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The Croatian Air Force
Croatian Air Force
(Croatian: Hrvatsko ratno zrakoplovstvo or HRZ) is a branch of the Croatian Armed Forces
Croatian Armed Forces
whose primary task is to ensure the sovereignty of the airspace of the Republic of Croatia
Croatia
and to provide aviation support to other branches in the implementation of their tasks in joint operations. It is also the carrier and the organizer of the integrated anti-aircraft defense system of the Republic of Croatia.

Contents

1 Aviation history 2 Duties 3 Commanders 4 Structure 5 Status 6 MiG-21
MiG-21
replacement acquisition

6.1 2017 program restart

7 Modernization and procurement programs 8 Aircraft

8.1 Current inventory 8.2 Retired

9 See also 10 References 11 Notes 12 External links

Aviation history[edit] Main article: History of the Croatian Air Force The Croatian Air Force
Croatian Air Force
as it is known today was established on 12 December 1991, during the Croatian War of Independence. After 2003, a large portion of the fleet was modernized or completely overhauled and the rest of the outdated fleet was retired. Croatia
Croatia
also acquired new-build transport helicopters, fire-fighting aircraft and basic training aircraft during this time. The planned acquisitions for additional fixed- and rotary-wing transports and fighter aircraft were, after repeated postponements, cancelled due to a difficult economic situation. Duties[edit] The primary role of the Croatian Air Force
Croatian Air Force
and Air Defence is securing the sovereignty of Croatian air space and providing air support to other services during joint operations. It operates the integrated Croatian Air Defence system. Other tasks include providing help in natural, humanitarian and technological disasters, search and rescue operations, and support to other government agencies. Commanders[edit] Commanders of the Croatian Air Force
Croatian Air Force
since its establishment in 1991:

Imra Agotić
Imra Agotić
(1991–1996) Josip Čuletić (1996–2001) Josip Štimac (2001–2002) Viktor Koprivnjak (2002–2007) Vlado Bagarić (2007–2011) Dražen Šćuri
Dražen Šćuri
(2011–2016) Miroslav Kovač (2016–present)

Structure[edit]

Structure of the Croatian Air Force

Air Force and Air Defense Command[2]

Command Company - Pleso, Zagreb 91st Air Force Base, in Zagreb

Command Company Fighter Aircraft Squadron flying MiG-21bisD/UMD Transport Aircraft Squadron flying An-32B Multirole Helicopter Squadron at 94th Air Force Base
94th Air Force Base
flying Mi-171Sh Aeronautical Technical Battalion

93rd Air Force Base, in Zadar

Command Company Transport Helicopter Squadron at 95th Air Force Base flying Mi-8 MTV-1 Firefighting Squadron flying CL-415, AT-802A/F FireBoss Aircraft Squadron flying PC-9M, Zlin 242L Combat Helicopter Squadron flying OH-58D, Bell 206B-3 Aeronautical Technical Battalion

Airspace Surveillance and Control Battalion - Pleso, Zagreb

Airspace Surveillance Center Podvornica Operational Center Split Sljeme, Borinci, Papuk, Učka
Učka
and Rota radar Posts Radio-technical Maintenance and Support Company

Air Force Training Center "Rudolf Perešin" at Zadar
Zadar
Airport

Status[edit]

Air Tractor AT-802

The core of the air force is a squadron of 12 modernized MiG-21bisD/UMD fighters. In 2003, a minor upgrade and an extensive overhaul were performed in Romania, incorporating navigation and communication elements of the Lancer standard to make them interoperable with NATO
NATO
air forces. The aircraft received no upgrade to their weapons systems. Despite initial plans to replace the MiG-21 fleet with a multirole aircraft in 2013 (delayed from 2011 due to the financial crisis) and an official tender having been issued in 2008, ongoing budgetary constraints have resulted in an abandonment of these plans. As a cost-saving measure, a decision was made to again overhaul seven serviceable airframes already in service and supplement them with five additional airframes from Ukrspetsexport. This temporary measure will see the fleet remain in service only until 2019-2020. Pilot training is conducted on two types of aircraft. During late 2007, five new Zlin 242L Aerobatic basic trainers were acquired in order to replace a fleet of seven old Utva 75s (four had already been retired previously). The deal was worth just under $2 million. An option for three additional basic trainers was considered but has not been exercised. The backbone of the training fleet, however, is built around 20 Pilatus PC-9M advanced trainers which also constitute the most numerous type of aircraft in Croatian service. These were ordered in 1997 (3 were former RAAF PC-9A examples converted to PC-9M standard immediately upon delivery) and entered full service a year later. The deal was worth around $100 million. They are also operated by the national aerobatic team called Krila Oluje / Wings of Storm. The fleet size and facilities at Zemunik airbase allow the Croatian Air Force
Croatian Air Force
to offer advanced pilot training to other countries but the lack of HUDs, HOTAS and hardpoints on Croatia's PC-9Ms, however, limits the usefulness of Croatia's advanced training programme. Such upgrades might be financially plausible once surplus PC-9Ms get sold. Nonetheless, on March 5, 2014, representatives of the Croatian Air Force signed an agreement with their partners from the Royal Air Force of Oman for the future training and education of 16 Omani pilots on the Croatian fleet of Pilatus PC-9Ms. The training itself started on March 10, is planned to be concluded by December 26, 2014 and will see each pilot log 150 flight hours during the ten-month period. As a cost-saving measure, the Croatian government has announced in its long-term defence plan that it plans to downsize the PC-9M fleet to a "suitable level" for the current air force fleet, substantially reduced since the mid-1990s. Consequently, six oldest units are offered for sale while the 14 remaining aircraft are due to remain active and possibly undergo an upgrade.

Zlin 242 trainer

The Croatian Air Force
Croatian Air Force
operated two Antonov An-32B tactical transports (built in 1991 and 1993) until 2013. Both aircraft underwent a two-stage modernization in 2004 and 2007. They were fitted with NATO-standard navigational and communication equipment, additional systems for loading/unloading and flare dispensers. They had performed humanitarian and paratrooper missions as well as supporting Croatia's international military commitments such as for ISAF and KFOR. Due to budget limitations both aircraft have been offered for sale.[3] In the draft of the strategic defence review, the Croatian government announced that no new tactical transport aircraft would be purchased before 2020 leaving Croatia
Croatia
reliant on its NATO
NATO
partners for fixed-wing transport. The helicopter fleet is equipped mainly with Russian-built Mi-17s and its derivates. The fleet includes three Mi-8 and 11 Mi-8MTV-1 (also known as Mi-17-1V) cargo helicopters, which underwent overhauls between 2003 and 2005. A batch of 6 Mi-8MTV-1 underwent an overhaul again in 2013 and 2014, while the remaining 8 units are to follow in 2014 and 2015. The Croatian Ministry od Defence is considering the option of selling all Mi-8 helicopters upon overhaul and replacing them with up to 15 UH-60L after 2017.[4] In 2006, a deal to deliver 10 new Mi-171Sh transport-attack helicopters was signed with Russia, itself a partial payment for an old Russian debt. The order itself was worth $66 million. The new type differs from the ones already in service in having a cargo ramp instead of clamshell doors, larger side doors, flare dispensers, additional armor around the cockpit and cargo compartment, night vision device equipment, door gunner posts, rocket launchers etc. The entire squadron of 10 helicopters entered service by July, 2008. Two additional VIP helicopters were planned for 2009 but their acquisition was cancelled. After more than 10 years in the Croatian service and great success in Operation Storm, the government finally decided to retire a squadron of seven Mi-24V helicopters in 2005 due to a costly modernization. Six are offered for sale at a price of $83,000 per aircraft, while one was sent to a museum. The role of an armed support helicopter was taken over by new Mi-171s but the entire attack helicopter squadron is to be revived in 2015 with the acquisition of up to 16 OH-58D.[4] While visiting Israel in November 2006, Croatian delegation agreed to buy two mid-size, state-of-the-art Hermes 450
Hermes 450
and four small Skylark UAVs. Additional cameras, computer systems, spare parts and a ground station were also obtained. Two additional Skylark UAVs entered service in 2009. As of December 2012, additional Skylarks has been reported in service though no public records or images of Croatian Hermes 450
Hermes 450
are available. This suggests that the order was cancelled due to funding issues. After a horrible fire season during the summer of 2007 (12 firefighters lost their lives on a small island of Kornati), Croatia agreed to buy two new Canadair CL-415
Canadair CL-415
and five Air Tractor AT-802 water bombers. These joined a fleet of four relatively new amphibians already in service. The entire deal was projected at $70 million. By making such an acquisition, Croatia
Croatia
became the leading power in aerial firefighting on the Mediterranean in respect to its population and surface. MiG-21
MiG-21
replacement acquisition[edit] Although the MiG-21
MiG-21
was perceived as an outdated fighter by the Croatian Air Force
Croatian Air Force
even in the late 1990s, budget constraints have been continuously deferring any final decision on the acquisition of a new fighter type. As Croatia
Croatia
was no longer facing any military threat, serious talks were started with Israeli firms to extensively upgrade the fleet of 24 MiG-21bis/UM fighters to a "Lancer 3" standard instead of buying a completely new combat aircraft. Although the initial information suggested that such a decision was practically final, no agreement was reached. By late 2002 all 24 MiG-21's were reaching the end of their service lives and it was decided that the fleet be overhauled and lightly upgraded in Romania. A first squadron of 12 aircraft was therefore sent for 10-year life prolongment repair to Aerostar
Aerostar
after which the second squadron was to follow. But after the first squadron arrived to Croatia, no further moves were made in order to revamp the second squadron.

Croatian AF MiG-21bisD

As the fleet of 12 overhauled MiG-21s was originally planned to remain active only until late 2011, Croatia
Croatia
was eyeing a replacement aircraft already by late 2008. It was projected that a new type be selected by late 2009 and that the first aircraft start entering service by 2011. Such plans were put into question by the global economic crisis which severely affected the Croatian economy and in late 2010 it was officially unveiled that no new aircraft were envisaged to enter service. The Defence Ministry finally announced in June 2013 that the Ukrainian firm Ukrspetsexport
Ukrspetsexport
will provide Croatia
Croatia
with 8 single-seat and 4 twin-seat upgraded MiG-21
MiG-21
aircraft. Due to their condition only 7 of these will be refurbished Croatian air frames and the remaining 5 will be "new" aircraft. These are to remain in service by 2020 and the decision on the replacement fighter type is to be made by the end of 2016. [5][6] 2017 program restart[edit] In July 2017, the Croatian Ministry of Defence announced it had restarted the MiG-21
MiG-21
replacement procurement program, and issued a request for proposals for up to 12 aircraft to five countries: Greece, Israel and the United States
United States
for the General
General
Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon, Sweden for the Saab JAS 39 Gripen, and South Korea for the KAI T-50 Golden Eagle.[7] In October 2017, the Ministry announced it had four received letters of intent for up to 18 aircraft from the United States, Israel and Greece
Greece
offering various F-16 variants, as well as Sweden offering an unknown Saab JAS 39 Gripen
Saab JAS 39 Gripen
variant. South Korea did not place a bid in the tender.[8][9] In November 2017, Croatian media announced the offers from Sweden for the Saab JAS 39 Gripen
Saab JAS 39 Gripen
and Israel for a mixed-fleet of A/B and C/D General
General
Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon variants had been downselected from the four received letters of intent.[10] According to reports, the US bid was dismissed for being too expensive, and the F-16 Block 30 offered by Greece
Greece
was dismissed for being too outdated.[11][12] Further reports insinuate the Israeli offer is leading for being most price-competitive, as well as opening up additional opportunities for defence cooperation.[13] On 29 March 2018, Croatian Government
Croatian Government
unanimously adopted a decision on the procurement of 12 F-16 C/D Barak Block 30 aircraft from Israel for 2.9 billion kunas (around 420 million euros). Besides 12 jets, Croatia
Croatia
will get two flight simulators, training for its pilots and maintenance staff in Israel, aircraft weapons, a package of spare parts and equipment for ground support, infrastructure construction and adaptation, and three years of support including the presence of Israeli instructors in Croatia. First two jets are expected to be delivered in 2020, and the rest by 2022.[14] Modernization and procurement programs[edit]

Bell OH-58D Kiowa Warrior

Acquisition of up to 16 OH-58D Kiowa Warrior scout/attack helicopters from US Army stock, to be delivered in 2016.[15] Overhaul of the existing fleet of 14 Mil Mi-17
Mil Mi-17
transport helicopters (11 Mi-8MTV-1 and 3 Mi-8T) during 2013-2015. Initial six helicopters have been overhauled by 2014 for 81 million Croatian Kuna
Croatian Kuna
and the remaining eight are to follow. Cost of program - 200 million Croatian Kuna. However Defence minister Ante Kotromanovic is holding talks with the US on the possibility of purchasing 15 used UH-60
UH-60
Black Hawk helicopters.[16] These would replace older Mi-17
Mi-17
helicopters currently in service but scheduled to undergo overhaul in 2015, cost of which is uncertain due to difficulties in acquiring spare parts and dependence on Russia's willingness to overhaul or supply spare parts thus undermining Croatia's own national interests and security. If Black Hawks are purchased Croatia
Croatia
would sell its older Mi-17
Mi-17
helicopters to third parties for roughly 5 million USD per unit. Modernization of the combat aircraft fleet. It was decided to overhaul the fleet of MiG 21 and purchase additional aircraft as an interim solution till 2019-2020 when a new fighter will be purchased. Cost of program – 105 million Croatian Kuna.[17] Plans to purchase at least one SAM battery with a range that exceeds 10 km, most likely candidates are Crotale NG or second hand systems from a number of NATO
NATO
allies. Cost of program - unknown [18] although there are plans to move entire air defence segment of the air force to land forces component of Croatian Armed Forces
Croatian Armed Forces
thus reducing the number of service personal in the air force. Integration of AN/FPS-117
AN/FPS-117
Radar network in to NATO
NATO
Radar network consisting of 5 radar stations across Croatia
Croatia
- 50 million Kuna.[18] $500 million purchase of 12 F-16 C/D Barak 2020 from Israel, the aircraft will undergo SLEP, and are comparable to F-16I Sufa Block 52. Purchase includes 3 spare engines and 2 simulators.[19]

Aircraft[edit] Current inventory[edit]

A Croatian MiG-21UMD

A Bell 206III in Zagreb

Aircraft Origin Type Variant In service Notes

Combat Aircraft

MiG-21 Soviet Union fighter MiG-21bis/UMD 12[20]

F-16 Fighting Falcon United States multirole F-16C/D Barak 2020

12 on order –obtained from Israel[21]

Aerial Firefighting

AT-802 United States fire suppressor

6[20]

Bombardier CL-415 Canada water bomber

6[20]

Electronic Warfare

Pilatus PC-9 Switzerland electronic warfare

3[20]

Helicopters

Mil Mi-17 Russia transport / SAR Mi-8/17/171 23[20]

Bell OH-58 United States armed scout OH-58D 16[22]

Trainer Aircraft

PC-9 Switzerland trainer

11[20]

Bell 206 United States trainer

8[20]

Zlin 242 L Czech trainer

5[23]

Retired[edit] Previous aircraft operated by the Air Force were the Soko G-4, Soko J-22 Orao, Antonov An-2, Antonov An-26, Mil Mi-24, Bell 205, Bell 212, MD 500, SA342 Gazelle helicopters[24] See also[edit]

History of Croatian Air force Austro-Hungarian Imperial and Royal Aviation Troops Yugoslav Royal Air Force Air Force of the Independent State of Croatia Croatian Air Force
Croatian Air Force
Legion Yugoslav Partisans Balkan Air Force Yugoslav Air Force

References[edit]

Lisko, T. and Canak, D., Hrvatsko Ratno Zrakoplovstvo u Drugome Svejetskom Ratu (The Croatian Airforce in the Second World War) Zagreb, 1998 ISBN 953-97698-0-9. Savic, D. and Ciglic, B. Croatian Aces of World War II Osprey Aircraft of the Aces – 49, Oxford, 2002 ISBN 1-84176-435-3.

Notes[edit]

^ Krizmanić, Goran. "OSRH - Glavna". www.osrh.hr.  ^ "Orbats - Scramble". Scramblemagazine.nl. Retrieved 2016-03-31.  ^ Air Forces Monthly, Feb 2013 Edition, Key Publishing ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on February 1, 2015. Retrieved January 29, 2015.  ^ " Croatia
Croatia
to refurbish MiGs, delaying new combat type". Flightglobal.com. Retrieved 24 December 2014.  ^ 2013-06-26T10:18+02:00 10:18 26.06.2013 (2013-06-26). "Ukraine wins tender to repair Croatian MiG-21
MiG-21
fighters". En.interfax.com.ua. Retrieved 2016-03-31.  ^ Tabak, Igor (21 July 2017). " Croatia
Croatia
issues RfP for multirole fighter aircraft". IHS Jane's 360. Archived from the original on 23 November 2017. Retrieved 23 November 2017.  ^ Lozančić, Branko (26 September 2017). "Replacement being sought for MiG's – Krstičević with his Swedish colleague". Voice of Croatia. Archived from the original on 23 November 2017. Retrieved 23 November 2017.  ^ Adamowski, Jaroslaw (4 October 2017). "4 nations bid for Croatian fighter jet deal; F-16 and Gripen under consideration". Defense News. Warsaw. Archived from the original on 23 November 2017. Retrieved 23 November 2017.  ^ Egozi, Arie (27 November 2017). "Israel offers Croatia
Croatia
mixed fleet of F-16s". Flight Global. Tel Aviv. Archived from the original on 29 November 2017. Retrieved 29 November 2017.  ^ Rojkes Dombe, Ami (22 November 2017). "Israel, Sweden Compete to Replace Croatia's Outdated MiG-21s". Israel Defense. Archived from the original on 23 November 2017. Retrieved 23 November 2017.  ^ "Croatian MoD downselects Sweden, Israel bids to replace outdated MiG-21s". Air Recognition. 20 November 2017. Archived from the original on 23 November 2017. Retrieved 23 November 2017.  ^ " Croatia
Croatia
leaning towards Swedish Gripens or Israeli F-16s". Alert 5. 22 November 2017. Archived from the original on 23 November 2017. Retrieved 23 November 2017.  ^ "VLADA ODLUČILA O KUPOVINI AVIONA Plenković: 'Ova odluka predstavlja našu političku volju, te jačanje suradnje s SAD-om i Izraelom'".  ^ Adamowski, Jaroslaw (8 August 2017). " Croatian Parliament
Croatian Parliament
Approves Kiowa Helo Deal".  ^ Krešimir Žabec (2014-05-27). "Umjesto ruskih Mi-8, MORH želi polovne Black Hawke". Jutarnji.hr. Retrieved 2016-03-26.  ^ "Remont sedam migova i nabava još pet za 13,9 milijuna eura". Večernji.hr. Retrieved 24 December 2014.  ^ a b "HV će imati bojnu od 500 vojnika za ratovanje u svijetu". Večernji.hr. Retrieved 24 December 2014.  ^ https://www.vecernji.hr/vijesti/doznajemo-kako-ce-izgledati-hrvatski-f-16-1236260 ^ a b c d e f g "World Air Forces 2017". Flightglobal Insight. 2017. Retrieved 19 March 2017.  ^ "Israel Sells Croatia
Croatia
12 F-16 Fighter Jets for $500 Million". haaretz.com. Retrieved 31 March 2018.  ^ Tabak, Igor (5 December 2016). " Croatia
Croatia
receives final OH-58D Kiowa helicopters". IHS Jane's 360. Zagreb, Croatia. Retrieved 5 December 2016.  ^ "Započelo selekcijsko letenje novog naraštaja vojnih pilota".  ^ "World Air Forces 1993 pg. 51". flightglobal.com. Retrieved 1 January 2018. 

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