HOME
The Info List - Crimean Khanate


--- Advertisement ---



The Crimean Khanate
Crimean Khanate
(Karimia Khanate) (Mongolian: Крымын ханлиг; Crimean Tatar
Tatar
/ Ottoman Turkish: Къырым Ханлыгъы, Qırım Hanlığı / قرم خانلغى or Къырым Юрту, Qırım Yurtu / قرم يورتى; Russian: Крымское ханство, Krymskoje hanstvo; Ukrainian: Кримське ханство, Krymśke chanstvo; Polish: Chanat Krymski) was a Turkic vassal state of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
from 1478 to 1774, the longest-lived of the Turkic khanates that succeeded the empire of the Golden Horde. Established by Hacı I Giray
Hacı I Giray
in 1449, the Crimean khans were the patrilineal descendants of Toqa Temür, thirteenth son of Jochi
Jochi
and grandson of Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
through marriage; Temür married one of Genghis Khan's granddaughters. The khanate was located in present-day Russia
Russia
and Ukraine. Ottoman forces under Gedik Ahmet Pasha conquered all of the Crimean peninsula and joined it to the khanate in 1475. During the 16th and 17th centuries, the Crimean Khanate's Karimi merchants made it an important center of the slave trade. In 1774, it was released as a nationally independent state, following the Russo-Turkish Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca, and formally annexed by the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
in 1783, becoming the Taurida Governorate.

Contents

1 Naming and geography 2 History

2.1 Establishment 2.2 Ottoman protectorate 2.3 Victory over the Golden Horde 2.4 Slave trade 2.5 Alliances 2.6 Struggle over Astrakhan 2.7 Decline

3 Government

3.1 Internal affairs 3.2 Crimean law 3.3 Non-Muslim minorities

4 Economy 5 Crimean art and architecture

5.1 Selim II Giray fountain 5.2 Bakhchisaray
Bakhchisaray
Fountain

6 Regions and administration

6.1 Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
territories

7 See also 8 Notes 9 External links 10 Further reading

Naming and geography[edit]

English-speaking writers during the 18th and early 19th centuries often called the territory of the Crimean Khanate
Crimean Khanate
and of the Lesser Nogai Horde
Nogai Horde
Little Tartary
Tartary
(or subdivided it as Crim Tartary
Tartary
(also Krim Tartary) and Kuban
Kuban
Tartary).[1] The name "Little Tartary" distinguished the area from (Great) Tartary
Tartary
- those areas of central and northern Asia inhabited by Turkic peoples
Turkic peoples
or Tatars. The Khanate included the Crimean peninsula
Crimean peninsula
and the adjacent steppes, mostly corresponding to the parts of South Ukraine
Ukraine
between the Dnepr and the Donets
Donets
(i.e. including most of present-day Zaporizhia Oblast, left- Dnepr
Dnepr
parts of Kherson Oblast, besides minor parts of southeastern Dnipropetrovsk Oblast
Dnipropetrovsk Oblast
and western Donetsk Oblast). The territory controlled by the Crimean Khanate
Crimean Khanate
shifted throughout its existence due to the constant incursions by the Cossacks, who had lived along the Don since the disintegration of the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
in the 15th century. The London-based cartographer Herman Moll
Herman Moll
in a map of c. 1729 shows "Little Tartary" as including the Crimean peninsula
Crimean peninsula
and the steppe between Dnepr
Dnepr
and Mius River
Mius River
as far north as the Dnepr
Dnepr
bend and the upper Tor River (a tributary of the Donets).[2] History[edit] Establishment[edit]

Beyliks in the sixteenth century

The Crimean Khanate
Crimean Khanate
originated in the early 15th century when certain clans of the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
Empire ceased their nomadic life in the Desht-i Kipchak
Desht-i Kipchak
(Kypchak Steppes of today's Ukraine
Ukraine
and southern Russia) and decided to make Crimea
Crimea
their yurt (homeland). At that time, the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
of the Mongol empire had governed the Crimean peninsula as an ulus since 1239, with its capital at Qirim (Staryi Krym). The local separatists invited a Genghisid
Genghisid
contender for the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
throne, Hacı Giray, to become their khan. Hacı Giray accepted their invitation and traveled from exile in Lithuania. He warred for independence against the Horde from 1420 to 1441, in the end achieving success. But Hacı Giray then had to fight off internal rivals before he could ascend the throne of the khanate in 1449, after which he moved its capital to Qırq Yer (today part of Bahçeseray).[3] The khanate included the Crimean Peninsula
Crimean Peninsula
(except the south and southwest coast and ports, controlled by the Republic of Genoa) as well as the adjacent steppe. Ottoman protectorate[edit] The sons of Hacı I Giray
Hacı I Giray
contended against each other to succeed him. The Ottomans intervened and installed one of the sons, Meñli I Giray, on the throne. Menli I Giray, took the imperial title "Sovereign of Two Continents and Khan of Khans of Two Seas."[4]

A Crimean Tatar
Tatar
cavalry archer.

In 1475 the Ottoman forces, under the command of Gedik Ahmet Pasha, conquered the Greek Principality of Theodoro
Principality of Theodoro
and the Genoese colonies at Cembalo, Soldaia, and Caffa
Caffa
(modern Feodosiya). Thenceforth the khanate was a protectorate of the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman sultan enjoyed veto power over the selection of new Crimean khans. The Empire annexed the Crimean coast but recognized the legitimacy of the khanate rule of the steppes, as the khans were descendants of Genghis Khan. In 1475, the Ottomans imprisoned Meñli I Giray for three years for resisting the invasion. After returning from captivity in Constantinople, he accepted the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire. Nevertheless, Ottoman sultans treated the khans more as allies than subjects.[5] The khans continued to have a foreign policy independent from the Ottomans in the steppes of Little Tartary. The khans continued to mint coins and use their names in Friday prayers, two important signs of sovereignty. They did not pay tribute to the Ottoman Empire; instead the Ottomans paid them in return for their services of providing skilled outriders and frontline cavalry in their campaigns.[6] Later on, Crimea
Crimea
lost power in this relationship as the result of a crisis in 1523, during the reign of Meñli's successor, Mehmed I Giray. He died that year and beginning with his successor, from 1524 on, Crimean khans were appointed by the Sultan.[citation needed] The alliance of the Crimean Tatars
Tatars
and the Ottomans was comparable to the Polish-Lithuanian Union in its importance and durability.[clarification needed] The Crimean cavalry became indispensable for the Ottomans' campaigns against Poland, Hungary, and Persia.[7] Victory over the Golden Horde[edit] In 1502, Meñli I Giray defeated the last khan of the Great Horde, which put an end to the Horde's claims on Crimea. The Khanate initially chose as its capital Salaçıq near the Qırq Yer fortress. Later, the capital was moved a short distance to Bahçeseray, founded in 1532 by Sahib I Giray. Both Salaçıq and the Qırq Yer fortress today are part of the expanded city of Bahçeseray. Slave trade[edit] Further information: Crimean-Nogai raids into East Slavic lands

Crimean Tatar
Tatar
warrior fighting Polish soldiers

A Persian style miniature depicting the Ottoman campaign in Hungary
Hungary
in 1566, Crimean Tatars
Tatars
as vanguard.

The Crimeans frequently mounted raids into the Danubian principalities, Poland-Lithuania, and Muscovy
Muscovy
to enslave people whom they could capture; for each captive, the khan received a fixed share (savğa) of 10% or 20%. These campaigns by Crimean forces were either sefers ("sojourns"), officially declared military operations led by the khans themselves, or çapuls ("despoiling"), raids undertaken by groups of noblemen, sometimes illegally because they contravened treaties concluded by the khans with neighbouring rulers. For a long time, until the early 18th century, the khanate maintained a massive slave trade with the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and the Middle East, exporting about 2 million slaves from Russia
Russia
and Poland-Lithuania over the period 1500–1700.[8] Caffa
Caffa
(city on Crimean peninsula) was one of the best known and significant trading ports and slave markets.[9][10] In 1769, a last major Tatar
Tatar
raid resulted in the capture of 20,000 Russian and Ruthenian slaves.[11] Author and historian Brian Glyn Williams writes:

Fisher estimates that in the sixteenth century the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth lost around 20,000 individuals a year and that from 1474 to 1694, as many as a million Commonwealth citizens were carried off into Crimean slavery.[12]

Early modern sources are full of descriptions of sufferings of Christian slaves captured by the Crimean Tatars
Tatars
in the course of their raids:

It seems that the position and everyday conditions of a slave depended largely on his/her owner. Some slaves indeed could spend the rest of their days doing exhausting labor: as the Crimean vizir (minister) Sefer Gazi Aga mentions in one of his letters, the slaves were often “a plough and a scythe” of their owners. Most terrible, perhaps, was the fate of those who became galley-slaves, whose sufferings were poeticized in many Ukrainian dumas (songs). ... Both female and male slaves were often used for sexual purposes.[11]

Alliances[edit]

Tatars
Tatars
fighting Zaporozhian Cossacks, by Józef Brandt

The Crimean Khanate
Crimean Khanate
also made alliances with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Zaporizhian Sich. The assistance of İslâm III Giray during the Khmelnytsky Uprising
Khmelnytsky Uprising
in 1648 contributed greatly to the initial momentum of military successes for the Cossacks. The relationship with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
was also exclusive, as it was the home dynasty of the Girays, who sought sanctuary in Lithuania in the 15th century before establishing themselves on the Crimean peninsula. The northern hinterlands of the khanate were coveted by Muscovy
Muscovy
for their agricultural productivity, having longer growing seasons than Muscovy
Muscovy
itself. Within Muscovy, the permanent warfare at the borderland and the burgeoning in size of the armies of the nobles (boyars) fomented intense exploitation of the peasantry. Struggle over Astrakhan[edit] In the middle of the 16th century, the Crimean Khanate
Crimean Khanate
asserted a claim to be the successor to the Golden Horde, which entailed asserting the right of rule over the Tatar
Tatar
khanates of the Caspian-Volga region, particularly the Kazan Khanate
Kazan Khanate
and Astrakhan Khanate. This claim pitted it against Muscovy
Muscovy
for dominance in the region. A successful campaign by Devlet I Giray upon the Russian capital in 1571 culminated in the burning of Moscow, and he thereby gained the sobriquet, That Alğan (seizer of the throne).[13] The following year, however, the Crimean Khanate
Crimean Khanate
lost access to the Volga once and for all due to its catastrophic defeat in the Battle at Molodi. Decline[edit] Main article: Annexation of Crimea
Crimea
by the Russian Empire

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Commander Tugai Bey
Tugai Bey
leads the Tatar
Tatar
cavalry, by Juliusz Kossak.

Crimean Tatar
Tatar
Imams teach the Quran. Lithograph by Carlo Bossoli

The Turkish traveler writer Evliya Çelebi
Evliya Çelebi
mentions the impact of Cossack
Cossack
raids from Azak
Azak
upon the territories of the Crimean Khanate. These raids ruined trade routes and severely depopulated many important regions. By the time Evliya Çelebi
Evliya Çelebi
had arrived almost all the towns he visited were affected by the Cossack
Cossack
raids. In fact, the only place Evliya Çelebi
Evliya Çelebi
considered safe from the Cossacks
Cossacks
was the Ottoman fortress at Arabat.[14] The decline of the Crimean Khanate
Crimean Khanate
was a consequence of the weakening of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and a change in the balance of power in Eastern Europe favouring its neighbours. Crimean Tatars
Tatars
often returned from Ottoman campaigns without booty, and Ottoman subsidies were less likely for unsuccessful campaigns. Tatar
Tatar
cavalry, without sufficient guns, suffered great loss against European and Russian armies with modern equipment. By the late 17th century, Muscovite Russia
Russia
became too strong a power for Crimea
Crimea
to pillage and the Treaty of Karlowitz (1699) outlawed further raids. The era of great slave raids in Russia and Ukraine
Ukraine
was over, although brigands and Nogay raiders continued their attacks and Russian hatred of the Khanate did not decrease. These polito-economic losses led in turn to erosion of the khan's support among noble clans, and internal conflicts for power ensued. The Nogays, who provided a significant portion of the Crimean military forces, also took back their support from the khans towards the end of the empire. In the first half of 17th century, Kalmyks
Kalmyks
formed the Kalmyk Khanate in the Lower Volga and under Ayuka Khan conducted many military expeditions against the Crimean Khanate
Crimean Khanate
and Nogays. By becoming an important ally and later part of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
and taking an oath to protect its southeastern borders, the Kalmyk Khanate
Kalmyk Khanate
took an active part in all Russian war campaigns in 17th and 18th centuries, providing up to 40,000 fully equipped horsemen. The united Russian and Ukrainian forces attacked the Khanate during the Chigirin Campaigns
Chigirin Campaigns
and the Crimean Campaigns. It was during the Russo-Turkish War, 1735-1739
Russo-Turkish War, 1735-1739
that the Russians, under the command of Field-Marshal Münnich, finally managed to penetrate the Crimean Peninsula itself, burning and destroying everything on their way. More warfare ensued during the reign of Catherine II. The Russo-Turkish War, 1768-1774
Russo-Turkish War, 1768-1774
resulted in the Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarji, which made the Crimean Khanate
Crimean Khanate
independent from the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and aligned it with the Russian Empire. The rule of the last Crimean khan Şahin Giray was marked with increasing Russian influence and outbursts of violence from the khan administration towards internal opposition. On 8 April 1783, in violation of the treaty (some parts of which had been already violated by Crimeans and Ottomans), Catherine II intervened in the civil war, de facto annexing the whole peninsula as the Taurida Governorate. In 1787, Şahin Giray took refuge in the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and was eventually executed, on Rhodes, by the Ottoman authorities for betrayal. The royal Giray family survives to this day. Through the 1792 Treaty of Jassy
Treaty of Jassy
(Iaşi), the Russian frontier was extended to the Dniester River
Dniester River
and the takeover of Yedisan
Yedisan
was complete. The 1812 Treaty of Bucharest transferred Bessarabia
Bessarabia
to Russian control. Government[edit]

At the Southern Border of Moscva state by Sergey Vasilievich Ivanov.

All Khans were from the Giray clan, which traced its right to rule to its descent from Genghis Khan. According to the tradition of the steppes, the ruler was legitimate only if he was of Genghisid
Genghisid
royal descent (i.e. "ak süyek"). Although the Giray dynasty
Giray dynasty
was the symbol of government, the khan actually governed with the participation of Qaraçı Beys, the leaders of the noble clans such as Şirin, Barın, Arğın, Qıpçaq, and in the later period, Mansuroğlu and Sicavut. After the collapse of the Astrakhan Khanate
Astrakhan Khanate
in 1556, an important element of the Crimean Khanate
Crimean Khanate
were the Nogays, who most of them transferred their allegiance from Astrakhan to Crimea. Circassians (Atteghei) and Cossacks
Cossacks
also occasionally played roles in Crimean politics, alternating their allegiance between the khan and the beys. The Nogay pastoral nomads north of the Black Sea
Black Sea
were nominally subject to the Crimean Khan. They were divided into the following groups: Budjak
Budjak
(from the Danube to the Dniester), Yedisan
Yedisan
(from the Dniester to the Bug), Jamboyluk (Bug to Crimea), Yedickul (north of Crimea) and Kuban. Internal affairs[edit]

Khan Qirim Girai, is known to have authorized the construction of many landmarks in Bakhchysarai
Bakhchysarai
and the Crimean Khanate.

Internally, the khanate territory was divided among the beys, and beneath the beys were mirzas from noble families. The relationship of peasants or herdsmen to their mirzas was not feudal. They were free and the Islamic law protected them from losing their rights. Apportioned by village, the land was worked in common and taxes were assigned to the whole village. The tax was one tenth of an agricultural product, one twentieth of a herd animal, and a variable amount of unpaid labor. During the reforms by the last khan Şahin Giray, the internal structure was changed following the Turkish pattern: the nobles' landholdings were proclaimed the domain of the khan and reorganized into qadılıqs (provinces governed by representatives of the khan). Crimean law[edit]

Meñli I Giray at the court of Ottoman sultan Bayezid II

Crimean law was based on Tatar
Tatar
law, Islamic law, and, in limited matters, Ottoman law. The leader of the Muslim establishment was the mufti, who was selected from among the local Muslim clergy. His major duty was neither judicial nor theological, but financial. The mufti’s administration controlled all of the vakif lands and their enormous revenues. Another Muslim official, appointed not by the clergy but the Ottoman sultan, was the kadıasker, the overseer of the khanate’s judicial districts, each under jurisdiction of a kadi. In theory, kadis answered to the kadiaskers, but in practice they answered to the clan leaders and the khan. The kadis determined the day to day legal behavior of Muslims in the khanate. Non-Muslim minorities[edit]

"Crimean Tatars
Tatars
travelling on the plains" by Carlo Bossoli.

Substantial non-Muslim minorities, Greeks, Armenians, Crimean Goths, Adyghe (Circassians), Venetians, Genoese, Crimean Karaites
Crimean Karaites
and Qırımçaq Jews, lived principally in the cities, mostly in separate districts or suburbs. Under the millet system, they had their own religious and judicial institutions. They were subject to extra taxes in exchange for exemption from military service, living like Crimean Tatars
Tatars
and speaking dialects of Crimean Tatar.[15] Mikhail Kizilov writes: "According to Marcin Broniewski (1578), the Tatars
Tatars
seldom cultivated the soil themselves, with most of their land tilled by the Polish, Ruthenian, Russian, and Walachian (Moldavian) slaves."[11] The Jewish population was concentrated in Çufut Kale ('Jewish Fortress'), a separate town near Bahçeseray that was the Khan's original capital. As other minorities, they spoke a Turkic language. Crimean law granted them special financial and political rights as a reward, according to local folklore, for historic services rendered to an uluhane (first wife of a Khan). The capitation tax on Jews in Crimea
Crimea
was levied by the office of the uluhane in Bahçeseray.[16] The Jews in Crimea
Crimea
were actively involved in the slave trade.[11] Economy[edit]

Crimean Tatar
Tatar
children. Detail of a portrait of Agha Dedesh at the court of King John II Casimir, by Daniel Schultz.

The nomadic part of the Crimean Tatars
Tatars
and all the Nogays
Nogays
were cattle breeders. Crimea
Crimea
had important trading ports where the goods arrived via the Silk Road
Silk Road
were exported to the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and Europe. Crimean Khanate
Crimean Khanate
had many large, beautiful, and lively cities such as the capital Bahçeseray, Gözleve (Yevpatoria), Karasu Bazaar (Karasu-market) and Aqmescit (White-mosque) having numerous hans (caravansarais and merchant quarters), tanners, and mills. Many monuments constructed under the Crimean Khanate
Crimean Khanate
were destroyed or left in ruins after the Russian invasion.[17] Mosques, in particular were demolished or remade into Orthodox churches.[17] The settled Crimean Tatars
Tatars
were engaged in trade, agriculture, and artisanry. Crimea
Crimea
was a center of wine, tobacco, and fruit cultivation. Bahçeseray kilims (oriental rugs) were exported to Poland, and knives made by Crimean Tatar
Tatar
artisans were deemed the best by the Caucasian tribes. Crimea was also renowned for manufacture of silk and honey. The slave trade (15th-17th century) in captured Ukrainians and Russians was one of the major sources of income of Crimean Tartar and Nogay nobility. In this process, known as harvesting the steppe, raiding parties would go out and capture, and then enslave the local Christian peasants living in the countryside.[18] In spite of the dangers, Polish and Russian serfs were attracted to the freedom offered by the empty steppes of Ukraine. The slave raids entered Russian and Cossack
Cossack
folklore and many dumy were written elegising the victims' fates. This contributed to a hatred for the Khanate that transcended political or military concerns. But in fact, there were always small raids committed by both Tatars
Tatars
and Cossacks, in both directions.[19] The last recorded major Crimean raid, before those in the Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774)
Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774)
took place during the reign of Peter I (1682–1725).[19] Crimean art and architecture[edit] Selim II Giray fountain[edit]

Fountain of Selim II Giray

The Selim II Giray fountain, built in 1747, is considered one of the masterpieces of Crimean Khanate's hydraulic engineering designs and is still marveled in modern times. It consists of small ceramic pipes, boxed in an underground stone tunnel, stretching back to the spring source more than 20 metres (66 feet) away. It was one of the finest sources of water in Bakhchisaray. Bakhchisaray
Bakhchisaray
Fountain[edit]

The Bakhchisaray
Bakhchisaray
Fountain.

The Crimean Khan's Palace in Bakhchysaray, by Carlo Bossoli

One of the notable constructors of Crimean art and architecture was Qırım Giray, who in 1764 commissioned the fountain master Omer the Persian to construct the Bakhchisaray
Bakhchisaray
Fountain. The Bakhchisaray Fountain or Fountain of Tears is a real case of life imitating art. The fountain is known as the embodiment of love of one of the last Crimean Khans, Khan Qırım Giray
Qırım Giray
for his young wife, and his grief after her early death. The Khan was said to have fallen in love with a Polish girl in his harem. Despite his battle-hardened harshness, he was grievous and wept when she died, astonishing all those who knew him. He commissioned a marble fountain to be made, so that the rock would weep, like him, forever.[20] Regions and administration[edit]

Main regions outside of Qirim yurt (the peninsula)

Kaztsiv ulus (located in Kuban) Yedychkul Horde Djambayluk Horde Yedisan
Yedisan
Horde Budzhak Horde Prohnoinsk Palanka (possibly leased to the Zaporizhian Host) (located on the Kinburn peninsula) Silistra Province, Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
for sometime governed by Bakhchisaray

The peninsula itself was divided by the khan's family and several beys. The estates controlled by beys were called beylik. Beys in the khanate were as important as the Polish Magnats. Directly to the khan belonged Cufut-Qale, Bakhchisaray, and Staryi Krym
Staryi Krym
(Eski Qirim). The khan also possessed all the salt lakes and the villages around them, as well as the woods around the rivers Alma, Kacha, and Salgir. Part of his own estate included the wastelands with their newly created settlements. Part of the main khan's estates were the lands of the Kalha-sultan (Qalğa) who was next in the line of succession of the khan's family. He usually administered the eastern portion of the peninsula. Kalha also was Chief Commander of the Crimean Army in the absence of the Khan. The next hereditary administrative position, called Nureddin, was also assigned to the khan's family. He administrated the western region of the peninsula. There also was a specifically assigned position for the khan's mother or sister — Ana-beim — which was similar to the Ottomans' Valide Sultan. The senior wife of the Khan carried a rank of Ulu-beim and was next in importance to the Nureddin. By the end of the khanate regional offices of the kaimakans, who administered smaller regions of the Crimean Khanate, were created.

Or Qapı (Perekop) had special status. The fortress was controlled either directly by the khan's family or by the family of Shirin.

Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
territories[edit]

Kefe Eyalet, a seat of Ottomans in Crimea
Crimea
until 1774 Silistra Eyalet, the western coast of Black Sea, later Danube Vilayet

See also[edit]

List of Turkic dynasties and countries List of Turkic states and empires Vassal and tributary states of the Ottoman Empire Little Tartary New Russia List of Crimean khans List of Crimean Tatars List of Ukrainian rulers Russo-Crimean Wars Cossacks Kipchaks Nogai Horde Lipka Tatars

Eurasians Nomadic people Tatar
Tatar
invasions Russo– Crimean War
Crimean War
(1571) Ottoman wars in Europe Ottoman-Habsburg wars List of the Muslim Empires List of Sunni Muslim dynasties Mongol invasions Mongol Empire Ottoman Empire

Part of a series on the

History of Ukraine

Prehistory

Trypillian–Cucuteni culture Yamna culture Catacomb culture Cimmeria Taurica Scythia Bosporan Kingdom Sarmatia Zarubintsy culture Chernyakhov culture Hunnic Empire

Early history

Early East Slavs Onoghuria White Croatia Rus' Khaganate Khazars Kievan Rus' Galicia–Volhynia Cumania Mongol invasion of Rus' Golden Horde Principality of Moldavia Grand Duchy of Lithuania Crimean Khanate

Early modern history

Cossacks Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Zaporozhian Host Khmelnytsky Uprising The Ruin Cossack
Cossack
Hetmanate Left bank Sloboda Ukraine Right bank Danube Russian Empire Little Russia New Russia Habsburg Monarchy Kingdom of Galicia Bukovina Carpathian Ruthenia

Modern history

Ukraine
Ukraine
during World War I Ukraine
Ukraine
after the Revolution Ukrainian Civil War Ukrainian People's Republic West Ukrainian People's Republic Ukrainian State Directorate of Ukraine Ukrainian SSR Communist Party of Ukraine Holodomor Ukraine
Ukraine
in World War II Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists Chernobyl Cassette Scandal Orange Revolution Russia– Ukraine
Ukraine
gas disputes Euromaidan Russian military intervention (2014-) Crimean crisis War in Donbass

Topics by history

Name of Ukraine Historical regions Christianity
Christianity
in Ukraine

Ukraine
Ukraine
portal

v t e

Part of a series on

Crimean Tatars

By region or country

Bulgaria Romania Turkey United States Uzbekistan

Religion

Sunni Islam
Islam
(Hanafi)

Languages and dialects

Crimean Tatar

History

Khanate (1441–1783) Taurida Oblast (1783–1796) Taurida Governorate
Taurida Governorate
(1802–1917) People's Republic (1917–1918) Crimean ASSR (1921–1945) Sürgün (1944) Crimean Oblast
Crimean Oblast
(1945–1991) Autonomous Republic (1991–) Republic of Crimea
Republic of Crimea
(2014–)

People and groups

List Biographies Khans Mejlis Milliy Firqa

v t e

Notes[edit]

^ Edmund Spencer, Travels in Circassia, Krim- Tartary
Tartary
&c: Including a Steam Voyage Down the Danube from Vienna to Constantinople, and Round the Black Sea, Henry Colburn, 1837. ^ To His Most Serene and August Majesty Peter Alexovitz Absolute Lord of Russia
Russia
&c. This map of Moscovy, Poland, Little Tartary, and ye Black Sea
Black Sea
&c. is most Humbly Dedicated by H. Moll Geographer (raremaps.com). The map shows Little Tartary
Tartary
as reaching the left bank of the Dnepr, and as including the Kalmius
Kalmius
but not the Mius, to the north reaching as far as the Tor (Torets) basin, somewhat south of Izium. Other geographers (but not Moll) sometimes included in "Lesser Tartary"[according to whom?] the territory of the Lesser Nogai Horde in Kuban, east of the Sea of Azov
Sea of Azov
(in Moll's map labelled separately as Koeban Tartary). ^ Bakhchisaray
Bakhchisaray
history Archived 2009-01-06 at the Wayback Machine. (in English) ^ http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/201202/the.palace.and.the.poet.htm ^ Khan Palace in Bakhchisaray, The Giray Dynasty, Hansaray Organization ^ Bennigsen ^ List of Wars of the Crimean Tatars ^ Darjusz Kołodziejczyk, as reported by Mikhail Kizilov (2007). "Slaves, Money Lenders, and Prisoner Guards:The Jews and the Trade in Slaves and Captivesin the Crimean Khanate". The Journal of Jewish Studies. p. 2.  ^ Historical survey > Slave societies ^ Caffa ^ a b c d Mikhail Kizilov. "Slave Trade in the Early Modern Crimea From the Perspective of Christian, Muslim, and Jewish Sources". Oxford University.  ^ Brian Glyn Williams (2013). "The Sultan's Raiders: The Military Role of the Crimean Tatars
Tatars
in the Ottoman Empire" (PDF). The Jamestown Foundation. p. 27. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-10-21.  ^ Moscow - Historical background Archived 2007-10-11 at the Wayback Machine. ^ https://books.google.com.pk/books?id=-PFoAAAAMAAJ&q=Evliya+Celebi&dq=qirim+khan+giray&source=gbs_word_cloud_r&cad=5 ^ Fisher, Alan W (1978). The Crimean Tatars. Studies of Nationalities in the USSR. Hoover Press. ISBN 0-8179-6662-5.  ^ Fisher p. 34 ^ a b A history of Ukraine, Paul Robert Magocsi, 347, 1996 ^ Williams ^ a b The Russian Annexation of the Crimea
Crimea
1772-1783, page 26 ^ Johnstone, Sarah. Ukraine. Lonely Planet, 2005. ISBN 1-86450-336-X

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Crimean Khanate.

The Bağçasaray
Bağçasaray
Palace of the Crimean Khans Tatar.Net Annexation of the Crimean Khanate

Further reading[edit]

Ivanics, Mária (2007). "Enslavement, Slave Labour, and the Treatment of Captives in the Crimean Khanate". In Dávid, Géza; Pál Fodor. Ransom Slavery along the Ottoman Borders (Early Fifteenth-Early Eighteenth Centuries). Leiden: Brill. pp. 193–219. 

v t e

State successors of Golden Horde

White Horde

Great Horde Khanate of Kazan

Qasim Khanate

Khanate of Astrakhan Khanate of Crimea

Blue Horde

Nogai Horde Khanate of Sibir Kazakh Khanate Uzbek Khanate

Khanate of Khiva

Other

Genghisids Moscow State Expansion History of Kazakhstan History of Crimea History of Tatarstan History of Bashkortostan History of Uzbekistan History of Siberia History of Kyrgyzstan

Crimea
Crimea
portal

v t e

Crimea articles

Political status Federal city of Sevastopol Republic of Crimea

History

Bosporan Kingdom Roman Crimea
Crimea
(Cherson (theme)) Kipchaks Khazars Crimean campaigns of 1687 and 1689 Crimean Khanate 1783 annexation by Russia Crimean Goths Crimean War Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic Crimea
Crimea
in World War II Crimean Oblast 1944 deportations 1954 transfer to Ukraine President of Crimea
Crimea
(historical) Autonomous Republic of Crimea 2014 Crimean status referendum 2014 annexation by Russia Supreme Council of Crimea
Crimea
(until 2014) (Chairman) Prime Minister of Crimea
Crimea
(until 2014) Council of Ministers (until 2014) Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar
Tatar
People (until outlawed in 2016)

Geography

Arabat Spit Arabat Bay Azov Sea Crimean Mountains Kerch Strait Perekop
Perekop
isthmus Syvash Vyalova cave system

Subdivisions

Cities Raions Urban-type settlements

Politics

Constitution of the Republic of Crimea Head of the Republic of Crimea State Council of Crimea Crimean parliamentary election, 2014 Legislative Assembly of Sevastopol Governor of Sevastopol Sevastopol gubernatorial election, 2017 The Black Sea
Black Sea
Fleet Crimean Federal District

Economy

Tourism Kerch Strait
Kerch Strait
Bridge Crimea
Crimea
Air (historical) Crimean Trolleybus

Society

Sports

Crimean Premier League

Demographics

Peoples

Russians Ukrainians Crimean Tatars Armenians Karaites Krymchaks Crimea
Crimea
Germans

Languages

Crimean Tatar Krymchak

Religion

Christianity Roman Catholic Diocese of Odessa-Simferopol Ukrainian Catholic Archiepiscopal Exarchate of Odessa Judaism Islam

Category Portal

v t e

Administrative divisions of the Ottoman Empire

c. 1365 – 1867 (eyalets)

Africa

Algiers Egypt

Muhammad Ali dynasty (1805-67

Habesh Tripolitania Tunis

Anatolia

Adana Aidin Anatolia Ankara Childir Diyarbekir Dulkadir Erzurum Hüdavendigâr Karaman Kars Kastamonu Rum Trebizond Van

Europe

Adrianople Archipelago Bosnia Budin Crete Egir Herzegovina Kanije Kefe Morea Niš Podolia Rumelia Salonica Silistra Temeşvar Uyvar Varat Widdin Yanina

Middle East

Aleppo Baghdad Basra Cyprus Damascus Lahsa Mosul Rakka Shahrizor Sidon Tripoli Yemen

1867–1922 (vilayets and mutasarrıfates)

Africa

Tripolitania

Anatolia

Adana Aidin Ankara Archipelago Bitlis Diyarbekir Erzurum Hüdavendigâr Kastamonu Konya Mamuret-ul-Aziz Sivas Trebizond Van

Europe

Adrianople Bosnia Constantinople Crete Danube Janina Kosovo Manastir Salonica Scutari

Middle East

Aleppo Baghdad Basra Beirut Hejaz Jerusalem Mosul Mount Lebanon Syria Yemen

Vassals and autonomies

Vassals

Cossack
Cossack
Hetmanate

Ottoman Ukraine

Crimean Khanate Khanate of Kazan Principality of Moldavia Sharifate of Mecca Republic of Ragusa Serbian Despotate Duchy of Syrmia Principality of Transylvania Principality of Wallachia Principality of Romania Principality of Serbia Principality of Bulgaria Kingdom of Imereti Septinsular Republic

Autonomies

Cretan State Khedivate of Egypt Eastern Rumelia Principality of Samos

See also the list of short-lived Ottoman provinces

v t e

State organisation of the Ottoman Empire

Central system

House of Osman

Ottoman dynasty
Ottoman dynasty
(Ottoman Caliphate) Imperial Harem Enderûn

Palace Schools

Government

Imperial Council (Porte) (Classical period)

Grand Vizier Viziers Kazaskers Defterdars/Ministers of Finance Nişancı Reis ül-Küttab

Imperial Government (reform period)

Ministry of Foreign Affairs

General Assembly (constitutional period)

Senate Chamber of Deputies (political parties)

Administrative divisions

Millets

Islam

Shaykh al-Islām

Christianity

Orthodox Armenian Syriac Orthodox Coptic Orthodox

Judaism

Hakham Bashi

Provincial

Eyalets

Beylerbeys

Vilayets Sanjaks

Sanjakbeys

Mutasarrifates Kazas/Kadiluks Vassal and tributary states

Rayas

v t e

Turkic topics

Languages

Afshar Altay Äynu Azerbaijani Bashkir Bulgar Chagatai Chulym Chuvash Crimean Tatar Cuman Dolgan Fuyü Gïrgïs Gagauz Ili Turki Karachay-Balkar Karaim Karakalpak Karamanli Turkish Kazakh Khakas Khalaj Khazar Khorasani Turkic Kipchak Krymchak Kumyk Kipchak languages Kyrgyz Nogai Old Turkic Ottoman Turkish Pecheneg Qashqai Sakha/Yakut Salar Shor Siberian Tatar Tatar Tofa Turkish Turkmen Tuvan Urum Uyghur Uzbek Western Yugur

Peoples

Afshar Ahiska Altays Azerbaijanis Balkars Bashkirs Bulgars Chulyms Chuvash Crimean Tatars Cumans Dolgans Dughlats Gagauz Iraqi Turkmens Karachays Karaites Karakalpaks Karluks Kazakhs Khakas Khalajs Khazars Khorasani Turks Kimek Kipchaks Krymchaks Kumandins Kumyks Kyrgyz Nogais Oghuz Turks Qarapapaqs Qashqai Salar Shatuo Shors Sybyrs Syrian Turkmen Tatars Telengits Teleuts Tofalar Turgesh Turkish people

in Bulgaria Turkish Cypriots in Kosovo in Egypt in the Republic of Macedonia in Romania in Western Thrace

Turkmens Tuvans Uyghurs Uzbeks Western Yugurs Yakuts Yueban

Politics

Grey Wolves Kemalism Burkhanism Pan-Turkism Turanism

Origins

Turkestan History Timeline of the Göktürks

Timeline 500–1300 migration

Nomadic empire Tian Shan / Altai Mountains Otuken

Locations

Sovereign states

Azerbaijan Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus1 Turkey Turkmenistan Uzbekistan

Autonomous areas

Altai Republic Bashkortostan Chuvashia Gagauzia Kabardino-Balkaria Karachay-Cherkessia Karakalpakstan Khakassia Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic Sakha Republic Tatarstan Tuva Xinjiang

Studies

Old Turkic alphabet Proto-Turkic language Turkology

Religions

Turkic mythology Tengrism Shamanism Islam Alevism Batiniyya Bayramiye Bektashi Order Christianity Hurufism Kadiri Khalwati order Malamatiyya Qalandariyya Qizilbash Rifa'i* Safaviyya Zahediyeh Vattisen Yaly

Traditional sports

Kyz kuu Jereed Kokpar Dzhigit Chovgan

Organizations

Turkic Council International Organization of Turkic Culture
International Organization of Turkic Culture
(TÜRKSOY) Organization of the Eurasian Law Enforcement Agencies with Military Status (TAKM) World Turks Qurultai

1 State with limited international recognition.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 151368905 GND: 40331

.