wealth and prestige as a warrior. The horse allowed the
Crow to become powerful and skilled mounted warriors, being able to
perform daring maneuvers during battle including hanging underneath a
galloping horse and shooting arrows by holding onto its mane. They
also had many dogs; one source counted five to six hundred. Dogs were
used as guards and pack animals to carry belongings and pull travois.
The introduction of horses into Crow society allowed them to pull
heavier loads faster, greatly reducing the number of dogs used as pack
Clothing and beadwork
Painting of Holds The Enemy, a Crow warrior with split horn headdress
and beaded wool leggings by E.A Burbank.
Hó-ra-tó-a, a Crow warrior with headdress, bison robe, and hair
reaching the ground. Painted by George Catlin, Fort Union 1832.
Crow moccasins, c. 1940
The Crow wore clothing distinguished by gender. Women wore dresses
made of deer and buffalo hide, decorated with elk teeth or shells.
They covered their legs with leggings during winter and their feet
with moccasins. Crow women wore their hair in two braids. Male
clothing usually consisted of a shirt, trimmed leggings with a belt, a
long breechcloth, and moccasins. Robes made from the furred hide of a
bison were often worn in winter. Leggings were either made of animal
hide which the Crow made for themselves or made of wool which were
highly valued trade items made specifically for Indians in Europe.
Their hair was worn long, in some cases reaching the ground. The
Crow are famous for often wearing their hair in a pompadour which was
often coloured white with paint. Crow men were notable for wearing two
hair pipes made from beads on both sides of their hair. Men often wore
their hair in two braids wrapped in the fur of beavers or otters. Bear
grease was used to give shine to hair. Stuffed birds were often worn
in the hair of warriors and medicine men. Like other plains Indians
the Crow wore feathers from eagles, crows, owls, and other birds in
their hair for symbolic reasons. The Crow wore a variety of
headdresses including the famous eagle feather headdress, bison scalp
headdress with horns and beaded rim, and split horn headdress. The
split horn headdress is made from a single bison horn split in half
and polished into two nearly identical horns which were attached to a
leather cap and decorated with feathers and beadwork. Traditional
clothing worn by the Crow is still worn today with varying degrees of
The Crow People are well known for their intercut beadwork. They
adorned basically every aspect of their lives with these beads, giving
special attention to ceremonial and ornamental items. Their clothing,
horses, cradles, ornamental and ceremonial gear, in addition to
leather cases of all shapes, sizes and uses were decorated in
beadwork. They gave reverence to the animals they ate by using as
much of it as they could. The leather for their clothing, robes and
pouches were created from the skin of buffalo, deer and elk. The work
was done by the tribeswomen, with some being considered experts and
were often sought by the younger, less experienced women for design
and symbolic advice. The Crow are an innovative people and are
credited with developing their own style of stitch-work for adhering
beads. This stitch, which is contemporarily called the over-lay, is
still also known as the "Crow Stitch". In their beadwork,
geometric shapes were primarily used with triangles, diamonds and
hour-glass structures being the most prevalent. A wide range of colors
were utilized by the Crow, but blues and various shades of pink were
the most dominantly used. To intensify or to draw out a certain color
or shape, they would surround that figure or color in a white
The colors chosen were not just merely used to be aesthetically
pleasing, but rather had a deeper symbolic meaning. Pinks represented
the various shades of the rising sun with yellow being the East the
origin of the sun's arrival. Blues are symbolic of the sky; red
represented the setting sun or the West; green symbolizing mother
earth, black the slaying of an enemy and white representing
clouds, rain or sleet. Although most colors had a common
symbolism, each piece's symbolic significance was fairly subjective to
its creator, especially when in reference to the individual shapes.
One person's triangle might symbolize a teepee, a spear head to a
different individual or a range of mountains to yet another.
Regardless of the individual significance of each piece, the Crow
People give reverence to the land and sky with the symbolic references
found in the various colors and shapes found on their ornamental gear
and even clothing.
Some of the clothing that the Crow People decorated with beads
included robes, vests, pants, shirts, moccasins and various forms of
celebratory and ceremonial gear. In addition to creating a connection
with the land, from which they are a part, the various shapes and
colors reflected one's standing and achievements. For example, if a
warrior were to slay, wound or disarm an enemy, he would return with a
blackened face. The black color would then be incorporated in the
clothing of that man, most likely in his war attire. A beaded robe,
which was often given to a bride to be, could take over a year to
produce and was usually created by the bride's mother-in-law or
another female relative-in-law. These robes were often characterized
by a series of parallel horizontal lines, usually consisting of light
blue. The lines represented the young women's new role as a wife and
mother; also the new bride was encouraged to wear the robe at the next
ceremonial gathering to symbolize her addition and welcoming to a new
family. In modern times the Crow still often decorate their
clothing with intricate bead designs for powwow and everyday clothing.
Gender and kinship system
The Crow had a matrilineal system. After marriage, the couple was
matrilocal (the husband moved to the wife's mother's house upon
marriage). Women held a significant role within the tribe.
Crow kinship is a system used to describe and define family members.
Lewis Henry Morgan
Lewis Henry Morgan in his 1871 work Systems of
Consanguinity and Affinity of the Human Family, the Crow system is one
of the six major types which he described: Eskimo, Hawaiian, Iroquois,
Crow, Omaha, and Sudanese.
The Crow historically had a status for male-bodied two-spirits, termed
baté/badé, such as Osh-Tisch.
The modern Crow Tribe Apsáalooke Nation
Crow Indian Reservation
Crow Indian Reservation in south-central
Montana is a large
reservation covering approximately 2,300,000 acres (9,300 km2) of
land area, the fifth-largest
Indian reservation in the United States.
The reservation is primarily in Big Horn and Yellowstone counties with
ceded lands in Rosebud, Carbon, and Treasure Counties. The Crow Indian
Reservation's eastern border is the 107th meridian line, except along
the border line of the Northern
Cheyenne Indian Reservation.
The southern border is from the 107th meridian line west to the east
bank of the Big Horn River. The line travels downstream to Bighorn
Canyon National Recreation Area and west to the
Pryor Mountains and
north-easterly to Billings. The northern border travels east and
through Hardin, Montana, to the 107th meridian line. The 2000 census
reported a total population of 6,894 on reservation lands. Its largest
community is Crow Agency.
Flag of the Crow Nation.
Prior to the 2001 Constitution, the
Crow Nation was governed by a 1948
Constitution. The former constitution organized the tribe as a General
Council (Tribal Council). The General Council in essence held the
executive, legislative, and judicial powers of the government, and was
composed of all enrolled members of the Crow Nation, provided that
females were 18 years or older and males were 21 or older. The General
Council was a direct democracy, comparable to that of ancient Athens.
The Crow Nation, or Crow Tribe of Indians, established a three-branch
government at a 2001 Council Meeting. The new government is known as
the 2001 Constitution. The General Council remains the governing body
of the tribe; however, the powers were distributed to a three-branch
government. In theory, the General Council is still the governing body
of the Crow Nation, yet in reality the General Council has not
convened since the establishment of the 2001 Constitution.
The Executive Branch has four officials. These officials are known as
the Chairperson, Vice-Chairperson, Secretary, and Vice-Secretary. The
Executive Branch officials are also the officials within the Crow
Tribal General Council, which has not met since 15 July 2001. These
officials established the 2001 Constitution. The Chairman is Darrin
The Legislative Branch consists of three members from each district on
Crow Indian Reservation. The
Crow Indian Reservation
Crow Indian Reservation is divided
into six districts known as The Valley of the Chiefs, Reno, Black
Lodge, Mighty Few, Big Horn, and Pryor Districts. The Valley of the
Chiefs District is the largest district by population.
The Judicial Branch consists of all courts established by the Crow Law
and Order Code and in accordance with the 2001 Constitution. The
Judicial Branch has jurisdiction over all matters defined in the Crow
Law and Order Code. The Judicial Branch attempts to be a separate and
distinct branch of government from the Legislative and Executive
Branches of Crow Tribal Government. The Judicial Branch consists of an
elected Chief Judge and two Associate Judges. The Crow Court of
Appeals, similar to State Court of Appeals, receives all appeals from
the lower courts. The Chief Judge of the
Crow Nation is Julie Yarlott.
According to the 1948 Constitution, Resolution 63-01 (Please note; in
a letter of communication from Phileo Nash, then Commissioner of
Indian Affairs, to the B.I.A. Area Director, as stated in the letter
and confirmed that 63-01 is an Ordinance in said letter) all
constitutional amendments must be voted on by secret ballot or
referendum vote. In 2001, major actions were taken by the former
Chairperson Birdinground without complying with those requirements.
The quarterly council meeting on 15 July 2001 passed all resolutions
by voice vote, including the measure to repeal the current
constitution and approve a new constitution.
Critics contend the new constitution is contrary to the spirit of the
Crow Nation, as it provides authority for the US Bureau of Indian
Affairs (BIA) to approve Crow legislation and decisions. The Crow
people have guarded their sovereignty and Treaty Rights. The alleged
Constitution was not voted on to add it to the agenda of the
Tribal Council. The former constitution mandated that constitutional
changes be conducted by referendum vote, using the secret ballot
election method and criteria. In addition, a constitutional change can
only be conducted in a specially called election, which was never
approved by council action for the 2001 Constitution. The agenda was
not voted on or accepted at the council.
The only vote taken at the council was whether to conduct the voting
by voice vote or walking through the line. Critics say the Chairman
ignored and suppressed attempts to discuss the Constitution. This
council and constitutional change was never ratified by any subsequent
council action. The Tribal Secretary, who was removed from office by
the BirdinGround Administration, was the leader of the opposition. All
activity occurred without his signature.
When the opposition challenged, citing the violation of the
Constitutional Process and the Right to Vote, the Birdinground
Administration sought the approval of the
United States Department of
the Interior (USDOI),
Bureau of Indian Affairs
Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). The latter
stated it could not interfere in an internal tribal affair. The
federal court also ruled that the constitutional change was an
internal tribal matter.
Further information: Crow Tribal Administration
The seat of government and capital of the
Crow Indian Reservation
Crow Indian Reservation is
Crow Agency, Montana.
Crow Nation has traditionally elected a chairperson of the Crow
Tribal Council biennially; however, in 2001, the term of office was
extended to four years. The previous chairperson was Carl Venne. The
chairperson serves as chief executive officer, speaker of the council,
and majority leader of the Crow Tribal Council. The constitutional
changes of 2001 created a three-branch government. The chairperson
serves as the head of the executive branch, which includes the offices
of vice-chairperson, secretary, vice-secretary, and the tribal offices
and departments of the Crow Tribal Administration. Notable chairs are
Clara Nomee, Edison Real Bird, and Robert "Robie" Yellowtail.
On 19 May 2008, Hartford and Mary Black Eagle of the Crow Nation
adopted U.S. Senator (now President)
Barack Obama into the tribe on
the date of the first visit of a U.S. presidential candidate to the
nation. Crow representatives also took part in President Obama's
inaugural parade. In 2009 Dr. Joseph Medicine Crow was one of 16
people awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom.
United States federal government shutdown of 2013, the Crow
Nation furloughed 316 employees and suspended programs providing
health care, bus services and improvements to irrigation.
Tribal Council Chairperson
Carl Venne and
Barack Obama at the
presidential campaign rally for Obama on the
Crow Indian Reservation
Montana on 19 May 2008. Obama was the first presidential candidate
to visit the Crow Nation.
Pauline Small on horseback. She carries the flag of the Crow Tribe of
Indians. As a tribal official, she is entitled to carry the flag
Crow Fair Parade.
In popular culture
Edgar Allan Poe's 1838 novel The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of
Nantucket features a character, Dirk Peters, who is the son of an
Upsaroka (Absaroka) mother and a French father.
The cover of America's self-titled album, which contained the Top Ten
Horse With No Name", featured the three group members sitting
on the floor in front of a mural of Eight Crows.
The tribe hosts the Crow Fair, a large pow wow, rodeo, and parade,
annually. Called Baasaxpilue ('to make much noise'), it is the largest
Indian celebration in the northern Plains. The photographer Elsa
Spear Byron photographed the
Crow Fair from 1911 to the 1950s.
Angus Young, a Crow elder and historian, and professor at Little Big
Horn College, was featured on the 2006 installment of the PBS
television series Frontier House.
In the documentary Native Spirit and the
Sun Dance Way (2007), Thomas
Yellowtail, a Crow medicine man and
Sun Dance chief for more than 30
years, describes and explains the ancient
Sun Dance ceremony, which is
sacred to the Crow tribe. In the 1994 film Legends of the Fall, based
on the 1979 novella of the same name by Jim Harrison, actor Gordon
Tootoosis spoke Yellowtail's words to examine the preservation of a
cultural and spiritual world before the coming of European settlers.
In 2007 Medicine Crow's grandson
Joe Medicine Crow
Joe Medicine Crow appeared on Ken
Burns' PBS series The War.
Author Christopher Moore's 1994 book
Coyote Blue prominently features
Crow Nation locales, beliefs, and folklore.
The Crow are the main antagonist in the 1972 film Jeremiah Johnson
based on the real-life mountain man John
Liver-Eating Johnston who,
like in the movie, fought against the Crow earning him the nickname
"Crow killer". Liver-Eating Johnson later made allies with the Crow as
in the film.
The television series Longmire is set in the fictional Absaroka
Delegation of important Crow chiefs, 1880. From left to right: Old
Crow, Medicine Crow, Long Elk, Plenty Coups, and Pretty Eagle.
Mountain Crow (Awaxaawaxammilaxpáake)
Itchuuwaaóoshbishish (″Red Plume (Feather) At The Temple″, better
known as Is-she-u-huts-ki-tu / E-she-huns-ka or Long Hair, *c.1750;
†1836); Ashbacheeítche (″Chief Of The Camp″, band chief) of the
entire Mountain Crow Band and
Medicine man during fur trading days,
signed together with 15 other Mountain Crow leaders the
1825 Treaty of
Friendship at Mandan Village with the US government, Traders and
trappers called him Long Hair because of his extraordinarily long
hair, approximately 25 feet long. At his death, his hair was cut off
and maintained by tribal leaders. The long lock of hair is now held by
Plenty Coups State Park at Pryor, Montana.
Daxpitcheehísshish (in English known as Red Bear, *c.1807; †1860s);
Bacheeítche (local group leader), known and feared as warrior and war
leader (pipe carrier) during the 1840s and 1850s.
Déaxitchish / Déahĭtsĭśh (better known as Pretty Eagle, *1846;
†1905); Bacheeítche (local group leader) and noted war leader (pipe
carrier) against traditional enemy Lakota and Pawnee, supported the
Crow scouts for the US Army in fighting enemy tribes
(Lakota, Arapaho, and Cheyenne), as great diplomat he often
accompanied other important Crow chiefs on their delegations to
Washington D.C to discuss issues regarding Crow rights, in 1890 he was
US government officials ″head chief″ of the Crow
Nation - in spite of the traditionally elected Ashakée (principal
chief / head chief) Plenty Coups, he would become an important
reservation era leader.
Alaxchiiaahush / Alaxchíia Ahú (″Many War Achievements″; in
Plenty Coups - "counting many coups (war achievements)",
*c.1848; †1932), born as Chíilaphuchissaaleesh (″Buffalo Bull
Facing The Wind″); because of his war deeds and bravery against
enemy Lakota, Cheyenne, Arapaho, and
Blackfoot he became 1876
Ashbacheeítche (″Chief Of The Camp″, band chief) of the entire
Mountain Crow Band, last traditionally elected Ashakée (″Owner Of
The Lodges″ - principal chief / head chief, chief over all of the
chiefs) of all three Crow (Apsáalooke) Bands, he promoted peace
between the Crow and
Shoshone and allied the Crow with the whites
against the fighting
Cheyenne (who opposed white settlement
of the area),
Crow scouts were fighting for the
United States Army in
Sioux War of 1876, he was an important head chief and
visionary leader, great warrior, peacemaker, and a great diplomat.
Bull Chief (*c. 1825; unknown death date); notable war chief (pipe
carrier) against enemy Lakota, Nez Percés, Shoshone, and Piegan
Blackfoot, he also fought against white settlement of Crow territory.
River Crow (Binnéessiippeele)
Daxpitchée Daasítchileetash (″Bear Whose Heart Is Never Good″ or
″Bad Heart Bear″), legendary 17th-century chief – maybe a
mythical figure - according to tradition because of a dispute over a
bison stomach with the real
Hidatsa Band he gathered his following
leading them westward to join the already settled there Mountain Crow
Band; his following would become the core group of the historic River
Awé Kúalawaachish (″Sits In The Middle Of The Land″), also known
as Káamneewiash/Kam-Ne-But-Sa (″Blood Woman″) and Iché Shipíte
(better known by the English translation of this name as Blackfoot, c.
1795; †1877); after the death of Eelápuash / Arapoosh in 1834 he
became Ashbacheeítche (″Chief Of The Camp″, band chief) of the
entire River Crow Band and after the deaths of Chief
Daxpitcheehísshish (Red Bear) of the Mountain Crow in 1862 and Chief
Chíischipaaliash (″Twines His (Horse’s) Tail″) of the River
Crow in 1867, he was elected Ashakée (″Owner Of The Lodges″ -
principal chief / head chief, chief over all of the chiefs) of all
three Crow (Apsáalooke) Bands, therefore his people gave him a new
name: ″Sits In The Middle Of The Land″. He used the metaphor of
the four base tipi poles to describe the borders of Crow Country.
Eelápuash / Arapoosh (″stomach ache″ or ″Sore Belly″, often
mistranslated in historical accounts as Rotten Belly, *1795; †1834);
Ashbacheeítche (″Chief Of The Camp″, band chief) of the entire
River Crow Band, a contemporary and contrary of Itchuuwaaóoshbishish
(Red Plume (Feather) At The Temple), refused to sign the 1825
Friendship Treaty, because the River Crow feared to give up tribal
sovereignty, 1834 the River Crow under his leadership lay siege to
Fort McKenzie on the Missouri River, but were repelled by enemy
Blackfoot warriors, thereby Eelápuash / Arapoosh was killed by the
Blackfoot (this Fort would become the gateway for the 1837 Great
Plains smallpox epidemic that killed a third of the Crow between 1837
Chíischipaaliash (″Twines His (Horse’s) Tail″ or ″Rotten
Tail″, *c. 1800; †1867); Ashbacheeítche (″Chief Of The Camp″,
band chief) of the entire River Crow Band in the 1840s; later he was
elected to be Ashakée (″Owner Of The Lodges″ - principal chief or
head chief, chief over all of the chiefs) of all three Crow
(Apsáalooke) bands in the 1850s and 1860s, also a great medicine man
and noted war leader (pipe carrier).
Itchúua Chíash (″White Temple″) or Uuwatchiilapish (″Iron
Bull″, *c. 1820; †1886); prominent warrior and after
Chíischipaaliash second Bacheeítche (local group leader) of the
Issaatxalúash (″Two Leggings″) or Apitisée (″Big (Whooping)
Crane″, *c. mid-1840s; †1923); important and noted Bacheeítche
(local group leader) of River Crow, war leader (pipe carrier), during
the first years of the reservation era he was a great leader and
spokesman for his people.
Kicked In The Bellies (Eelalapito)
Peelatchiwaaxpáash (″Raven″) or PédhitšhÎ-wahpášh
(″Medicine Crow″); a prominent Bacheeítche (local group leader)
of the Kicked In The Bellies, war leader (pipe carrier), and later a
Warrior women/female leaders
Bíawacheeitchish, better known as "Woman Chief" (the English
translation of her name and rank) or sometimes Barcheeampe ("Pine
Leaf", *c. 1790/1806; † 1854/1858) was a female Bacheeítche ("Good
Men" or chief), war leader (pipe carrier) and warrior, she became one
of the Crows' most significant leaders, joining the Council of Chiefs
as the third ranking member.
Akkeekaahuush (″Comes Toward The Near Bank″, *c. 1810; †1880);
together with her husband, Knife, she was a feared war leader against
enemy tribes; once captured by Piegan Blackfoot, she escaped and
returned to her people.
Biliíche Héeleelash (″Among The Willows″, *1837; †1912); well
known female leader of bands against enemy Lakota, which would
pressure from the east on ancestral Crow territory, fought in the
legendary Battle of
Rainy Butte (called the ″Battle Where Sitting
Bull’s Father Was Killed″, by the Lakota) of 1858/1859, a
significant victory over approaching Lakota.
White Man Runs Him
White Man Runs Him or Mahr-Itah-Thee-Dah-Ka-Roosh (another name was
″White Buffalo That Turns Around″, *c.1858; †June 2, 1929);
Crow Indian Scout and warrior, he was the stepgrandfather of
Joe Medicine Crow, a Crow tribal historian who used his
grandfather’s stories as a basis for his later histories of the
battle, grandfather to Pauline Small, the first woman elected to
office in the Crow Tribe, and to Janine Pease, an American Indian
educator and advocate and the first woman of Crow lineage to earn a
Moccasin or Esh-sup-pee-me-shish (*c.1854; †October 9, 1922);
Crow Indian Scout and warrior
Goes Ahead or Ba'suck'osh (also known as the First One, Goes First,
the One Ahead, Comes Leading, Man With Fur Belt, and Walks Among the
Stars, *c.1851; †May 31, 1919); notable
Crow Indian Scout and
warrior, at age 16, he married Pretty Shield, which would become a
famous medicine woman.
Curley (or Curley) (also known as Ashishishe/Shishi'esh - ″the
Crow″, *c.1856; †1923); notable
Crow Indian Scout and warrior -
perhaps most famous of all the Crow scouts.
White Swan or Mee-nah-tsee-us (literally "White Goose″, but he is
better known by his false translated English name, was also called
"Strikes Enemy", *c.1850; †1904); notable
Crow Indian Scout and
warrior, cousin of Curly.
Half Yellow Face
Half Yellow Face or Ischu Shi Dish (*c.1830?; †1879?); notable Crow
Indian Scout and warrior, war leader (pipe carrier) and leader of the
Crow Scouts who assisted Custer
Other known Crows
Joe Medicine Crow
Joe Medicine Crow or PédhitšhÎ-wahpášh (Joseph Medicine Crow-High
Bird, October 27, 1913; – April 3, 2016); during World War II, he
became the last war chief (pipe carrier) of the Crow Tribe (and was
the last living
Plains Indian war chief), later he would become the
educator, historian, author, and official anthropologist of the
history and culture of his people.
Pretty Shield (*c. 1856; †1944); notable medicine woman, married
Goes Ahead, one of the
Crow scouts at the Battle of the Little
Pauline Small or Strikes Twice In One Summer (November 30, 1924 –
March 9, 2005); notable first female member of Crow Tribal Council
Noah Watts or Bulaagawish ("Old Bull"); actor (most known for his role
as Ratonhnhaké:ton, the main character of Assassin's Creed III)
Peggy White Wellknown Buffalo, creator of The Center Pole charitable
organization, and leading Medicine Woman, she was honored in 2014 by
the Dalai Lama.
Robert Summers "Robbie" Yellowtail (August 4, 1889 – June 20, 1988);
leader of Crow Nation, described as "20th Century Warrior". First
Native American to hold position of Agency Superintendent.
Two Moons, notable YIGP Crow songwriter
Indigenous peoples of North America portal
Pine Leaf was a woman and chief of the Crow tribe
^ a b "Crow Tribe of Montana". National Indian Law Library. Retrieved
April 23, 2016.
^ "Crow Nation, Apsaalooké". Crow Nation. Retrieved April 23,
^ Johnson, Kirk (24 July 2008), "A State That Never Was in Wyoming",
The New York Times
^ William C. Sturtevant, Handbook of North American Indians: Southwest
(1979, ISBN 0160504007), page 714: "Among other tribes the Crow
are most commonly designated as 'crow' or 'raven'."
^ Barry M. Pritzker: A Native American Encyclopedia
^ Phenocia Bauerle: The Way of the Warrior: Stories of the Crow
People, University of Nebraska Press, ISBN 978-0-8032-6230-0
^ Peter Nabokof and Lawrence L. Lowendorf, Restoring a History,
University of Oklahoma Press, 2004, ISBN 0-8061-3589-1,
^ John Doerner, "Timeline of historic events from 1400 to 2003",
Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument
^ Timeline and citations, Four Directions Institute
^ Rodney Frey: The World of the Crow Indians: As Driftwood Lodges,
University of Oklahoma Press, 2009, ISBN 978-0-8061-2560-2
^ "The Crow Society". crow.bz. Retrieved 13 January 2016.
^ Dog travois, Women of the Fur Trade
^ "Forest Prehistory", with pictures of dog travois, Helena National
^ Osborn, Alan J. "Ecological Aspects of Equestrian Adaptation in
Aboriginal North America", American Anthropologist, No l. 85, No. 3
(Sept 1983), 566
^ Hamalainen, 10–15
^ Crow names, American Tribes
^ Bowers 1992: 23
^ Lowie 1993: 272–275
^ Timothy P. McCleary: The Stars We Know:
Crow Indian Astronomy and
Lifeways, Waveland Press Inclusive, 1996, ISBN 978-0-88133-924-6
^ Lowie 1912: 183–184
^ Barney Old Coyote Archived 12 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine.,
Turtle Island Storyteller
Plenty Coups and Linderman, Plenty-Coups, Chief of the Crows, 2002,
^ Brown, Mark H (1959). The Plainsmen of the Yellowstone. University
of Nebraska Press. pp. 128–129. ISBN 0-8032-5026-6.
^ Text of the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851, see Article 5 relating to
the Crow lands
^ Text of Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868, See Article 16, creating
unceded Indian Territory east of the summit of the Big Horn Mountains
and north of the North Platte River
^ Kappler, Charles J.: Indian Affairs. Laws and Treaties. Vol. 2,
Washington 1904, pp. 1008-1011.
^ 93rd Annual Crow Fair. Welcome from Cedric Black Eagle - Chairman of
the Crow Tribe http://www.crow-nsn.gov
^ Wood, Raymond W. and A.S. Downer (1977): Notes on the Crow-Hidatsa
Schism. Plains Anthropologist, Vol. 22, pp. 83-100, p. 86.
^ Wood, Raymond W. and A.S, Downer (1977): Notes on the Crow-Hidatsa
Schism. Plains Anthropologist, Vol. 22, pp. 83-100, p. 84.
^ Boyd, Maurice (1981):
Kiowa Voices. Ceremonial Dance, Ritual and
Song. Vol. 1. Fort Worth.
^ Mallory, Gerrick (1886): The Dakota Winter Counts. Fourth Annual
Report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the
Secretary of the Smithsonian
Institution, 1882-'83, Washington, pp. 89-127, p. 103.
^ Mallory, Gerrick (1893): Tenth Annual Report of the Bureau of
Ethnology to the
Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1888-'89,
Washington, p. 553.
^ Wood, Raymond W. and Thomas D. Thiessen (1987): Early
Fur trade on
the Northern Plains. Canadian Traders among the Mandan and Hidatsa
Indians, 1738-1818. Norman and London, pp. 156-220.
^ Ewers, John C. (1988): Indian Life on the Upper Missouri. Norman and
London, p. 54.
^ Hoxie, Frederick E. (1995): Parading Through History. The making of
Crow Nation in America, 1805-1935. Cambridge, p. 66.
^ Hyde, George E. (1987): Life Of George Bent. Written From His
Letters. Norman, p. 23.
^ Hyde, George E. (1987): Life Of George Bent. Written From His
Letters. Norman, pp. 24-26.
^ Linderman, Frank B. (1962): Plenty Coups. Chief of the Crows.
Lincoln/London, p. 190
^ Linderman, Frank B. (1974): Pretty Shield. Medicine Woman of the
Crows. Lincoln and London, p. 168.
^ Jensen, Richard E. & James S. Hutchins (2001): Whell Boats on
the Missouri. The Journals and Documents of the Atkinson-O'Fallon
Expedition, 1824-26. Helena and Lincoln, p. 143.
^ Kappler, Charles J. (1904): Indian Affairs. Laws and Treaties. Vol.
2, pp. 244-246.
^ Curtis, Edward S. (1970): The North American Indian. Vol. 4. New
^ Denig, Edwin Thompson (1961): Five Indian Tribes of the Upper
Missouri. Siouc, Arickaras, Assiniboines, Crees, Crows. Norman, p. 181
^ Audubon, Maria R. (Ed.) (1960): Audubon and his Journals. Vol. 2.
New York, p. 179.
^ Chardon, F.A. (1997): F.A. Chardon's Journal at Fort Clark,
1834-139. Lincoln and London, pp. 4 and 275.
^ Hoxie, Frederick E. (1995): Parading Through History. The making of
Crow Nation in America, 1805-1935. Cambridge, p. 132.
^ Bowers, Alfred W. (1965):
Hidatsa Social and Ceremonial
Organization. Smithsonian Institution. Bureau of American Ethnology.
Bulletin 194. Washington, p. 24.
^ De Smet, Pierre-Jean (1847): Oregon Missions and Travels over the
Rocky Mountains in 1845-46. New York, p.177.
^ Bedford, Denton R. (1975): The Fight at "Mountains on Both Sides".
Indian Historian, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 13-23, p. 19.
Crow Indian Recipes and Herbal Medicine". Scribd. Retrieved 13
^ a b c d e Keyser, James. "The Plains Anthropologist". Anthropology
News. Retrieved August 3,. Check date values in: access-date=
^ Wishart, David J.. Encyclopedia of the Great Plains Indians.
Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2007. 89.
^ Letter No. 8
George Catlin "...most of them were over six feet high
and very many of these have cultivated their natural hair to such an
almost incredible length, that it sweeps the ground as they walk;
there are frequent instances of this kind amongst them, and in some
cases, a foot or more it will drag on the grass as they walk, giving
exceeding grace and beauty their movements. They usually oil their
Hair with a profusion of bear grease every morning"
^ a b c d e f g Powell, P (1988). To Honor the Crow People. Chicago:
Foundation for the Preservation of American Indian Art and Culture,
^ a b c Lowie, R (1922).
Crow Indian Art. New York: Anthropological
Papers of the American Museum of Natural History.
^ Robert Harry Lowie, Social Life of the Crow Indians (1912), page 226
^ Will Roscoe (2000). Changing Ones: Third and Fourth Genders in
Native North America. Palgrave Macmillan.
^ Scott Lauria Morgensen, Spaces Between Us: Queer Settler Colonialism
and Indigenous Decolonization (ISBN 1452932727, 2011), pages
39-40, quotes Crow historian
Joe Medicine Crow
Joe Medicine Crow speaking about the
treatment of badés and
Osh-Tisch by a
US government agent.
^ "Obama Adopted Into Crow Nation". The Washington Post. Archived from
the original on 4 July 2008.
^ Brown, Matthew (2 October 2013). "Shutdown hits vulnerable Indian
tribes as basics such as foster care, nutrition threatened". Minnesota
Star-Tribune. AP. Archived from the original on 4 October 2013.
Retrieved 3 October 2013.
^ Elsa Spear Byro'n Collection Archived 12 September 2006 at the
^ "PBS - Frontier House: Frontier Life". pbs.org. Retrieved 13 January
The Crow Indians, Robert H. Lowie, University of Nebraska Press,
Lincoln, Nebraska, 1983, paperback, ISBN 0-8032-7909-4
The World of the Crow Indians: As Driftwood Lodges, Rodney Frey,
University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Oklahoma, 1987, hardback,
Stories That Make the World: Oral Literature of the Indian Peoples of
the Inland Northwest. As Told by Lawrence Aripa, Tom Yellowtail and
Other Elders. Rodney Frey, edited. University of Oklahoma Press,
Norman, Oklahoma, 1995, paperback, ISBN 0-8061-3131-4
The Crow and the Eagle: A Tribal History from Lewis & Clark to
Custer, Keith Algier, Caxton Printers, Caldwell, Idaho, 1993,
paperback, ISBN 0-87004-357-9
From The Heart Of The Crow Country: The Crow Indians' Own Stories,
Joseph Medicine Crow, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, Nebraska,
2000, paperback, ISBN 0-8032-8263-X
Crow Nation Then and Now, Helene Smith and Lloyd G.
Mickey Old Coyote, MacDonald/Swãrd Publishing Company, Greensburg,
Pennsylvania, 1992, paperback, ISBN 0-945437-11-0
Parading through History: The Making of the
Crow Nation in America
1805-1935, Frederick E. Hoxie, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge,
United Kingdom, 1995, hardcover, ISBN 0-521-48057-4
The Handsome People: A History of the Crow Indians and the Whites,
Charles Bradley, Council for Indian Education, 1991, paperback,
Myths and Traditions of the Crow Indians, Robert H. Lowie, AMS Press,
1980, hardcover, ISBN 0-404-11872-0
Social Life of the Crow Indians, Robert H. Lowie, AMS Press, 1912,
hardcover, ISBN 0-404-11875-5
Material Culture of the Crow Indians, Robert H Lowie, The Trustees,
1922, hardcover, ASIN B00085WH80
The Tobacco Society of the Crow Indians, Robert H. Lowie, The
Trustees, 1919, hardcover, ASIN B00086IFRG
Religion of the Crow Indians, Robert H. Lowie, The Trustees, 1922,
hardcover, ASIN B00086IFQM
The Crow Sun Dance, Robert Lowie, 1914, hardcover, ASIN B0008CBIOW
Minor Ceremonies of the Crow Indians, Robert H. Lowie, American Museum
Press, 1924, hardcover, ASIN B00086D3NC
Crow Indian Art, Robert H. Lowie, The Trustees, 1922, ASIN B00086D6RK
The Crow Language, Robert H. Lowie, University of California press,
1941, hardcover, ASIN B0007EKBDU
The Way of the Warrior: Stories of the Crow People, Henry Old Coyote
and Barney Old Coyote, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln,
Nebraska, 2003, ISBN 0-8032-3572-0
Two Leggings: The Making of a Crow Warrior, Peter Nabokov, Crowell
Publishing Co., 1967, hardcover, ASIN B0007EN16O
Plenty-Coups: Chief of the Crows, Frank B. Linderman, University of
Nebraska Press, Lincoln, Nebraska, 1962, paperback,
Pretty-shield: Medicine Woman of the Crows, Frank B. Linderman,
University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, Nebraska, 1974, paperback,
They Call Me Agnes: A Crow Narrative Based on the Life of Agnes
Yellowtail Deernose, Fred W. Voget and Mary K. Mee, University of
Oklahoma Press, Norman, Oklahoma, 1995, hardcover,
Yellowtail, Crow Medicine Man and
Sun Dance Chief: An Autobiography,
Michael Oren Fitzgerald, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman,
Oklahoma, 1991, hardcover, ISBN 0-8061-2602-7
Grandmother's Grandchild: My
Crow Indian Life, Alma Hogan Snell,
University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, Nebraska, 2000, hardcover,
Memoirs of a White Crow Indian, Thomas H. Leforge, The Century Co.,
1928, hardcover, ASIN B00086PAP6
Radical Hope. Ethics in the Face of Cultural Devastation, Jonathan
Lear, Harvard University Press, 2006, ISBN 0-674-02329-3
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Crow tribe.
Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article
Crow Nation, Apsaalooké
Crow Indians - Their Lands, Allies and Enemies
Little Big Horn College Library
Photo exhibition on Crow Indians, with short account of 21st century
lifestyle, Untold London
Collection of historical Crow photographs
List of Crow Chiefs,
Little Big Horn College Library.
Crow Indian Recipes and Herbal Medicine, by Pretty Shield's
granddaughter, Alma Hogan Snell
Native Americans in the
Black Hills of
South Dakota and Wyoming
Historic and present tribes
Historic native spiritual places
Inyan Kara Mountain
History of the Black Hills
Treaty of Fort Laramie (1851)
Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868)
Black Hills War (Great
Sioux War of 1876)
Modern events and places
Black Hills Land Claim
The Journey Museum and Gardens
United States v.
Sioux Nation of Indians
Lakota Nation Invitational
Charmaine White Face
For more information, see History of Native Americans in the United
States. Nearby modern reservations are Pine Ridge and Rosebud.