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Corycus
Corycus
(Greek: Κώρυκος; also transliterated Corycos or Korykos; Armenian: Կոռիկոս, translit. Koṙikos; Turkish: Kız Kalesi, lit. "maiden castle") was an ancient city in Cilicia Trachaea, Anatolia, located at the mouth of the valley called Şeytan deresi; the site is now occupied by the town of Kızkalesi
Kızkalesi
(formerly Ghorgos), Mersin
Mersin
Province, Turkey.

Contents

1 The city 2 Corycian Cave 3 See also 4 References 5 External links

The city[edit] Strabo
Strabo
does not mention a town of Corycus, but reports a promontory so called at the location, but a town Corycus
Corycus
is mentioned by Livy (xxxiii. 20), and by Pliny (v. 27), and Pomponius Mela
Pomponius Mela
(i. 13), and Stephanus of Byzantium
Stephanus of Byzantium
(s. v. Κώρυκος). In antiquity, Corycus was an important harbor and commercial town. It was the port of Seleucia, where, in 191 BCE, the fleet of Antiochus the Great
Antiochus the Great
was defeated by the Romans. In the Roman times it preserved its ancient laws; the emperors usually kept a fleet there to watch over the pirates. Corycus
Corycus
was also a mint in antiquity and some of its coins survive. Corycus
Corycus
was controlled by the Byzantine Empire. Justinian I
Justinian I
restored the public baths and a hospital. The admiral Eustathios Kymineianos re-fortified the island on the orders of Alexios I Komnenos
Alexios I Komnenos
at the beginning of the 12th century, adding a supplementary castle on a small island. This castle was later called "maidens castle", because it was told that a king held his daughter here in captivity until she was killed by a venomous snake. It was prophesied she would die by a snake bite. So she was taken to the sea castle to protect her, but a serpent was taken by basket to the castle, she was bitten and died. Corycus
Corycus
was conquered by the Armenians soon after it was rebuilt by the Byzantines. Until the mid-14th century the Armenians held both the mainland and island castles, which guarded this strategic port for the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia. Simon, the Baron of Koŕikos, attended the coronation of King Levon I in 1198/99. Subsequent Armenian nobles maintained authority in the area (with a few brief interruptions) until 1360, when Peter I, the King of Cypress, removed the Mamelukes and assumed suzerainty. In the late 14th century it fell again to the Turks. From 1448 or 1454 it belonged alternately to the Karamanids, the Egyptians, the Karamanids
Karamanids
a second time, and finally to the Ottoman Empire. Archaeological surveys published in 1982 and 1987 found that the Armenians maintained (with occasional repairs) the mainland castle’s simple Byzantine plan with its rectangular double walls, square towers, and two chapels, all of which were built with masonry taken from the nearby late antique city. The only original Armenian construction is one small chapel.[1] [2] Kizkalesi (castle)
Kizkalesi (castle)
on the island has the extensive remains of Armenian rebuilding. The island was once connected to the mainland fort by a breakwater.

Views of the Fortress and ruins of the town (c. 1860)

The ruins of the city are extensive. Among them are a triumphal arch, a necropolis with a beautiful Christian
Christian
tomb, sarcophagi, etc. The two medieval castles, one on the shore, the other in an islet, connected by a ruined pier, are partially preserved; the former was reputed impregnable. The walls of the castle on the mainland contain many pieces of columns; and a mole of great unhewn rocks projects from one angle of the fortress about a hundred yards across the bay. Three churches are also found, one decorated with frescoes. The walls of the ancient city may still be traced, and there appear to be sufficient remains to invite a careful examination of the spot. The city figures in the Synecdemus of Hierocles, and in a Notitia Episcopatuum of about 840.[3] The bishopric of Corycus
Corycus
was a suffragan of Tarsus, the capital of the Roman province
Roman province
of Cilicia
Cilicia
Prima, to which Corycus
Corycus
belonged. Of the bishops of the see, Germanus was at the First Council of Constantinople
First Council of Constantinople
in 381; Sallustius took part in the Council of Ephesus
Council of Ephesus
in 431 and a synod held in Tarsus in 434, and was represented at the Council of Chalcedon
Council of Chalcedon
by his metropolitan bishop Theodorus, who signed the acts of the council on his behalf; Archelaus went to a synod called by Patriarch Menas of Constantinople in 536; Cyprianus was at the Second Council of Constantinople
Second Council of Constantinople
in 553; and Ioannes participated in the Third Council of Constantinople
Third Council of Constantinople
in 680 and the Trullan Council
Trullan Council
in 692. In the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade, Corycus
Corycus
became the seat of Latin Church
Latin Church
bishops, one of whom, named Gerardus, took part in a council at Antioch
Antioch
in 1136.[4][5][6][7] No longer a residential bishopric, Corycus
Corycus
is today listed by the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
as a titular see.[8] Two Armenian inscriptions that were discovered at the castles of Korykos were credited to its construction to Levon I and then to Hetum I.[9] Corycian Cave[edit] In the Corycian Cave (now Cennet ve Cehennem), 20 stadia inland, says Strabo, the best crocus (saffron) grows. He describes this cave as a great hollow, of a circular form, surrounded by a margin of rock, on all sides of a considerable height; on descending into this cavity, the ground is found to be uneven and generally rocky, and it is filled with shrubs, both evergreen and cultivated; in some parts the saffron is cultivated: there is also a cave here which contains a large source, which pours forth a river of pure, pellucid water, but it immediately sinks into the earth, and flowing underground enters the sea: they call it the Bitter Water. Pomponius Mela
Pomponius Mela
(i.13) has a long description of the same place apparently from the same authority that Strabo
Strabo
followed, but more embellished. This place is probably on the top of the mountain above Corycus. This place is famed in Greek mythology. It is the Cilician cave of Pindar
Pindar
(Pythian Ode i. 31), and of Aeschylus
Aeschylus
(Prom. Vinct. 350), and it is the lair of Zeus' fiercest opponent, the monster Typhon
Typhon
or Typhoeus. See also[edit]

Kızkalesi, Mersin
Kızkalesi, Mersin
(current settlement)

References[edit]

^ Edwards, Robert W. (1987). The Fortifications of Armenian Cilicia: Dumbarton Oaks Studies XXIII. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks, Trustees for Harvard University. pp. 161–67, 284, pls.123a–128b, 296b–296c. ISBN 0-88402-163-7.  ^ Edwards, Robert W., “Ecclesiastical Architecture in the Fortifications of Armenian Cilicia: First Report, Dumbarton Oaks Papers 36, 1982, pp.173-75, pls.38-42. ^ Siméon Vailhé, "Corycus" in Catholic Encyclopedia
Catholic Encyclopedia
(New York 1908) ^ Michel Lequien, Oriens christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus, Paris 1740, Vol. II, coll. 879-882 ^ Pius Bonifacius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae Catholicae, Leipzig 1931, p. 435 ^ Konrad Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, vol. 1, p. 210; vol. 6, pp. 184–185 ^ H. Rudt de Collenberg Wipertus, Le royaume et l'Église de Chypre face au Grand Schisme (1378-1417) d'après les Registres des Archives du Vatican, in Mélanges de l'École française de Rome, t. 94, n° 2, 1982, pp. 638 e 652 ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 874 ^ Langlois, op. cit (supra, note 21), 48.

Smith, William (editor); Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, "Corycus", London, (1854) Blue Guide, Turkey, The Aegean and Mediterranean Coasts (ISBN 0-393-30489-2), pp. 550–51.

External links[edit]

Kizkalesi photo gallery Corycus
Corycus
Castle photo gallery Corycus
Corycus
Church Ruins photos  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "article name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray. 

v t e

Ancient settlements in Turkey

Aegean

Aegae Aizanoi Alabanda Alinda Allianoi Amorium Amyzon Antioch
Antioch
on the Maeander Apamea in Phrygia Aphrodisias Apollonia in Mysia Apollonos Hieron Atarneus Aulai Bargylia Beycesultan Blaundus Caloe Caryanda Celaenae Ceramus Colophon Claros Cyme Didyma Dios Hieron Docimium Ephesus Erythrae Eucarpia Euromus Gambrion Gryneion Halicarnassus Hierapolis Iasos Karmylissos Kaunos Klazomenai Knidos Labraunda Laodicea on the Lycus Latmus Lebedus Leucae Limantepe Magnesia ad Sipylus Magnesia on the Maeander Metropolis Miletus Myndus Myriandrus Myrina Myus Notion Nysa on the Maeander Oenoanda Pepuza Pergamon Perperene Phocaea Pinara Pitane Priene Sardis Smyrna Stratonicea in Lydia Stratonicea in Caria Temnos Teos Tymion

Black Sea

Alaca Höyük Comana in the Pontus Euchaita Hattusa Heraclea Pontica Hüseyindede Tepe Ibora Laodicea Pontica Nerik Nicopolis Pompeiopolis Salatiwara Samuha Sapinuwa Tripolis Yazılıkaya Zaliche

Central Anatolia

Alişar Hüyük Binbirkilise Çatalhöyük Cotenna Derbe Dorylaeum Eudocia (Cappadocia) Eudocia (Phrygia) Gordium Heraclea Cybistra Irenopolis Kaman-Kalehöyük Kerkenes Kültepe
Kültepe
(Kanesh) Laodicea Combusta Meloë Mokissos Nyssa Pessinus Purushanda Tavium Tyana

Eastern Anatolia

Altıntepe Ani Cafer Höyük Melid Sugunia Tushpa

Marmara

Achilleion Aegospotami Ainos Alexandria Troas Apamea Myrlea Apollonia on the Rhyndax Apros Assos Byzantium Cardia Cebrene Chalcedon Charax Cius Cyzicus Drizipara/Drusipara Faustinopolis Germanicopolis Lamponeia Lampsacus Lygos Lysimachia Marpessos Neandreia Nicomedia Orestias Perinthos Sestos Sigeion Skepsis Troy
Troy
(Hisarlik)

Mediterranean

Acalissus Acarassus Alalakh Amelas Anazarbus Andriaca Antigonia Antioch
Antioch
on the Orontes Antioch
Antioch
of Pisidia Antiochia Lamotis Antioch
Antioch
on the Cragus Antioch
Antioch
on the Pyramis Antiphellus Aperlae Aphrodisias
Aphrodisias
of Cilicia Araxa Ariassos Arneae Arsinoe Arycanda Aspendos Bab al-Hawa Border Crossing Balbura Bubon Calynda Carallia Carmylessus Casae Castabala Cestrus Choma Cibyra Mikra Comama Comana in Cappadocia Comba Coracesium Corycus
Corycus
(Kızkalesi) Corydala Cremna Cyaneae Cyrrhus Dalisandus in Isauria Dalisandus in Pamphylia Dias Domuztepe Elaiussa Sebaste Emirzeli Epiphania Erymna Etenna Eudocia (Lycia) Eudocias (Pamphylia) Gagae Gözlükule Hacilar Idebessos Irenopolis Isba Issus Kandyba Karakabaklı Karatepe Kibyra Lebessus Limyra Lyrbe Magydus Mallus Mamure Castle Mastaura Meloë Mezgitkale Mopsuestia Myra Nisa Olba Olympos Öküzlü Orokenda Patara Perga Phaselis Phellus Podalia Rhodiapolis Rhosus Sagalassos Seleucia in Pamphylia Seleucia Pieria Seleucia Sidera Selge Side Sidyma Sillyon Simena Sinda Soli Sozopolis Syedra Tapureli Tell Tayinat Telmessos Telmessos
Telmessos
(Caria) Termessos Tlos Trebenna Xanthos Yanıkhan Yumuktepe

Southeastern Anatolia

Antioch
Antioch
in the Taurus Antioch
Antioch
in Mesopotamia Apamea on the Euphrates Carchemish Urshu Khashshum Çayönü Dara Edessa Göbekli Tepe Harran Kussara Nevalı Çori Sakçagözü Sam'al Samosata Sareisa Seleucia at the Zeugma Sultantepe Tille Tushhan Zeugma

v t e

UNESCO
UNESCO
Tentative list of World Heritage Sites in Turkey

Aegean Region

Aizanoi
Aizanoi
antique city Birgi Mausolem and Sacred area of Hecatomnus Archaeological site of Laodikeia Medieval City of Beçin Ancient City of Sardis
Sardis
and the Lydian Tumuli of Bin Tepe Ancient City of Stratonikeia

Black Sea Region

Mount Harşena and the Rock-tombs of the Pontic Kings Mahmut Bey Mosque Sümela Monastery (The Monastery of Virgin Mary)

Central Anatolia

Archaeological site of Kültepe-Kaneş Eflatun Pınar Eşrefoğlu Mosque Gordion Haji Bektash Veli Complex Ankara Hacı Bayram Mosque Ince Minaret Medrese Historical Monuments of Niğde Konya-A capital of Seljuk Civilization Lake Tuz
Lake Tuz
SEPA Mountainous Phrygia Odunpazarı
Odunpazarı
historical urban site Tomb of Ahi Evren

East Anatolia

Akdamar Island Archaeological Site of Arslantepe Eshab-ı Kehf Kulliye Ishak Pasha Palace The Tombstones of Ahlat the Urartian and Ottoman citadel

Marmara

Çanakkale (Dardanelles) and Gelibolu (Gallipoli) Battles Zones in the First World War İznik Historic Guild Town of Mudurnu The Bridge of Uzunköprü Yıldız Palace
Yıldız Palace
Complex

Mediterranean Region

Alahan Monastery Alanya Ancient city of Anazarbus Ancient Cities of Lycian Civilization Ancient City of Kaunos Ancient City of Korykos Archaeological Site of Perge Güllük Dagi- Termessos
Termessos
National Park Mamure Castle Karain Cave Kekova Archaeological Site of Sagalassos St.Paul Church, St.Paul's Well and surrounding historic quarters (in Tarsus, Mersin) St. Pierre Church in Hatay St. Nicholas Church in Demre The Theatre and Aqueducts of the Ancient City of Aspendos Vespasianus Titus Tunnel

Southeastern Anatolia

Archeological Site of Zeugma Archaeological Site of Göbeklitepe Harran
Harran
and Şanlıurfa İsmail Fakirullah Tomb Mardin Cultural Landscape Yesemek Quarry and Sculpture Workshop Zeynel Abidin Mosque Complex and Mor Yakup (Saint Jacob) Church

All over Turkey

Anatolian Seljuks Madrasahs Seljuk Caravanserais on the route from Denizli to Dogubeyazit Trading Posts and Fortifications on Genoese Trade Routes

v t e

Mersin
Mersin
Province

Settlements

Center city

Mersin

Districts (İlçe)

Akdeniz Mezitli Toroslar Yenişehir

Anamur Aydıncık Bozyazı Çamlıyayla Erdemli Gülnar Mut Silifke Tarsus

All settlements

List of populated places in Mersin
Mersin
Province

Culture

Universities

Mersin
Mersin
University Çağ University Toros University Institute of Marine Sciences Alata Research Institute of Horticulture

Museums etc.

Anamur
Anamur
Museum Arslan Eyce Private Amphora Museum Gözlükule
Gözlükule
Research Center Mersin
Mersin
Atatürk Museum Mersin
Mersin
Museum Mersin
Mersin
Naval Museum Mersin
Mersin
State Art and Sculpture Museum Mersin
Mersin
Urban History Museum Mersin
Mersin
Water Museum Narlıkuyu Museum Silifke
Silifke
Museum Silifke
Silifke
Atatürk Museum Tarsus Çanakkale Park Museum Tarsus Museum Taşucu Atatürk Museum

Monuments

Atatürk Monument Mersin
Mersin
Martyrs' Memorial Frederick Barbarossa Memorial

Archaeological wealth

Adamkayalar Akkale Ala Bridge Alahan Monastery Altından geçme Anchiale Ancient road in Tarsus Anemurium Aphrodisias
Aphrodisias
of Cilicia Athena relief Aulai Aya Tekla Church Baç Bridge Belenkeşlik Castle Canbazlı ruins Caracalla's inscription Cleopatra's gate Corycus Çanakçı rock tombs Çandır Castle Çatıören Dağlı Castle Dikilitaş Dörtayak Eğribük
Eğribük
(Palaiai) Elaiussa Sebaste Emirzeli Gömeç Gözlükule Gözne Castle Hisarin Castle Imbriogon
Imbriogon
(Demircili) Işıkkale Kabaçam Karakabaklı Kelenderis mosaic Kırkkaşık Bedesten Kızlar Kalesi Kilise Tepe Kravga Bridge Lamas Aqueduct Lampron Mamure Castle Mancınık Castle Mausoleum of Danyal Melenia Meydan Castle Meydancık Castle Mezgitkale Mut Castle Nagidos Olba Olba Aqueduct Öküzlü
Öküzlü
ruins Pasha's Tomb Roman road in Cilicia Shahmeran Hamam Silifke
Silifke
Bridge Silifke
Silifke
Castle Sinap Castle Sinekkale Softa Castle Soli Tapureli ruins Taşgeçit Bridge Tece Castle Tekir ambarı Temple of Jupiter (Silifke) Tırmıl Tokmar Castle Üçayaklı ruins Veyselli rock reliefs Warrior relief of Efrenk Yanıkhan Yelbiz Castle Yumuktepe

Buildings and structures

Mosques and madrasas

Muğdat Mosque Grand Mosque of Mersin Mersin
Mersin
Old Mosque Tarsus Old Mosque Grand Mosque of Tarsus Kubat Pasha Medrese Laal Pasha Mosque Güzeloluk Mosque

Churches

Mersin
Mersin
Catholic Church Mersin
Mersin
Orthodox Church Saint Paul's Church

Cemeteries

Mersin
Mersin
Interfaith Cemetery Cyprus Memorial Forest in Silifke

Dams

Alaköprü Dam Berdan Dam Birkapılı Dam Gezende Dam Kadıncık 1 HES Kadıncık 2 HES Kayraktepe Dam Otluca HES Pamukluk Dam Silifke
Silifke
HES

Industry

ATAŞ (Refinery) ACS Mersin Sodakrom Çimsataş

Transportation

Transport in Mersin
Mersin
Province Mersin
Mersin
Harbor Taşucu Seka Harbor Yeşilovacık Fishing Port Mersin
Mersin
railway station Tarsus railway station Yenice railway station Mersin
Mersin
Bus Terminus Çukurova Regional Airport İsmet İnönü Boulevard Adnan Menderes Boulevard Gazi Mustafa Kemal Boulevard Kushimoto Street Boğsak Tunnel

Sports venues

Edip Buran Arena Macit Özcan Sports Complex Mersin
Mersin
Seventh Region Sports Hall Mersin
Mersin
Gymnastics Hall Mersin
Mersin
Arena Mersin
Mersin
Olympic Swimming Pool Mersin
Mersin
Tennis Complex Mersin
Mersin
Volleyball Hall Mezitli
Mezitli
Sports Hall Nevin Yanıt Athletics Complex Servet Tazegül Arena Tevfik Sırrı Gür Stadium Toroslar
Toroslar
Bocce Facility Erdemli
Erdemli
Shooting Range Erdemli
Erdemli
Sports Hall Tarsus City Stadium Tarsus Arena

Geographical features

Mersin
Mersin
Gulf Paradeniz Aydıncık Islands Babadıl Islands Boğsak Islet Bozyazı
Bozyazı
Island Dana Island Güvercin Islet Yelkenli Island Yılanlı Island Cape Tisan Kaledran Creek Dragon Creek Sini Creek Babadıl Creek Göksu River Lamas River Alata River Karacaoğlan River Tece Creek Mezitli
Mezitli
River Efrenk River Berdan River Tarsus Waterfall Yerköprü Fall Sertavul Pass Gülek Pass Karboğazı Karakız Lake Karabucak Forest Aydıncık Nature Park Gümüşkum Nature Park Karaekşi Nature Park Pullu I Nature Park Erdemli
Erdemli
Pine Groove Kanlıdivane Cennet and Cehennem Akhayat sinkhole Egma Sinkhole Aydıncık Cave Yedi Uyurlar Cave Kisecik Canyon

.