HOME
The Info List - Corazon Aquino





President of the Philippines

People Power Revolution Presidency Communist insurgency Moro conflict 1986–90 coup attempts Mendiola massacre 1987 Philippine Constitution Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program 1989 civil unrest 1990 Luzon earthquake 1991 Mount Pinatubo
Mount Pinatubo
eruption

Post-Presidency

Death and Funeral

v t e

Maria Corazon "Cory" Cojuangco Aquino (born Sumulong; January 25, 1933 – August 1, 2009) was a Filipina politician who served as the 11th President of the Philippines
President of the Philippines
and the first woman to hold that office. She is widely accredited as the Mother of Asian Democracy. The first female president in the Philippines, Aquino was the most prominent figure of the 1986 People Power Revolution, which toppled the 21-year authoritarian rule of President Ferdinand E. Marcos
Ferdinand E. Marcos
and restored democracy to the Philippines. She was named Time magazine's "Woman of the Year" in 1986. Prior to this, she had not held any other elective office. She is the leader of the world's most successful non-violent and bloodless peace revolution for democracy against a dictatorial regime. A self-proclaimed "plain housewife",[1] she was married to Senator Benigno Aquino, Jr., the staunchest critic of President Marcos. She emerged as leader of the opposition after her husband was assassinated on August 21, 1983 upon returning to the Philippines
Philippines
from exile in the United States. In late 1985, Marcos called for snap elections, and Aquino ran for president with former senator Salvador Laurel
Salvador Laurel
as her Vice-President. After the elections were held on February 7, 1986, the Batasang Pambansa
Batasang Pambansa
proclaimed Marcos and his running mate, Arturo Tolentino, as the winners amidst allegations of electoral fraud, with Aquino calling for massive civil disobedience actions. Defections from the Armed Forces and the support of the local Catholic hierarchy led to the People Power Revolution
People Power Revolution
that ousted Marcos and secured Aquino's accession on February 25, 1986. As President, Aquino oversaw the promulgation of the 1987 Constitution, which limited the powers of the Presidency and re-established the bicameral Congress. Her administration gave strong emphasis and concern for civil liberties and human rights, and on peace talks to resolve the ongoing Communist insurgency and Islamist secession movements. Her economic policies centred on restoring economic health and confidence and focused on creating a market-oriented and socially responsible economy. She became the first Filipino to be bestowed with the prestigious Prize For Freedom Award in 1987. Aquino faced several coup attempts against her government and various natural calamities until the end of her term in 1992. She was succeeded as President by Fidel V. Ramos, and returned to civilian life while remaining public about her opinions on political issues. In recognition for role in the world's most peaceful revolution to attain democracy, she was awarded the prestigious Ramon Magsaysay
Ramon Magsaysay
Award, the Nobel prize of Asia, in 1998. In 2008, Aquino was diagnosed with colorectal cancer and died on August 1, 2009. Her monuments of peace and democracy were established in the capital Manila
Manila
and her home province of Tarlac
Tarlac
after her death. Her son Benigno Aquino III
Benigno Aquino III
was President of the Philippines
President of the Philippines
from June 30, 2010 to June 30, 2016. Throughout her life, Aquino was known to be a devout Roman Catholic, and was fluent in French, Japanese, Spanish, and English aside from her native Tagalog and Kapampangan.[2]

Contents

1 Early life and education 2 1986 Presidential campaign

2.1 Accession as President

3 Presidency

3.1 Constitutional and political reforms 3.2 Ministerial Cabinet (1986-1987)[3] 3.3 Cabinet (1987-1992)[3] 3.4 Socio-economic programs and policies

3.4.1 Economic management 3.4.2 Agrarian reform

3.5 Natural disasters and calamities 3.6 Electrical power grid inadequacy 3.7 Controversies and Cabinet Infighting 3.8 Influence in 1992 presidential campaign

4 Post-presidency and continued political activism

4.1 Activities and drives

4.1.1 Political causes 4.1.2 International engagements 4.1.3 Charitable and social initiatives

5 Illness and death

5.1 Wake and funeral 5.2 Reaction

5.2.1 Local reaction 5.2.2 International reaction

6 Honors 7 In popular culture 8 Legacy 9 Awards and achievements 10 Honorary doctorates 11 Foreign orders 12 Ancestry 13 References 14 Bibliography 15 External links

Early life and education[edit] Maria Corazon Sumulong Cojuangco was born on January 25, 1933 in Paniqui, Tarlac[3] and was the sixth (of whom two died in infancy) of eight children of José Cojuangco, a former congressman, and Demetria (née Sumulong) Cojuangco, a pharmacist. Her siblings were Pedro, Josephine, Teresita, Jose Jr. and Maria Paz. Both Aquino's parents came from prominent clans. Her father was a prominent Tarlac businessman and politician, and her grandfather, Melecio Cojuangco, was a member of the historic Malolos Congress. Her mother belonged to the Sumulong family of Rizal province
Rizal province
who were also politically influential; Juan Sumulong, a prominent member of the clan, ran against Commonwealth President Manuel L. Quezon
Manuel L. Quezon
in 1941.[4] As a young girl, Aquino spent her elementary school days at St. Scholastica's College in Manila, where she graduated on top of her class as valedictorian. She transferred to Assumption Convent to pursue high school studies. Afterwards, she and her family went to the United States
United States
and attended the Assumption-run Ravenhill Academy in Philadelphia. In 1949, she graduated from Notre Dame Convent School in New York. She then pursued her college education in the U.S. graduating from the College of Mount Saint Vincent
College of Mount Saint Vincent
in 1953 in New York, with a major in French and minor in mathematics. During her stay in the United States, Aquino volunteered for the campaign of U.S. Republican presidential candidate Thomas Dewey
Thomas Dewey
against then Democratic U.S. President Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
during the 1948 U.S. Presidential Election.[4] After graduating from college, she returned to the Philippines
Philippines
and studied law at Far Eastern University
Far Eastern University
in 1953.[2] She later met Benigno "Ninoy" S. Aquino, Jr.—son of the late Speaker Benigno S. Aquino, Sr. and a grandson of General Servillano Aquino. She discontinued her law education and married Ninoy in Our Lady of Sorrows church in Pasay
Pasay
on October 11, 1954.[5] The couple raised five children: Maria Elena ("Ballsy"; born 1954), Aurora Corazon ("Pinky"; born 1957), Benigno Simeon III ("Noynoy"; born 1960), Victoria Elisa ("Viel"; born 1961) and Kristina Bernadette ("Kris"; born 1971).[6][7] Aquino had initially had difficulty adjusting to provincial life when she and her husband moved to Concepcion, Tarlac
Tarlac
in 1955. Aquino found herself bored in Concepcion, and welcomed the opportunity to have dinner with her husband inside the American military facility at nearby Clark Field.[8] Unknown to many, she voluntarily sold some of her prized inheritance to fund the candidacy of her husband. She led a modest existence in a bungalow in suburban Quezon City. A member of the Liberal Party, Aquino's husband Ninoy rose to become the youngest governor in the country and eventually became the youngest senator ever elected to the Senate of the Philippines
Philippines
in 1967. During her husband's political career, Aquino remained a housewife who helped raise their children and played hostess to her spouse's political allies who would frequent their Quezon City
Quezon City
home.[9] She would decline to join her husband on stage during campaign rallies, preferring instead to stand at the back of the audience and listen to him.[8] Ninoy Aquino
Ninoy Aquino
soon emerged as a leading critic of the government of President Ferdinand Marcos. He was then touted as a strong candidate for president to succeed Marcos in the 1973 elections. However, Marcos, being barred by the Constitution to seek a third term, declared martial law on September 21, 1972, and later abolished the existing 1935 Constitution, thereby allowing him to remain in office. As a consequence, her husband was among those to be first arrested at the onset of martial law, later being sentenced to death. During his incarceration, Ninoy sought strength from prayer, attending daily Mass and saying the rosary three times a day. As a measure of sacrifice and solidarity with her husband and all other political prisoners, she enjoined her children from attending parties and she also stopped going to the beauty salon or buying new clothes until a priest advised her and her children to instead live as normal lives as possible.[8] In 1978, despite her initial opposition, Aquino decided to run in the 1978 Batasang Pambansa
Batasang Pambansa
elections. A reluctant speaker, Corazon Aquino campaigned on behalf of her husband, and for the first time in her life delivered a political speech. In 1980, upon the intervention of U.S. President Jimmy Carter,[1] Marcos allowed Senator Aquino and his family to leave for exile in the United States, where he sought medical treatment.[10] The family settled in Boston, and Aquino would later call the next three years as the happiest days of her marriage and family life. On August 21, 1983, however, Ninoy ended his stay in the United States
United States
and returned without his family to the Philippines, only to be assassinated on a staircase leading to the tarmac of the Manila
Manila
International Airport (now Ninoy Aquino
Ninoy Aquino
International Airport or NAIA), which was later renamed in his honor (see Assassination of Benigno Aquino, Jr.). Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
returned to the Philippines
Philippines
a few days later and led her husband's funeral procession, in which more than two million people participated.[1] 1986 Presidential campaign[edit] Main article: Philippine presidential election, 1986 Following her husband's assassination in 1983, Aquino became active and visible in various demonstrations and protests held against the Marcos regime. She began to assume the mantle of leadership left by her husband Ninoy and started to become the symbolic figurehead of the anti-Marcos political opposition. In the last week of November 1985, Marcos surprised the nation by announcing on American television that he would hold a snap presidential election in February 1986, in order to dispel and remove doubts against his regime's legitimacy and authority.[11] Initially reluctant, Aquino was eventually prevailed upon to heed the people's clamor, after one million signatures urging her to run for president were presented to her. Despite this, United Opposition (UNIDO) leader Laurel, did not immediately give way to his close friend's widow. Salvador Laurel
Salvador Laurel
only gave way to Cory after a political deal which was later reneged by Cory after the election. According to Salvador Laurel's diary, Cory offered Laurel that he would be her Prime Minister, that she would step down in two years, that Laurel would name 30 percent of the Cabinet, that she would appoint the remaining 70 percent after close consultations with Laurel.[12] Salvador Laurel
Salvador Laurel
eventually ran as Cory Aquino's running mate for vice-president under the United Opposition (UNIDO) party. With that, the Aquino-Laurel tandem was formally launched to challenge Marcos and finally put an end to his two-decade rule. In the subsequent political developments and events, given Ninoy's links with the Communist,[13] Marcos charged that Aquino was being supported by communists and agreed to share power with them once elected into power. A political novice, Aquino categorically denied Marcos' charge and even stated that she would not appoint a single communist to her cabinet.[14] Running on the offensive, the ailing Marcos also accused Aquino of playing "political football" with the United States
United States
with respect to the continued United States
United States
military presence in the Philippines
Philippines
at Clark Air Base
Clark Air Base
and Subic Naval Base.[15] Furthermore, the male strongman derided Aquino's womanhood, by saying that she was "just a woman" whose place was in the bedroom.[1] In response to her opponent's sexist remark, and in reference to the fact that the ailing and feeble Marcos was increasingly seen as being largely a front man for his wife, Imelda, Aquino simply remarked that "may the better woman win in this election". Marcos also attacked Aquino's inexperience and warned the country that it would be a disaster if a woman like her with no previous political experience was to be elected president, to which Aquino cleverly and sarcastically responded, admitting that she had "no experience in cheating, lying to the public, stealing government money, and killing political opponents". The snap election called by Marcos which was held on February 7, 1986, was marred by massive electoral fraud, violence, intimidation, coercion and disenfranchisement of voters. Election Day proved to be bloody as one of Aquino's staunchest allies, former Antique province Governor Evelio Javier, was brutally murdered, allegedly by some of Marcos' supporters in his province. Furthermore, during the counting and tallying of votes conducted by the Commission on Elections (COMELEC), 30 poll computer technicians walked out to dispute and contest the alleged election-rigging being done in favor of Marcos. However, not known to many, the walkout of computer technicians was led by Linda Kapunan,[16] wife of Lt Col Eduardo Kapunan, a leader of Reform the Armed Forces Movement, which plotted to attack the Malacañang Palace
Malacañang Palace
and kill Marcos and his family,[17] leading some to believe that the walkout could have been planned with ulterior motives.[18] Despite this, the Batasang Pamabansa, which was dominated by Marcos' ruling party and its allies, declared President Marcos as the winner on February 15, 1986. In protest to the declaration of the Philippine parliament, Aquino called for a rally dubbed "Tagumpay ng Bayan" (People's Victory Rally) the following day, during which she claimed that she was the real winner in the snap election and urged Filipinos
Filipinos
to boycott the products and services by companies controlled or owned by Marcos' cronies. The rally held at the historic Rizal Park in Luneta, Manila
Manila
drew a mammoth-sized crowd, which sent a strong signal that Filipinos
Filipinos
were quite tired of Marcos' two decades of rule and the lengths to which he would go to perpetuate it. Further, the dubious election results drew sharp reactions from both local quarters and foreign countries. The Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines
Philippines
(CBCP) issued a statement strongly criticizing the conduct of the election which was characterized by violence and fraud. The United States
United States
Senate likewise condemned the election.[9][19] Aquino rejected a power-sharing agreement proposed by the American diplomat Philip Habib, who had been sent as an emissary by U.S. President Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
to help defuse the tension.[19] On February 25, 1986 supporters of Aquino and Marcos celebrated the inauguration of their supported President. This was the same day that Ferdinand E. Marcos fled the country.[20] Accession as President[edit] Main article: People Power Revolution

Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
takes the Oath of Office before Chief Justice Claudio Teehankee, Sr. in Club Filipino, San Juan on February 25, 1986

On February 22, 1986, disgruntled and reformist military officers led by then-Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile
Juan Ponce Enrile
and General Fidel V. Ramos, surprised the entire nation and the international community when they announced their defection from the Marcos government, citing strong belief that Aquino was the real winner in the contested presidential elections. Enrile, Ramos, and the rebel soldiers then set up operations in Camp Aguinaldo, the headquarters of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, and Camp Crame
Camp Crame
(headquarters of the Philippine Constabulary) across Epifanio de los Santos Avenue
Epifanio de los Santos Avenue
(EDSA). Cardinal Sin appealed to the public in a broadcast over Church-run Radio Veritas, and millions of Filipinos
Filipinos
trooped to the part of Epifanio De los Santos Avenue between the two camps to give their support and prayers for the rebels.[21] At that time, Aquino was meditating in a Carmelite
Carmelite
convent in Cebu, and upon learning of the defection, she urged people to rally behind Minister Enrile and General Ramos. Aquino flew back to Manila
Manila
to prepare for the takeover of the government, and after three days of peaceful mass protests, was sworn in as the eleventh President of the Philippines
Philippines
on February 25, 1986.[22] Presidency[edit] Main article: Presidency of Corazon Aquino

Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
during a ceremony honoring the United States
United States
Air force.

The triumph of the peaceful People Power Revolution
People Power Revolution
and the ascension of Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
into power signaled the end of authoritarian rule in the Philippines
Philippines
and the dawning of a new era for Filipinos. The relatively peaceful manner by which Aquino came into power drew international acclaim and admiration not only for her but for the Filipino people, as well. She was the first female president of the country and the only president with no political background. She is also regarded as the first female president in Asia. One of Aquino's first moves was the creation of the Presidential Commission on Good Government (PCGG), which was tasked to go after the Marcos ill-gotten wealth. Constitutional and political reforms[edit]

Presidential styles of Corazon C. Aquino

Reference style Her Excellency

Spoken style Your Excellency

Alternative style Madam President

Immediately after assuming the presidency, President Aquino issued Proclamation № 3, which established a revolutionary government. She abolished the 1973 Constitution that was in force during Martial Law, and by decree issued the provisional 1986 Freedom Constitution pending the ratification of a more formal, comprehensive charter. This allowed her to exercise both executive and legislative powers until the ratification of the 1987 Constitution
1987 Constitution
and the restoration of Congress in 1987.[23] Aquino promulgated two landmark legal codes, namely, the Family Code of 1987, which reformed the civil law on family relations, and the Administrative Code of 1987, which reorganized the structure of the executive branch of government. Another landmark law that was enacted during her tenure was the 1991 Local Government Code, which devolved national government powers to local government units (LGUs). The new Code enhanced the power of LGUs to enact local taxation measures and assured them of a share in the national revenue. Aquino closed down the Marcos-dominated Batasang Pambansa
Batasang Pambansa
to prevent the new Marcos loyalist opposition from undermining her democratic reforms and reorganized the membership of the Supreme Court to restore its independence. In May 1986, the reorganized Supreme Court declared the Aquino government as "not merely a de facto government but in fact and law a de jure government", whose legitimacy had been affirmed by the community of nations.[24] This Supreme Court decision affirmed the status of Aquino as the rightful leader of the Philippines. To fast-track the restoration of a full constitutional government and the writing of a new charter, she appointed 48 members of the 1986 Constitutional Commission ("Con-Com"), led by retired activist Supreme Court Associate Justice Cecilia Muñoz-Palma. The Con-Com completed its final draft in October 1986.[25] On February 2, 1987, the new Constitution of the Philippines, which put strong emphasis on civil liberties, human rights and social justice, was overwhelmingly approved by the Filipino people. The ratification of the new Constitution was followed by the election of senators and congress that same year and the holding of local elections in 1988. Ministerial Cabinet (1986-1987)[3][edit]

OFFICE NAME TERM

President Corazon Cojuangco Aquino February 25, 1986 – March 25, 1986

Vice-President Salvador Laurel February 25, 1986 – March 25, 1986

Prime Minister Salvador Laurel February 25, 1986 – March 25, 1986

Presidential Executive Assistant Joker Arroyo February 25, 1986 – March 25, 1986

Minister of Agrarian Reform Jezreel F. Pattaguan February 25, 1986 – March 25, 1986

Minister of Agriculture and Food Ramon Mitra, Jr. February 25, 1986 – March 25, 1986

Minister of Budget and Management Alberto Romulo February 26, 1986 – March 25, 1986

Minister of Education, Culture and Sports Lourdes Quisimbing February 25, 1986 – March 25, 1986

Minister of Finance Jaime Ongpin February 25, 1986 – March 25, 1986

Minister of Foreign Affairs Salvador Laurel February 25, 1986 – March 25, 1986

Minister of Health Alfredo Bengzon February 25, 1986 – March 25, 1986

Minister of Local Government and Community Development Aquilino Pimentel, Jr. February 25, 1986 – March 25, 1986

Minister of Justice Estelito Mendoza February 25, 1986 – February 28, 1986

Neptali Gonzales February 29, 1986 – March 25, 1986

Minister of Labor and Employment Augusto Sánchez February 25, 1986 – March 25, 1986

Minister of National Defense Juan Ponce Enrile February 25, 1986 – March 25, 1986

Minister of Natural Resources Ernesto Maceda February 25, 1986 – March 25, 1986

Minister of Public Works and Highways Rogaciano M. Mercado February 25, 1986 – March 25, 1986

Minister of Tourism Jose Antonio Gonzales February 25, 1986 – March 25, 1986

Ministry of Trade and Industry Jose Concepcion February 25, 1986 – March 25, 1986

Ministry of Transportation and Communications Hernando Perez February 25, 1986 – March 25, 1986

Cabinet (1987-1992)[3][edit]

OFFICE NAME TERM

President Corazon Cojuangco Aquino March 25, 1986 – June 30, 1992

Vice-President Salvador Laurel March 25, 1986 – June 30, 1992

Executive Secretary Joker Arroyo March 25, 1986 – September 15, 1987

Catalino Macaraig, Jr. September 17, 1987 – December 14, 1990

Oscar Orbos December 16, 1990 – July 14, 1991

Franklin Drilon July 15, 1991 – June 30, 1992

Secretary of Agrarian Reform Jezreel F. Pattaguan March 25, 1986 – March 30, 1986

Conrado Estrella, Sr. March 30, 1986 – May 1, 1986

Heherson Álvarez May 1, 1986 – March 7, 1987

Philip Juico July 23, 1987 – July 1, 1989

Miriam Defensor Santiago July 20, 1989 – January 4, 1990

Florencio Abad January 4, 1990 – April 5, 1990

Benjamin Leong April 6, 1990 – June 30, 1992

Secretary of Agriculture Ramon Mitra, Jr. March 25, 1986 – June 30, 1987

Carlos Dominguez June 30, 1987 – January 1990

Senen Bacani January 1990 – June 30, 1992

Secretary of Budget and Management Alberto Romulo March 25, 1986 – March 13, 1987

Guillermo Carague March 13, 1987 – February 12, 1992

Salvador Enriquez, Jr. February 12, 1992 – June 30, 1992

Secretary of Education, Culture and Sports Lourdes Quisimbing March 25, 1986 – December 1989

Isidro Cariño January 3, 1990 – June 30, 1992

Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources Ernesto Maceda March 25, 1986 – December 1, 1986

Carlos Dominguez December 2, 1986 – March 9, 1987

Fulgencio S. Factoran March 10, 1987 – June 30, 1992

Secretary of Finance Jaime Ongpin March 25, 1986 – September 14, 1987

Vicente Jayme September 15, 1987 – December 31, 1989

Jesús Estanislao January 1, 1990 – June 30, 1992

Secretary of Foreign Affairs Salvador Laurel March 25, 1986 – February 2, 1987

Manuel Yan February 2, 1987 – October 14, 1987

Raúl Manglapus October 15, 1987 – June 30, 1992

Secretary of Health Alfredo Bengzon March 25, 1986 – February 7, 1992

Antonio O. Periquet February 10, 1992 – June 30, 1992

Minister of Local Government Aquilino Pimentel, Jr. March 25, 1986 – December 7, 1986

Jaime Ferrer December 8, 1986 – August 2, 1987

Secretary of Local Government Lito Monico C. Lorenzana August 3, 1987 – November 8, 1987

Luis T. Santos November 9, 1987 – December 10, 1991

Secretary of the Interior and Local Government Cesar N. Sarino December 11, 1991 – June 30, 1992

Secretary of Justice Neptali Gonzales March 25, 1986 – March 1987

Sedfrey A. Ordoñez March 1987 – January 1990

Franklin Drilon January 4, 1990 – July 14, 1991

Silvestre Bello III July 1991 – February 1992

Eduardo Montenegro February 1992 – June 30, 1992

Secretary of Labor and Employment Augusto Sánchez March 25, 1986 – June 30, 1992

Secretary of National Defense Juan Ponce Enrile March 25, 1986 – November 23, 1986

Rafael Ileto November 23, 1986 – January 21, 1988

Fidel V. Ramos January 22, 1988 – July 18, 1991

Renato de Villa July 20, 1991 – June 30, 1992

Secretary of Public Works and Highways Rogaciano M. Mercado March 25, 1986 – November 1986

Vicente Jayme November 1986 – 1987

Juanito Ferrer 1987 – 1988

Fiorello Estaur 1988 – 1990

Jose de Jesus 1990 – June 30, 1992

Secretary of Social Welfare and Development Mito Pardo de Tavera 1986 – 1992

Secretary of Tourism Jose Antonio Gonzales March 25, 1986 – April 14, 1989

Narzalina Lim April 14, 1989 – June 7, 1989 in acting capacity

Peter Garrucho June 8, 1989 – January 8, 1991

Rafael Alunan III January 9, 1991 – February 16, 1992

Narzalina Lim February 17, 1992 – June 30, 1992

Secretary of Trade and Industry Jose Concepcion March 25, 1986 – January 8, 1991

Peter Garrucho January 9, 1991 – June 30, 1992

Secretary of Transportation and Communications Hernando Perez March 25, 1986 – March 16, 1987

Rainerio Reyes March 16, 1987 – January 3, 1990

Oscar Orbos January 3, 1990 – December 9, 1990

Arturo Corona December 20, 1990 – May 16, 1991

Pete Nicomedes Prado March 23, 1991 – June 30, 1992

Press Secretary Teodoro Benigno September 6, 1986 – June 14, 1989

Adolfo Azcuna June 16, 1989 – December 31, 1989

Tomas Gomez III January 4, 1990 – February 11, 1992

Horacio Paredes February 12, 1992 – June 30, 1992

Director-General of the National Economic and Development Authority Winnie Monsod July 22, 1987 – 1989

Jesús Estanislao 1989 – 1990

Cayetano Paderanga, Jr. 1990 – June 30, 1992

Solicitor General Sedfrey A. Ordoñez 1986 – 1987

Francisco Chavez 1987 – February 6, 1992

Ramon Desuasido February 6, 1992 – June 30, 1992

Chairman of the Metropolitan Manila
Manila
Authority Jejomar Binay 1990 – 1991

Ignacio Bunye 1991 – June 30, 1992

Socio-economic programs and policies[edit]

Economy of the Philippines
Philippines
under President Corazon Aquino 1986–1992

Population

1986

displaystyle approx

56.00 million

Gross Domestic Product

1986 Php 591,423 million ($21.42 billion)

1991 Php 716,522 million ($25.95 billion)

Growth rate, 1986-91 3.5%

Per capita income

1986 Php 10,622

1991 Php 11,250

Total exports

1986 Php 160,571 million

1991 Php 231,515 million

Exchange rates

1 US US$ = Php 27.61 1 Php = US US$ 0.04

Sources: Philippine Presidency Project Malaya, Jonathan; Eduardo Malaya. So Help Us God... The Inaugurals of the Presidents of the Philippines. Anvil Publishing, Inc. 

Economic management[edit] As soon as she assumed the presidency of the Philippines, Aquino moved quickly to tackle the issue of the US$28 billion-foreign debt incurred by her predecessor, which has badly tarnished the international credit standing and economic reputation of the country. After weighing all possible options such as choosing not to pay, Aquino eventually chose to honor all the debts that were previously incurred in order to clear the country's image. Her decision proved to be unpopular but Aquino defended that it was the most practical move. It was crucial for the country at that time to regain the investors' confidence in the Philippine economy. Beginning in 1986, the Aquino administration paid off $4 billion of the country's outstanding debts to regain good international credit ratings and attract the attention of future markets. Although it borrowed an additional $9 billion, increasing the net national debt by $5 billion within six years after the ouster of former President Ferdinand Marcos
Ferdinand Marcos
in 1986,[26] due to the need to infuse capital and money into the economy, the Aquino administration succeeded in wrangling lower interest rates and longer payment terms in settling the country's debts. From 87.9 percent when it inherited the foreign debt from the Marcos regime, the Cory Aquino administration was able to reduce by 30.1 percent the Philippines' external debt-to-GDP ratio to 67.8 percent in 1991.[27] Furthermore, recognizing how crony capitalism weakened the economy due to collusion between government and big business and adhering to the Catholic social principle of subsidiarity, President Aquino set out on a course of market liberalization agenda while at the same time emphasizing solidarity, people empowerment and civic engagement to help alleviate poverty in the country. The Aquino administration also sought to bring back fiscal discipline in order as it aimed to trim down the government's budget deficit that ballooned during Marcos' term through privatization of bad government assets and deregulation of many vital industries. As president, Aquino sought out to dismantle the cartels, monopolies and oligopolies of important industries that were set up by Marcos cronies during the dark days of Martial Law, particularly in the sugar and coconut industries. By discarding these monopolies and allowing market-led prices and competition, small farmers and producers were given a fair chance to sell their produce and products at a more reasonable, competitive and profitable price. This, in a way, also helped a lot in improving the lot of farmers who are in dire need of increasing their personal income and earnings. It was also during Aquino's time that vital economic laws such as the Built-Operate-Transfer Law, Foreign Investments Act and the Consumer Protection and Welfare Act were enacted. The economy posted a positive growth of 3.4% during her first year in office. But in the aftermath of the 1989 coup attempt by the rightist Reform the Armed Forces Movement, international confidence in the Philippine economy was seriously damaged. During her presidency, Aquino made fighting inflation one of her priorities, after reeling from skyrocketing prices during the Martial Law years, in which at one point inflation reached 50.3 percent in 1984. Although inflation peaked at 18.1 percent during the 1991 Gulf War, which caused panic among Filipinos
Filipinos
who have many family members working in the Middle East, inflation during Aquino's time averaged 9.6 percent from 1986 to 1992, which was way lower than the average 20.9 percent-inflation rate that was recorded during the last 6 years of the Marcos dictatorship.[28][29] Overall, the economy under Aquino had an average growth of 3.8% from 1986 to 1992.[30]

President Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
with U.S. Vice President Dan Quayle participate in the Veterans' Day Service at the Arlington National Cemetery, in November 10, 1989

Soon after taking office, Aquino declared that the presence of U.S. military forces in the Philippines
Philippines
was an affront to national sovereignty. She ordered the United States
United States
military to vacate U.S. Naval Base Subic Bay
Subic Bay
and Clark Air Base.[31] The United States objected, pointing that they had leased the property and the leases were still in effect.[32] Also, thousands of Filipinos
Filipinos
worked at these military facilities and they would lose their jobs and the Filipino economy would suffer if the U.S. military moved out. The United States stated that the facilities at Subic Bay
Subic Bay
were unequaled anywhere in Southeast Asia
Asia
and a U.S. pullout could make all of that region of the world vulnerable to an incursion by the Soviet Union or by a resurgent Japan. She refused to back down and insisted that the United States get out. The matter was still being debated when Mount Pinatubo erupted in June 1991, covering the entire area with volcanic ash. The destruction to the bases was so severe that the United States
United States
decided that it would best to pull out after all, so the bases were closed and the United States
United States
departed. Agrarian reform[edit] See also: Land reform in the Philippines President Aquino envisioned agrarian and land reform as the centerpiece of her administration's social legislative agenda. However, her family background and social class as a privileged daughter of a wealthy and landed clan became a lightning rod of criticisms against her land reform agenda. On February 22, 1987, three weeks after the resounding ratification of the 1987 Constitution, agrarian workers and farmers marched to the historic Mendiola Street near the Malacañan Palace
Malacañan Palace
to demand genuine land reform from Aquino's administration. However, the march turned violent when Marine forces fired at farmers who tried to go beyond the designated demarcation line set by the police. As a result, at least 12 were killed and 51 protesters were injured[33] in this incident now known as the Mendiola Massacre. This incident led some prominent members of the Aquino Cabinet to resign their government posts. In response to calls for agrarian reform, President Aquino issued Presidential Proclamation 131 and Executive Order 229 on July 22, 1987, which outlined her land reform program, which included sugar lands. In 1988, with the backing of Aquino, the new Congress of the Philippines
Philippines
passed Republic Act No. 6657, more popularly known as the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law". The law paved the way for the redistribution of agricultural lands to tenant-farmers from landowners, who were paid in exchange by the government through just compensation but were also allowed to retain not more than five hectares of land.[34] However, corporate landowners were also allowed under the law to "voluntarily divest a proportion of their capital stock, equity or participation in favor of their workers or other qualified beneficiaries", in lieu of turning over their land to the government for redistribution.[35] Despite the flaws in the law, the Supreme Court upheld its constitutionality in 1989, declaring that the implementation of the comprehensive agrarian reform program (CARP) provided by the said law, was "a revolutionary kind of expropriation".[36] Despite the implementation of CARP, Aquino was not spared from the controversies that eventually centered on Hacienda Luisita, a 6,453-hectare estate located in the Province of Tarlac, which she, together with her siblings inherited from her father Jose Cojuangco (Don Pepe).[37] Critics argued that Aquino bowed to pressure from relatives by allowing stock redistribution under Executive Order 229. Instead of land distribution, Hacienda Luisita reorganized itself into a corporation and distributed stock. As such, ownership of agricultural portions of the hacienda were transferred to the corporation, which in turn, gave its shares of stocks to farmers.[37] The arrangement remained in force until 2006, when the Department of Agrarian Reform revoked the stock distribution scheme adopted in Hacienda Luisita, and ordered instead the redistribution of a large portion of the property to the tenant-farmers. The Department stepped into the controversy when in 2004, violence erupted over the retrenchment of workers in the Hacienda, eventually leaving seven people dead.[37] Natural disasters and calamities[edit] During her last two years in office, President Aquino's administration faced series of natural disasters and calamities. Among these were the 1990 Luzon earthquake, which left around 1,600 people dead and the 1991 volcanic eruption of what was then thought to be a dormant Mount Pinatubo, which was the second largest terrestrial eruption of the 20th century, killing around 300 people and causing widespread long-term devastation of agricultural lands in Central Luzon.[38] On November 1, 1991 Tropical Storm Thelma
Tropical Storm Thelma
(also known as Typhoon Uring) caused massive flooding in Ormoc City, leaving around 5,000 dead in what was then considered to be the deadliest typhoon in Philippine history. On November 8, Aquino declared all of Leyte
Leyte
a disaster area.[39] On December 20, 1987, the MV Doña Paz
MV Doña Paz
sank which Time and others have dubbed as "the deadliest peacetime maritime disaster of the 20th century",[40] given the death toll which were initially estimated to be around 1,500[41] which later grew for at least 3,000,[42] and finally exceeded about 4,300.[40] Aquino described the aftermath as "a national tragedy of harrowing proportions...[the Filipino people's] sadness is all the more painful because the tragedy struck with the approach of Christmas".[43] Electrical power grid inadequacy[edit] During Aquino's presidency, electric blackouts became common in Manila. The capital experienced blackouts lasting 7–12 hours, bringing numerous businesses to a halt. By the departure of Aquino in June 1992, businesses in Manila
Manila
and nearby provinces had lost nearly $800 million since the preceding March. Corazon Aquino's decision to mothball the Bataan Nuclear Plant built during the Marcos administration contributed to the power crisis in the 1990s, as the 620 megawatts capacity of the plant was enough to cover the shortfall at that time.[44] Controversies and Cabinet Infighting[edit] When 15 farmers staging a peaceful rally in Mendiola were gunned down by the military under Aquino on January 22, 1987 during the Mendiola Massacre, Jose Diokno, head of the Presidential Committee on Human Rights and chairman of the government panel in charge of negotiations with rebel forces resigned from his two government posts in deep disgust and great sadness. His daughter Maris said, "It was the only time we saw him near tears.”[45] In September 1987, Vice President Doy Laurel resigned as Cory's Secretary of Foreign Affairs. In his letter to Cory, he said: "the past years of Marcos are now beginning to look no worse than your first two years in office. And the reported controversies and scandals involving your closest relatives have become the object of our people’s outrage. From 16,500 NPA regular when Marcos fell, the communists now claim an armed strength of 25,200. From city to countryside, anarchy has spread. There is anarchy within the government, anarchy within the ruling coalesced parties, and anarchy in the streets."[46] Corazon Aquino's Finance Minister, Jaime Ongpin, who successfully advocated against not paying debt incurred during Marcos' administration,[47] was later dismissed by Cory Aquino and later died in an apparent suicide in December 1987 after "he had been depressed about infighting in Aquino's cabinet and disappointed that the 'People Power' uprising which had toppled dictator Ferdinand Marcos
Ferdinand Marcos
had not brought significant change".[48] Influence in 1992 presidential campaign[edit]

President Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
addresses base workers at a rally at Remy Field concerning jobs for Filipino workers after the Americans withdraw from the U.S. facilities

As the end of her presidency drew near, close advisers and friends told Aquino that since she was not inaugurated under the 1987 Constitution, she was still eligible to seek the presidency again in the upcoming 1992 elections, the first presidential elections held under normal and peaceful circumstances since 1965. President Aquino strongly declined the requests for her to seek reelection and wanted to set an example to both citizens and politicians that the presidency is not a lifetime position. Initially, she named Ramon V. Mitra, a friend of her husband Ninoy and then Speaker of the Philippine House of Representatives, as her candidate for the presidential race in 1992. However, she later on backtracked and instead threw her support behind the candidacy of her defense secretary and EDSA Revolution hero, General Fidel V. Ramos, who constantly stood by and defended her government from the various coup attempts and rebellions that were launched against her. Her sudden change of mind and withdrawal of support from Mitra drew criticism not only from her supporters in the liberal and social democratic sectors but also from the Roman Catholic Church, which questioned her anointing of Ramos since the latter was a Protestant. Nevertheless, Aquino's candidate eventually won the 1992 elections, albeit with only 23.58% of the total votes in a wide-open campaign, and was sworn in as the 12th President of the Philippines
President of the Philippines
on June 30, 1992. Post-presidency and continued political activism[edit]

Mrs. Aquino speaking before the 2003 Ninoy Aquino
Ninoy Aquino
Award ceremony at the U.S. Embassy in Manila.

Activities and drives[edit] Political causes[edit] On June 30, 1992, President Aquino formally and peacefully handed over power to her anointed candidate and democratically elected General Fidel Ramos, after six years of hard-fought democratic transition and restoration. After the inauguration of the new President, Aquino chose to leave by riding in a simple white Toyota Crown
Toyota Crown
she had purchased, rather than the lavish government-issued Mercedes Benz
Mercedes Benz
which she and Ramos had ridden in on the way to the ceremonies, to make the point that she was once again an ordinary citizen.[49] After Aquino retired to private life following the end of her term she remained active in the Philippine political scene, constantly voicing opposition and dissent to government actions and policies, which she deemed as threats to the liberal traditions and democratic foundations of the country. In 1997, Aquino, together with Cardinal Jaime Sin, led a huge rally which succeeded in thwarting then President Fidel Ramos' attempt to extend his term by amending the 1987 Constitution's restriction on presidential term limits. In 1998, Aquino endorsed the candidacy of former police general and Manila
Manila
Mayor Alfredo Lim
Alfredo Lim
for president. Lim, however, lost to then Vice-President Joseph Estrada, who won by a landslide.[50] The following year, Aquino again with Cardinal Sin successfully opposed President Estrada's plan to amend the Constitution, which he said was intended to lift provisions that 'restrict' economic activities and investments; he denied that it was another ploy for him to extend his stay in office. In 2000, Aquino joined the mounting calls for Estrada to resign from office, amid strong allegations of bribery charges and gambling kickbacks and a series of corruption scandals, which eventually led to his unsuccessful impeachment in December of that year. In her Preface to Frank-Jürgen Richter
Frank-Jürgen Richter
and Pamela Mar's book Asia's New Crisis,[51] she decries that the unique Asian way of doing business has given rise to much crony capitalism and opacity in Asia, including the Philippines. In January 2001, during the EDSA Revolution of 2001 which ousted Estrada, Aquino enthusiastically supported the ascendancy of another woman, then Vice-President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, to power.[52] In 2005, after a series of revelations and exposes alleged and implicated President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
in rigging the 2004 presidential elections, Aquino called on Macapagal-Arroyo to resign in order to prevent bloodshed, violence and further political deterioration.[53] Aquino was once again in the streets leading massive demonstrations demanding the resignation of President Arroyo.[54] In the 2007 senatorial elections, Aquino actively campaigned for the senatorial bid of her only son, Noynoy Aquino, who ran successfully. In December 2008, Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
publicly expressed regret for her participation in the EDSA Revolution of 2001, which installed Arroyo into power. She apologized to former President Joseph Estrada
Joseph Estrada
for the role she played in his ouster in 2001.[55] For this action, many politicians criticized Aquino.[56] In June 2009, two months before her death, Aquino issued a public statement which strongly denounced and condemned the Arroyo administration's plan of amending the 1987 Constitution, calling such attempt as a "shameless abuse of power." International engagements[edit] Shortly after leaving the presidency, Aquino traveled abroad, giving speeches and lectures on issues of democracy, development, human rights and women empowerment. In 1997, Aquino attended the wake and funeral of Blessed Mother Teresa
Mother Teresa
of Calcutta, whom she met during the latter's visit in Manila
Manila
in 1989. In the 2000s (decade), Aquino joined various global leaders and democratic icons in urging the Government of Burma
Burma
to unconditionally release Burmese democratic leader Aung San Suu Kyi from detention, whom she delivered a speech on behalf in the 1994 meeting of the UNESCO
UNESCO
World Commission on Culture and Development in Manila. In 2005, Aquino joined the international community in mourning the death of Pope John Paul II.[citation needed] Charitable and social initiatives[edit] Aside from being visible in various political gatherings and demonstrations, Aquino was heavily involved in several charitable activities and socio-economic initiatives. From 1992 until her death, Aquino was chairperson of the Benigno S. Aquino, Jr. Foundation which she set up in her husband's honor right after his brutal assassination in 1983. Further, she supported other causes such as the Gawad Kalinga social housing project for the poor and homeless. In 2007, Aquino helped establish the PinoyME Foundation, a non-profit organization which aims to provide microfinancing programs and projects for the poor. She was also a lifelong member of the Council of Women World Leaders, an international organization of former and current female heads of state and government. She also studied painting, and would occasionally give away her paintings to friends and family. In some events, Aquino auctioned her painting and gave all of the money to charity. She never sold her art for her own profit.[57] Illness and death[edit] Main article: Death and funeral of Corazon Aquino

Wikinews has related news: Former Philippine President Corazon Aquino dies at age 76

On March 24, 2008, Aquino's family announced that the former President had been diagnosed with colorectal cancer. Upon her being earlier informed by her doctors that she had only three months to live,[58] she pursued medical treatment and chemotherapy. A series of healing Masses for Aquino (a devout Catholic) were held throughout the country intended for her recovery. In a public statement during one healing Mass on May 13, 2008, Aquino said that her blood tests indicated that she was responding well to treatment; her hair and appetite loss were apparent.[59] By July 2009, Aquino was reported to be in very serious condition, suffering from loss of appetite, and was confined to the Makati Medical Center.[60] It was later announced that Aquino and her family had decided to stop chemotherapy and other medical interventions for her.[61][62] Aquino died in the Makati
Makati
Medical Center at 3:18 a.m. on August 1, 2009 due to cardiorespiratory arrest at the age of 76.[63] Wake and funeral[edit]

Queue for Aquino's wake in front of the Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila campus, which had opened its facilities including a clinic and restrooms for the mourners.[64] The cross topping the dome of Manila Cathedral is visible in the upper right of the photo.

Upon learning of Aquino's death, then incumbent President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, who was then on a state visit to the United States, announced a 10-day mourning period for the former President and issued Administrative Order No. 269 detailing the necessary arrangements for a state funeral.[65] Aquino's children, however, declined the government's offer of a state funeral for their mother.[66] All churches in the Philippines
Philippines
celebrated requiem masses simultaneously throughout the country and all government offices flew the Philippine flag at half mast. Hours after her death, Aquino's body lay in repose for public viewing at the La Salle Green Hills
La Salle Green Hills
campus in Mandaluyong
Mandaluyong
City. On August 3, 2009, Aquino's body was transferred from La Salle Greenhills to Manila
Manila
Cathedral in Intramuros, during which hundreds of thousands of Filipinos
Filipinos
lined the streets to view and escort the former leader's body. On the way to the Cathedral, Aquino's funeral cortege passed along Ayala Avenue
Ayala Avenue
in Makati, stopping in front of the monument to her husband Ninoy, where throngs of mourners gathered and sang the patriotic protest anthem "Bayan Ko".[67] Aquino's casket was solemnly brought inside the Cathedral by mid-afternoon that day. Following her death, all Roman Catholic dioceses in the country held requiem Masses.[68]

Corazon Aquino's funeral procession, with an Honour Guard composed of one serviceman from each branch of the Armed Forces and the Philippine National Police.

On August 4, 2009, Ferdinand "Bongbong" Marcos, Jr., and Imee Marcos—children of the late former President Ferdinand Marcos—paid their last respects to Aquino despite the two family's fierce political rivalry; the Aquinos have been blaming the late dictator for the assassination of Ninoy Aquino
Ninoy Aquino
Jr. in 1983. The Marcos siblings were received by Aquino's daughters María Elena, Aurora Corazon, and Victoria Elisa.[69] Early the next day, President Arroyo, who had cut short her trip in the United States, briefly paid her last respects to her erstwhile ally President Aquino.[70][71] A final requiem Mass was held on the morning of August 5, 2009, with then-Archbishop of Manila
Manila
Cardinal Gaudencio Rosales, then-Bishop of Balanga Socrates B. Villegas, and other high-ranking clergymen concelebrating. Aquino's daughter Kris spoke on behalf of her family towards the end of the Mass. Aquino's flag-draped casket was escorted from the Cathedral to Manila Memorial Park
Manila Memorial Park
in Parañaque, where she was interred beside her husband in the family mausoleum. Aquino's funeral procession took more than eight hours to reach the burial site, as tens of thousands of civilians lined the route to pay their respects. Philippine Air Force
Philippine Air Force
UH-1
UH-1
helicopters showered the procession with yellow confetti and ships docked at Manila's harbour blared their sirens, all to salute the late President, . Reaction[edit] Both local and international leaders showed respect for Aquino's achievements in the process of democratization in the Philippines. Local reaction[edit] Various politicians across the political spectrum expressed their grief and praise for the former Philippine leader. President Arroyo, once an ally of Aquino, remembered the sacrifices she made for the country and called her a "national treasure."[72] Former President Estrada said that the country had lost its mother and guiding voice with her sudden death. He also described Aquino as the "Philippines' most loved woman."[73] Though once bitter political foes, Aquino and Estrada reconciled and joined hands together in opposing President Arroyo.[74] Former Senate President Juan Ponce Enrile, Aquino's defense minister and later fierce critic, asked the public to pray for her eternal repose. Although former Aquino interior minister and Senate Minority floor leader Aquilino Pimentel, Jr., revealed that he had "mixed feelings" about Aquino's death, he also said that the country "shall be forever indebted to Cory for rallying the nation behind the campaign to topple dictatorial rule and restore democracy".[75] Ordinary Filipinos
Filipinos
throughout the country wore either yellow shirts or held masses for Aquino as their way of paying tribute to the woman who once led them in a revolution that changed the course of their country's history. Yellow Ribbons, which were once used during Aquino's battle with Marcos, were tied along major national roads and streets as a sign of solidarity and support for the now deceased Aquino and her grieving family. In popular social networking sites such as Facebook
Facebook
and Twitter, Filipinos
Filipinos
posted yellow ribbons in their accounts as a tribute to the former Philippine leader. Following her death, Filipino Catholics called on the Church to have Aquino canonized and declared as a saint. During her lifetime, Aquino was known and praised for her strong spirituality and sincere devotion to the Catholic faith. Days after her funeral, the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (BSP) announced that it supported calls to put the former President on the 500-Peso banknote alongside her husband, Ninoy Aquino.[76] International reaction[edit] Across the globe, messages of sympathy and solidarity with the Filipino people were sent by various heads of state and international leaders. Pope Benedict XVI, in his letter to Archbishop Rosales, recalled Aquino's "courageous commitment to the freedom of the Filipino people, her firm rejection of violence and intolerance" and called her a woman of courage and faith. U.S. President Barack Obama, through White House Press Secretary Robert Gibbs, said that "her courage, determination, and moral leadership are an inspiration to us all and exemplify the best in the Filipino nation". U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton
Hillary Clinton
expressed sadness over the passing of Aquino, to whom she had sent a personal letter of best wishes for recovery while she was still in hospital in July 2009. Clinton said that Aquino was "admired by the world for her extraordinary courage" in leading the fight against dictatorship.[77] Meanwhile, South Africa President Jacob Zuma
Jacob Zuma
called Aquino "a great leader who set a shining example of peaceful transition to democracy in her country".[78] Queen Elizabeth II
Queen Elizabeth II
of the United Kingdom, through the British Ambassador in Manila, sent a message to the Filipino people which read: "I am saddened to hear of the death of Corazon 'Cory' Aquino the former President of the Republic of the Philippines". She also added, "I send my sincere condolences to her family and to the people of the Philippines. Signed, Elizabeth R".[79] Furthermore, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev, in a telegram to President Arroyo, said that "the name of Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
is associated with a period of profound reforms and the democratic transformation of Filipino society". Medvedev also lauded Aquino's sympathy to Russian people and her contribution to the improvement of Russian-Filipino relations.[80] Moreover, global democratic icons such as Timor-Leste
Timor-Leste
President José Ramos-Horta and Wan Azizah, wife of Malaysian opposition leader Anwar Ibrahim, came to the Philippines
Philippines
not just to express their sympathies but to attend their friend Aquino's death and funeral, as well. After her release from imprisonment for almost 20 years, Aung San Suu Kyi, Burma's democratic opposition leader, publicly stated that Aquino is one of her inspirations as she continues to champion the cause of democracy in Myanmar. She has also expressed her good wishes for Aquino's son, then incumbent Philippine president Benigno S. Aquino III. Foreign Policy listed Corazon Aquino, along with Eleanor Roosevelt, Václav Havel, Ken Saro-Wiwa, and Sari Nusseibeh, as people who "never won the Nobel Prize, but should have."[81] Honors[edit] After leaving the presidency, Aquino received several awards and citations. In 1994, Aquino was cited as one of 100 Women Who Shaped World History in a reference book written by Gail Meyer Rolka and published by Bluewood Books in San Francisco, California.[82] In 1996, she received the J. William Fulbright Prize for International Understanding from the Fulbright Association, joining past recipients such as Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
and Nelson Mandela.[83] In August 1999, Aquino was chosen by Time Magazine
Time Magazine
as one of the 20 Most Influential Asians of the 20th century.[84] The same magazine cited her in November 2006 as one of 65 great Asian Heroes, along with Aung San Suu Kyi, Deng Xiaoping, Lee Kuan Yew, Mahatma Gandhi, and King Bhumibol Adulyadej.[85] In 2002, Aquino became the first woman named to the Board of Governors of the Board of the Asian Institute of Management, a leading graduate business school and think tank in the Asia
Asia
Pacific region.[86] She served on the Board until 2006.[87] In popular culture[edit]

The "New Generation" 500 peso note featuring the portrait of Corazon Aquino and her husband Benigno Aquino, Jr..

Aquino was portrayed by Laurice Guillen in the 1988 HBO
HBO
miniseries A Dangerous Life. Aquino was a main character in Boy Noriega's 1987 stage comedy Bongbong at Kris (Bongbong and Kris), about an imagined romantic coupling between the only son of Ferdinand Marcos
Ferdinand Marcos
and the youngest daughter of the Aquinos. In the movie Alfredo Lim: Batas ng Maynila, Aquino was portrayed by Filipino actress Luz Valdez. Aquino was portrayed by Tess Villarama in The Obet Pagdanganan Story (1997) and in Chavit (2003). She was also portrayed by Geraldine Malacaman in the 1998 musical play Lean. In the defunct comedy gag show Ispup, Madz Nicolas played a parodized version of Aquino who often reminisces about life with Ninoy. In 2004, Aquino was portrayed by Irma Adlawan in the miniseries Sa 'Yo Lamang (Only Yours). In 2008, a musical play about Aquino starring Isay Alvarez as Aquino, was staged at the Meralco Theater. Entitled Cory, the Musical, it was written and directed by Nestor Torre and featured a libretto of 19 original songs composed by Lourdes Pimentel, wife of Senator Aquilino Pimentel.[88][89][90] A two-part special of Maalaala Mo Kaya aired on January 23 and 30, 2010. Actors Bea Alonzo
Bea Alonzo
played Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
and Piolo Pascual portrayed Ninoy Aquino. In 2013, the exhibit, A Gift of Self, was showcased in commemoration of Aquino's 4th death anniversary. The exhibit featured 30 of Aquino's paintings, all exuding her signature bold strokes and floral motifs which she based on her memory of the revolution and her love for haiku.[91] Legacy[edit]

Cory Aquino memorial at General Tinio, Nueva Ecija.

Former Philippine President Corazon Aquino's grave is next to her husband Ninoy Aquino's at the Manila Memorial Park
Manila Memorial Park
in Parañaque, Philippines

President Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
ended her term in 1992 with the country reeling under severe power shortage crisis. It was the offshoot of her administration’s failure to provide replacement for the more than 600-MW of electricity foregone with the government’s decision to mothball the Bataan nuclear power plant (BNPP).[92] As the guiding light of the People Power Revolution, Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
is fondly remembered and deeply revered by most Filipinos
Filipinos
as the "mother of Philippine democracy",[93] and the "housewife who led a revolution".[94] She has been hailed by American columnist Georgie Anne Geyer as a modern-day Joan of Arc.[95] Despite the accolades she has received for assuming the mantle of leadership of the democratic struggle against the Marcos dictatorship, Aquino has always stated that it was actually the Filipino people, not her, who restored democracy in the Philippines
Philippines
and maintained that she was only an instrument. To preserve and celebrate her legacy, various types of commemorations and memorials in honor of President Aquino were made. Among these are as follow:

On February 3, 2010, Grand Prize winner Julian Eymard Paguiligan of Bulacan State University's College of Architecture and Fine Arts (CAFA) made his painting entry entitled Ika-25 ng Pebrero, 1986 presented in the last year's 24th Visual Arts National Competition for the Directories Philippines
Philippines
Corporation's directory cover as a paid tribute. He made a portrait of the late President Aquino in 27.5x34.25" watercolor on paper, as a symbol for her contribution not only for democracy, but also in the successes of the EDSA Revolution in the past.[96] On August 1, 2010, the first anniversary of her death, a 200x250 wide photo mosaic of Aquino was unveiled near the Quirino Grandstand at the Luneta Park
Luneta Park
in the presence of her son, President Benigno Aquino III and her supporters. It has been submitted to the Guinness World Records to be certified as the largest photo mosaic in the world.[97] On October 9, 2010, Manila
Manila
Mayor Alfredo S. Lim
Alfredo S. Lim
inaugurated a public market in Baseco, Port Area known as the President Corazon C. Aquino Public Market.[98] On December 16, 2010, President Benigno Aquino III
Benigno Aquino III
and the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (Central Bank of the Philippines) announced the release of new 500-peso bank notes and unveiled their new design, which features both the late Senator Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino Jr. and Corazon Aquino.[99] On December 10, 2015, the Republic Act No. 10176, a bill that changes the name of Batasan Hills High School (BHES) into "President Corazon C. Aquino Elementary School" (PCCAES) in Batasan Hills, Quezon City, was signed into law by President Benigno Aquino III.[100]

Awards and achievements[edit]

1986 Time Woman of the Year 1986 Eleanor Roosevelt
Eleanor Roosevelt
Human Rights Award 1986 United Nations Silver Medal 1986 Canadian International Prize for Freedom 1986 International Democracy
Democracy
Award from the International Association of Political Consultants 1987 Prize For Freedom Award from Liberal International 1993 Special
Special
Peace Award from the Aurora Aragon Quezon Peace Awards Foundation and Concerned Women of the Philippines 1995 Path to Peace Award 1996 J. William Fulbright Prize for International Understanding from the U.S. Department of State 1998 Ramon Magsaysay Award for International Understanding 1998 Pearl S. Buck Award 1999 One of Time Magazine's 20 Most Influential Asians of the 20th Century 2001 World Citizenship Award 2005 David Rockefeller
David Rockefeller
Bridging Leadership Awards 2005 One of the World's Elite Women Who Make a Difference by the International Women's Forum Hall of Fame 2006 One of Time Magazine's 65 Asian Heroes 2008 One of A Different View's 15 Champions of World Democracy EWC Asia
Asia
Pacific Community Building Award Women's International Center International Leadership Living Legacy Award Martin Luther King, Jr.
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Nonviolent Peace Prize United Nations Development Fund for Women Noel Foundation Life Award

Honorary doctorates[edit]

Doctor of International Relations, honoris causa, from:

Boston
Boston
University in Boston Eastern University in St. David, Pennsylvania Fordham University
Fordham University
in New York Waseda University
Waseda University
in Tokyo

Doctor of Civil Law, honoris causa, from:

Far Eastern University
Far Eastern University
(59th Commencement Exercises, March 1987)

Doctor of Laws, honoris causa, from:

University of the Philippines
Philippines
Diliman University of Santo Tomas
University of Santo Tomas
in Manila

Doctor of Humane Letters, honoris causa, from:

Ateneo de Manila
Manila
University College of Mount Saint Vincent
College of Mount Saint Vincent
in New York Xavier University – Ateneo de Cagayan
Xavier University – Ateneo de Cagayan
(Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines)

Doctor of Humanities, honoris causa, from:

Bicol University
Bicol University
(Posthumous), 2011 San Beda College
San Beda College
in Manila, 2000 Seattle University, 2002 Stonehill College
Stonehill College
in Easton, Massachusetts University of Oregon, 1995

Doctor of Public Administration, honoris causa, from:

Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
(University of the City of Manila), June 1994

Foreign orders[edit]

 Japan: Grand Cordon of the Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum (November 1986)

Ancestry[edit]

Ancestors of Corazon Aquino

8. Co Yu-hwan (later Jose Cojuangco)

4. Melecio Cojuangco

18. Felipe Estrella

9. Antera Estrella

19. Martina Cruz

2. Jose Cojuangco

10. Juan Chichioco

5. Tecla Chichioco

22. ? Valenzuela

11. Valentina Valenzuela

23. ? Jumaquio

1. Corazon Cojuangco

24. Pedro Sumulong

12. Policarpio Sumulong

25. Geronima Saguinsin

6. Juan Sumulong

13. Arcadia Marquez

27. Ildefonsa Marquez

3. Demetria Sumulong

28. Luis Sumulong

14. Valentin Sumulong[101]

29. Maria Sumulong

7. Salome Sumulong[101]

15. Elena Carigma[101]

References[edit]

^ a b c d Aquino, Corazon (1996-10-11). Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
Speaks to Fulbrighters (Speech). Washington, D.C. Retrieved 2008-04-15.  ^ a b "9 Interesting Facts You May Not Know About Corazon Aquino". filipiknow. Retrieved August 23, 2016.  ^ a b c "Corazon C. Aquino". malacanang.gov.ph. Archived from the original on 4 November 2012. Retrieved 25 August 2016.  ^ a b "Essential Cory Aquino: The Young Cory". Ninoy & Cory Aquino Foundation. Retrieved 25 January 2017.  ^ "Throwback: How Ninoy, Cory got engaged". ABS-CBN Corporation. August 1, 2014. Retrieved August 24, 2016.  ^ Tah, B. Allie (August 24, 2013). "Ninoy's children remember bad times, good times". Rappler. Retrieved August 24, 2016.  ^ "Essential Cory Aquino: Her life with Ninoy Aquino". coryaquino.com.ph. Retrieved August 25, 2016.  ^ a b c Lorna Kalaw-Tirol (2000). Public Faces, Private Lives. Pasig City, Philippines: Anvil Publishing, Inc. pp. 2–23. ISBN 971-27-0851-9.  ^ a b Pico Iyer (5 January 1987). "Corazon Aquino". Time Magazine. Archived from the original on 20 December 2007. Retrieved 2008-03-26.  ^ Branigin, William (1986-02-02). "Aquino's 'Flesh-to-Flesh Campaign'". The Washington Post. p. A1.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Milt Freudenheim, Henry Giniger & Richard Levine (1985-11-17). "Marcos Moves Toward A Vote". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-04-15.  ^ "Diary of Salvador H. Laurel - The Philippine Diary Project". philippinediaryproject.wordpress.com.  ^ "Ninoy linked up with the Left to aid presidential ambition". GMA News. August 18, 2010.  ^ Milt Freudenheim & Richard Levine (1986-01-12). "A Marcos Charge Irks Mrs. Aquino". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-04-15.  ^ United Press International (1985-12-31). "Marcos Says Rival Trifles With U.S. Bases". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-04-15.  ^ http://www.gov.ph/1990/10/03/the-final-report-of-the-fact-finding-commission-iv-military-intervention-in-the-philippines-1986-1987/ ^ "Gringo plotted to kill Marcos – Almonte".  ^ Manila
Manila
Times. "'Setting the record straight on Edsa 1'". Archived from the original on 10 June 2016. Retrieved 30 August 2015.  ^ a b "Filipino coup leaders tell Marcos to go". BBC. 1986-02-22. Retrieved 2008-04-15.  ^ " Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
Biography". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on February 27, 2017. Retrieved October 24, 2017.  ^ "Timeline: Feb. 22, 1986, Day One". Inquirer.net. February 22, 2014. Retrieved August 26, 2016.  ^ Crisostomo, Isabelo T. (1987-04-01), Cory, Profile of a President: The Historic Rise to Power of Corazon., Branden Books, p. 257, ISBN 978-0-8283-1913-3, retrieved 2007-12-03 . ^ Joaquin G. Bernas (1995). The Intent of the 1986 Constitution Writers. Manila, Philippines: Rex Book
Book
Store. pp. 2–4.  ^ Lawyers League v. President Aquino, G.R. No. 73748 (Supreme Court of the Philippines
Philippines
1986-05-22). Text ^ Bernas, p. 19 ^ " Manila
Manila
Plan To Cut Debt". The New York Times. 1992-02-21. Retrieved 2010-02-27.  ^ "The Aquino Management of the Presidency" (PDF). malacanang.gov.ph. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 25 August 2016.  ^ Sanger, DE (1992-06-08). "Her Term About to End, Aquino 'Hasn't Made Much Difference' to the Poor". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-02-27.  ^ Year of Labor Statistics[permanent dead link] ^ " Philippines
Philippines
Overview of economy, Information about Overview of economy in Philippines". Nationsencyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2010-03-13.  ^ Sanger, David E. (December 28, 1991). " Philippines
Philippines
Orders U.S. to Leave Strategic Navy Base at Subic Bay". The New York Times. Retrieved August 25, 2016.  ^ Baker 2004 p. 123 ^ "Supreme Court G.R. No. 84607". www.lawphil.net. Retrieved 2017-08-28.  ^ "Section 6, Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 23 August 2007. Retrieved 2010-03-13.  ^ "Section 31, Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 23 August 2007. Retrieved 2010-03-13.  ^ Association of Small Landowners v. Luz, 175 SCRA 343, 386 (Supreme Court of the Philippines
Philippines
1989-07-14). ^ a b c Russell Arador (4 May 2007). "Life once 'sweeter' at Hacienda Luisita". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on 5 October 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-25.  ^ "The Cataclysmic 1991 Eruption of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines". United States
United States
Geological Survey. Retrieved 2008-03-22.  ^ Associated Press (November 9, 1991). "The Philippines: Search continues for bodies of victims". The Vindicator. Manila, Philippines. p. A3. Retrieved May 7, 2013.  ^ a b Hooke, Norman. Maritime Casualties, 1963-1996. Lloyd’s of London Press, 1997 ^ Omar Acosta; Dave Veridiano & Gerry Lirio (1987-12-24). "238 Bodies Washed Ashore in Mindoro". Philippine Daily Inquirer.  ^ "3,159 people were on 'Dona Paz'". Lloyd’s List. 1988-02-24.  ^ Barbara Crosette (1987-12-23). "It's Gloom And Glitter For Manila". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-12-24.  ^ "Brownouts Darken Outlook for Aquino : Philippines: Power outages cripple industry and snarl traffic. Criticism has focused on the president". The Los Angeles Times. April 24, 1990.  ^ Dalisay, Jose Jr. "Jose W. Diokno: The Scholar-Warrior". Retrieved 2011-03-03.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 27 September 2016. Retrieved 24 September 2016.  ^ Reuters (10 August 1987). "Philippine Debt Dispute" – via www.nytimes.com.  ^ "Ongpin last top official to take his life".  ^ Sandra Burton (August 23–30, 1999). "Time 100: Corazon Aquino". Time Magazine. Retrieved 2008-04-15.  ^ "Lozada misses Cory Aquino in Navotas Mass". GMA News.TV. 2008-03-26. Retrieved 2008-04-14.  ^ Frank-Jürgen Richter, Pamela Mar: Asia's New Crisis, John Wiley & Sons Singapore, 2004 ^ Mark Landler (2001-02-09). "In Philippines, The Economy As Casualty; The ped, a Credibility Repair Job". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-04-14.  ^ Carlos H. Conde (2005-07-09). "Allies of Philippine President Call on Her to Step Down". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-04-14.  ^ Carlos H. Conde (2008-03-01). "Ex-Presidents Join Anti-Arroyo Rally". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-04-14.  ^ Leah Salaverria (23 December 2008). "Aquino says sorry to Estrada; concedes EDSA II was a mistake". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on 8 January 2009. Retrieved 23 December 2008.  ^ "Cory apologizes for EDSA 2, gets flak". Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 28 February 2010.  ^ Radovan, Jill Tan (2018-02-25). "Remembering Corazon Aquino, the artist". Rappler. Retrieved 2018-02-26.  ^ Maila Ager (28 July 2009). "Aquino blood pressure fluctuating – family". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on 29 July 2009. Retrieved 28 July 2009.  ^ Abigail Kwok (2008-05-13). "Aquino: 'My body is responding positively to the treatment'". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 2008-05-13.  ^ Fe Zamora (1 July 2009). "Prayers sought for ailing Cory Aquino; Friend says ex-leader in 'serious' condition". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on 4 July 2009. Retrieved 1 July 2009.  ^ "No more chemotherapy for Cory, says close family friend". GMA News.TV. 2009-07-02. Retrieved 2009-07-02.  ^ Agence France-Presse
Agence France-Presse
(2 July 2009). "No more treatment for Aquino—spokeswoman". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on 4 July 2009. Retrieved 2 July 2009.  ^ Ager, Maila (2009-08-01). "Cory Aquino dies". INQUIRER.net. Retrieved 2009-07-31.  ^ "PLM opens facilities for Cory supporters". GMANews.tv. 2009-08-05. Retrieved 2009-08-04.  ^ "Palace declares week of mourning on the passing of Cory". GMANews.tv. 2009-08-01. Retrieved 2009-08-01.  ^ Noel Orsal & Paul Mata. " Kris Aquino
Kris Aquino
explains why family chose not to have state funeral for former President Corazon Aquino". Pep.ph. Retrieved 2010-03-13.  ^ "120,000 Show up for Cory". Abs-cbnnews.com. Retrieved 2010-03-13.  ^ "Churches start requiem Masses for Cory Aquino". GMANews.tv. 2009-08-01. Retrieved 2009-08-01.  ^ "Marcos children pay last respects to Aquino". INQUIRER.net. 4 August 2009. Archived from the original on 5 August 2009. Retrieved 4 August 2009.  ^ Veronica Uy, Kristine L. Alave (5 August 2009). "Arroyo pays last respects to Aquino". INQUIRER.net. Archived from the original on 19 August 2009. Retrieved 5 August 2009.  ^ "Arroyo cuts short US trip, sets August 5 holiday for Cory". GMAnews.tv. 2009-08-02. Retrieved 2009-08-02.  ^ Cabacungan, Jr., Gil (1 August 2009). "Arroyo orders 10 days of mourning". INQUIRER.net. Archived from the original on 10 August 2009. Retrieved 2 August 2009.  ^ "Estrada: Aquino RP's 'most loved' woman". INQUIRER.net. 3 August 2009. Archived from the original on 29 July 2009. Retrieved 3 August 2009.  ^ "Nation lost 'mother, guiding voice'". INQUIRER.net. 1 August 2009. Archived from the original on 2 August 2009. Retrieved 1 August 2009.  ^ "Senators remember Cory's greatness". GMANews.tv. 2009-08-01. Retrieved 2009-08-01.  ^ "BSP backs adding Cory image to P500 bill". Philippine Daily Inquirer. 6 August 2009. Archived from the original on 8 August 2009. Retrieved 6 August 2009.  ^ "World mourns Aquino's death". INQUIRER.net. 1 August 2009. Archived from the original on 4 August 2009. Retrieved 1 August 2009.  ^ Gomez, Jim (1 August 2009). "Aquino mourned at wake by thousands of Filipinos". Google News. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 4 August 2009. Retrieved 2009-08-04.  ^ "British Queen saddened with death of RP's 'true queen'". ABS-CBN News. 2008-08-06. Retrieved 2009-12-20.  ^ " Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
expressed his condolences to President of the Philippines
Philippines
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
following the passing of former President of the Republic Corazon Aquino". Presidential Press and Information Office. 1 August 2009. Archived from the original on 7 August 2009. Retrieved 2 August 2009.  ^ Kenner, David (7 October 2009). "Nobel Peace Prize Also-Rans". Foreign Policy. The Washington Post Company. pp. 1–7. Archived from the original on 25 January 2010. Retrieved 11 June 2010.  ^ "The 100 Most Influential Women of All Time: A Ranking Past and Present". Adherents.com. Retrieved 2008-04-15.  ^ "Former Philippine President Corazon C. Aquino Receives 1996 J. William Fulbright Prize For International Understanding". Fulbright Association. Retrieved 2008-04-15.  ^ Nisid Hajari (August 23–30, 1999). "Asians of the Century". Time Magazine. Retrieved 2008-04-15.  ^ Sheila Coronel (2006-11-13). "60 Years of Asian Heroes: Corazon Aquino". Time Magazine. Retrieved 2008-04-15.  ^ "Asian Institute of Management: History". Asian Institute of Management. Archived from the original on 11 February 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-15.  ^ "Asian Institute of Management: News and Announcements". Asian Institute of Management. Archived from the original on 24 January 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-15.  ^ "Musical on Cory Aquino to be staged at Meralco Theater". 20 June 2008. Archived from the original on 5 October 2008. Retrieved 29 June 2008.  ^ "Bing Pimentel writes musical play for Cory". Gmanews.tv. Retrieved 2010-03-13.  ^ "Coming this October: 'Cory' the Musical". Abs-cbnnews.com. 2008-09-16. Retrieved 2010-03-13.  ^ Radovan, Jill Tan (2018-02-25). "Remembering Corazon Aquino, the artist". Rappler. Retrieved 2018-02-26.  ^ Villanueva, Marichu A. "A legacy of darkness".  ^ Barnaby Lo (August 5, 2009). " Filipinos
Filipinos
Mourn "Mother of Democracy" Cory Aquino". CBS News. Retrieved August 23, 2016.  ^ Linnea Crowther. "8 FACTS ABOUT PHILIPPINES PRESIDENT CORAZON AQUINO". Legacy. Retrieved August 23, 2016.  ^ Georgie Anne Geyer (September 4, 1986), "Philippines' Joan of Arc", Gettysburg Times, retrieved August 23, 2016  ^ Yuson, Alfred A. (February 8, 2010). "Images of Tita Cory". Philstar.com. Retrieved August 25, 2016.  ^ Merueñas, Mark (February 8, 2010). "Despite rains, Noynoy leads unfurling of giant photo mosaic for Cory". GMA News. Retrieved August 25, 2016.  ^ "New public market named after late President Cory Aquino inaugurated in Baseco Compound". Highbeam Business. October 9, 2010. Retrieved August 25, 2016.  ^ Sisante, Jam (December 16, 2010). "Cory, Ninoy together again on new 500-peso bill". GMA News. Retrieved August 25, 2016.  ^ "Republic Act No. 10176" (PDF). senate.gov.ph. Retrieved August 25, 2016.  ^ a b c "Salome Sumulong's Death Certificate". 

Bibliography[edit]

Baker, Anni P. (2004). American Soldiers Overseas: The Global Military Presence. London: Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0275973549.  Bernas, Joaquin G. (1995). The Intent of the 1986 Constitution Writers. Manila: Rex Bookstore. ISBN 9789712319341.  Crisostomo, Isabelo T. (1987). Cory, Profile of a President: The Historic Rise to Power of Corazon. Philippines: Branden Books. ISBN 9780828319133.  Hooke, Norman (1997). Maritime Casualties, 1963-1996. Virginia: LLP. ISBN 9781859781104.  Kalaw-Tirol, Lorna (2004). Asia's New Crisis: Renewal Through Total Ethical Management. United States: Wiley. ISBN 9780470821299.  Richter, Frank-Jürgen (2014). Public Faces, Private Lives. Germany: Policy Press. ISBN 9781447316374.  Skard, Torild (2014). Public Faces, Private Lives. Great Britain: Policy Press. ISBN 9781447316374. 

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original works written by or about: Corazon Aquino

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Corazon Aquino.

Official website of Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
– maintained by the Ninoy and Cory Aquino Foundation Time Woman of the Year: Corazon "Cory" Aquino Aquino's historic speech before the U.S. Congress on YouTube New York Times obituary President Aquino in Time Magazine's Year ender World Socialist Web Site
World Socialist Web Site
obituary: part one and part two Appearances on C-SPAN

Political offices

Preceded by Ferdinand Marcos President of the Philippines February 25, 1986 – June 30, 1992 Succeeded by Fidel Ramos

Diplomatic posts

Preceded by Hussein Onn Chairperson of ASEAN 1987 Succeeded by Goh Chok Tong

v t e

Corazon Aquino

11th President of the Philippines

Family

Benigno S. Aquino Jr. (husband) Benigno S. Aquino III
Benigno S. Aquino III
(son) María Elena Cruz (daughter) Aurora Corazón Abellada (daughter) Victoria Elisa Dee (daughter) Kristina Bernadette Aquino (daughter) José Cojuangco
José Cojuangco
Sr. (father) Demetria Sumulong (mother) Juan Sumulong
Juan Sumulong
(grandfather) Eduardo Cojuangco (uncle) Eduardo Cojuangco Jr. (cousin) José Cojuangco
José Cojuangco
Jr. (brother) Josephine C. Reyes
Josephine C. Reyes
(sister) Mark Cojuangco (nephew) Mikee Cojuangco-Jaworski (niece)

Education

College of Mount Saint
Saint
Vincent

Presidency

Succession

1986 Snap elections EDSA Revolution 1992 Presidential Election

Landmark laws and agreements

1987 Philippine Constitution Family Code Local Government and Administrative Codes Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program

Office

Mendiola massacre 1986–90 coup attempts 1989 Davao hostage crisis 1989 civil unrest 1990 Mindanao crisis Vizconde massacre Hultman–Chapman double-murder case

Natural disasters

1990 Luzon earthquake Thelma (Uring) Nina (Sisang) Sinking of MV Doña Paz PR 206 crash 1991 Mount Pinatubo
Mount Pinatubo
eruption

Diplomatic incidents/ International relations

Marcos scandals Operation Big Bird

Post-presidency

1998 elections 2004 elections 2005 electoral crisis 2007 elections Death and memorial service

Related

The Last Journey of Ninoy

Predecessor: Ferdinand Marcos, 10th President of the Philippines Successor: Fidel V. Ramos, 12th President of the Philippines

v t e

National symbols of the Philippines

Official

Arnis Coat of arms Filipino language Flag "Lupang Hinirang" "Maka-Diyos, Maka-Tao, Makakalikasan at Makabansa" Narra Philippine eagle Philippine pearl Sampaguita

Unofficial

Adobo Anahaw Bakya Balangay Barong and Baro't saya "Bayan Ko" Carabao Cariñosa Jeepney Juan de la Cruz Lechon Malacañang Palace Mango Manila Milkfish National Seal Nipa hut Tinikling Sinigang Sipa Waling-waling

National heroes

Emilio Aguinaldo Melchora Aquino Andrés Bonifacio Marcelo H. del Pilar Sultan Dipatuan Kudarat Juan Luna Apolinario Mabini José Rizal Gabriela Silang

Articles related to Corazon Aquino

v t e

Benigno Aquino III

15th President of the Philippines

Family

Benigno Aquino Jr.
Benigno Aquino Jr.
(father) Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
(mother) Kris Aquino
Kris Aquino
(sister) Benigno Aquino Sr.
Benigno Aquino Sr.
(grandfather) Servillano Aquino
Servillano Aquino
(great-grandfather) Juan Sumulong
Juan Sumulong
(great-grandfather) Herminio Aquino (granduncle) Butz Aquino (uncle) Jose Cojuangco Jr. (uncle) Tessie Aquino-Oreta
Tessie Aquino-Oreta
(aunt) Bam Aquino
Bam Aquino
(cousin) Bimby Aquino Yap (nephew)

Education

Ateneo de Manila
Manila
University

Political career

Liberal Party Representative from Tarlac's 2nd District Senate Political views

Presidency

Elections and inauguration

2010 elections

Death and funeral of Corazon Aquino Aquino-Roxas 2010 Aquino–Binay 2010 Transition Inauguration Inaugural address SONA (2010)

2013 elections 2016 elections

Roxas-Robredo 2016

Landmark laws and agreements

Reproductive Health Bill K-12 Program Disbursement Acceleration Program Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro Anti-Cybercrime Law Creation of the Negros Island Region
Negros Island Region
and the Department of Information and Communications Technology

Natural disasters

Typhoons

Washi (Sendong) Haiyan (Yolanda) Bopha (Pablo) Hagupit (Ruby) Koppu (Lando) Melor (Nona)

Earthquakes

Negros Bohol/Cebu

Domestic incidents/ issues

Extrajudicial killings 2011 AFP corruption scandal Impeachments

Merceditas Gutierrez Renato Corona

Masbate plane crash and Death of Jesse Robredo Pork barrel scam and Million People March Zamboanga City crisis Operation Darkhorse 2014 Bukidnon bus bombing New Bilibid Prison raids Mamasapano clash Kentex slipper factory fire 2015 MRT-3 controversy Iglesia ni Cristo leadership controversy and protests 2015 Lumad massacre "Laglag/Tanim bala" scandal 2016 Kidapawan protests Diwata-1
Diwata-1
launching Commission on Elections data breach Close-Up Forever Summer concert tragedy

Diplomatic incidents/ International relations

International trips Manila
Manila
hostage crisis Scarborough Shoal standoff Aman Futures & Rasuman Group pyramiding scam 2013 Lahad Datu standoff 2013 Guang Da Xing No. 28 incident Philippines
Philippines
v. China
China
arbitration case Death of Jennifer Laude Pope Francis' visit to the Philippines Mary Jane Veloso
Mary Jane Veloso
case APEC Philippines
Philippines
2015 Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Bank heist

Related

15th Congress 16th Congress Noy Noynoying The Last Journey of Ninoy

Predecessor: Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, 14th President of the Philippines Successor: Rodrigo Duterte, 16th President of the Philippines

v t e

Presidents of the Philippines

List

First Republic

Emilio Aguinaldo

Commonwealth

Manuel L. Quezon Sergio Osmeña Manuel Roxas

Second Republic

José P. Laurel

Third Republic

Manuel Roxas Elpidio Quirino Ramon Magsaysay Carlos P. Garcia Diosdado Macapagal Ferdinand Marcos

Fourth Republic

Ferdinand Marcos Corazon Aquino

Fifth Republic

Corazon Aquino Fidel Ramos Joseph Estrada Gloria Macapagal Arroyo Benigno Aquino III Rodrigo Duterte

v t e

Time Persons of the Year

1927–1950

Charles Lindbergh
Charles Lindbergh
(1927) Walter Chrysler
Walter Chrysler
(1928) Owen D. Young
Owen D. Young
(1929) Mohandas Gandhi (1930) Pierre Laval
Pierre Laval
(1931) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1932) Hugh S. Johnson
Hugh S. Johnson
(1933) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1934) Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
(1935) Wallis Simpson
Wallis Simpson
(1936) Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
/ Soong Mei-ling
Soong Mei-ling
(1937) Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
(1938) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1939) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1940) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1941) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1942) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1943) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1944) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1945) James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes
(1946) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1947) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1948) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1949) The American Fighting-Man (1950)

1951–1975

Mohammed Mosaddeq (1951) Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
(1952) Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
(1953) John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles
(1954) Harlow Curtice
Harlow Curtice
(1955) Hungarian Freedom Fighters (1956) Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
(1957) Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
(1958) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1959) U.S. Scientists: George Beadle / Charles Draper / John Enders / Donald A. Glaser / Joshua Lederberg
Joshua Lederberg
/ Willard Libby
Willard Libby
/ Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
/ Edward Purcell / Isidor Rabi / Emilio Segrè
Emilio Segrè
/ William Shockley
William Shockley
/ Edward Teller / Charles Townes / James Van Allen
James Van Allen
/ Robert Woodward (1960) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(1961) Pope John XXIII
Pope John XXIII
(1962) Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
(1963) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1964) William Westmoreland
William Westmoreland
(1965) The Generation Twenty-Five and Under (1966) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1967) The Apollo 8
Apollo 8
Astronauts: William Anders
William Anders
/ Frank Borman
Frank Borman
/ Jim Lovell (1968) The Middle Americans (1969) Willy Brandt
Willy Brandt
(1970) Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1971) Henry Kissinger
Henry Kissinger
/ Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1972) John Sirica
John Sirica
(1973) King Faisal (1974) American Women: Susan Brownmiller / Kathleen Byerly
Kathleen Byerly
/ Alison Cheek / Jill Conway / Betty Ford
Betty Ford
/ Ella Grasso / Carla Hills / Barbara Jordan / Billie Jean King
Billie Jean King
/ Susie Sharp / Carol Sutton / Addie Wyatt (1975)

1976–2000

Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
(1976) Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
(1977) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1978) Ayatollah Khomeini (1979) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
(1980) Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
(1981) The Computer (1982) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
/ Yuri Andropov
Yuri Andropov
(1983) Peter Ueberroth
Peter Ueberroth
(1984) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1985) Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
(1986) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1987) The Endangered Earth (1988) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1989) George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
(1990) Ted Turner
Ted Turner
(1991) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
(1992) The Peacemakers: Yasser Arafat
Yasser Arafat
/ F. W. de Klerk
F. W. de Klerk
/ Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
/ Yitzhak Rabin
Yitzhak Rabin
(1993) Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
(1994) Newt Gingrich
Newt Gingrich
(1995) David Ho
David Ho
(1996) Andrew Grove
Andrew Grove
(1997) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
/ Ken Starr
Ken Starr
(1998) Jeffrey P. Bezos (1999) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2000)

2001–present

Rudolph Giuliani (2001) The Whistleblowers: Cynthia Cooper / Coleen Rowley
Coleen Rowley
/ Sherron Watkins (2002) The American Soldier (2003) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2004) The Good Samaritans: Bono
Bono
/ Bill Gates
Bill Gates
/ Melinda Gates
Melinda Gates
(2005) You (2006) Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(2007) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2008) Ben Bernanke
Ben Bernanke
(2009) Mark Zuckerberg
Mark Zuckerberg
(2010) The Protester (2011) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2012) Pope Francis
Pope Francis
(2013) Ebola Fighters: Dr. Jerry Brown / Dr. Kent Brantly
Kent Brantly
/ Ella Watson-Stryker / Foday Gollah / Salome Karwah
Salome Karwah
(2014) Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
(2015) Donald Trump
Donald Trump
(2016) The Silence Breakers (2017)

Book

v t e

Martial law
Martial law
in the Philippines
Philippines
and People Power Revolution

Batas militar sa Pilipinas

Background

1965 Presidential elections Conjugal dictatorship Philippines– United States
United States
relations US imperialism Cold War Vietnam War First Quarter Storm Communist insurgency Sabah claim Jabidah massacre Islamic insurgency 1969 elections Agrarian reform Coco Levy Fund scam

Events

Proclamation No. 1081 Human rights
Human rights
violations Plaza Miranda bombing 1973 Constitution 1978 elections Interim Batasang Pambansa Assassination of Benigno Aquino Jr. Snap elections

People

Regime

Ferdinand Marcos Imelda Marcos Fabian Ver Danding Cojuangco Cesar Virata Arturo Tolentino

Opposition

Ninoy Aquino Corazon Aquino Salvador Laurel Juan Ponce Enrile Fidel V. Ramos Gringo Honasan Jaime Cardinal Sin Claudio Teehankee Jovito Salonga Jose Diokno Diosdado Macapagal

Communists

Jose Maria Sison Bernabe Buscayno

Locations

Landmarks

Epifanio de los Santos Avenue Ortigas Center Camp Aguinaldo Camp Crame Club Filipino Malacañang Palace Hawaii

Areas

Makati Mandaluyong Pasig San Juan Quezon City

Aftermath

Events

Nepotism Operation Big Bird Mendiola massacre 1987 elections Coup d'état Japanese Official Development Assistance scandal Death of Ferdinand Marcos

Institutions

Aquino Presidency Presidential Commission on Good Government 1987 Constitution Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program Philippine National Police Ramos Presidency

Literature

Bagong Pagsilang Bayan Ko Dekada '70

film

v t e

Candidates in the Philippine presidential election, 1986

Kilusang Bagong Lipunan

President:

Ferdinand Marcos

Vice President:

Arturo Tolentino

UNIDO-PDP-LABAN

President:

Corazon Aquino

Vice President:

Salvador Laurel

Other third party candidates

President:

Reuben Canoy Narciso Padilla

Vice President:

Eva Estrada-Kalaw Roger Arienda

v t e

Cabinet of President Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
(1986–1992)

Prime Minister

Salvador Laurel
Salvador Laurel
(1986-1987)

Vice-President

Salvador Laurel
Salvador Laurel
(1986-1992)

Presidential Spokesperson

Rene Saguisag

Minister/Secretary of Agrarian Reform

Conrado Estrella, Sr. (1986) Heherson Alvarez (1986–1987) Philip Juico (1987–1989) Miriam Defensor Santiago
Miriam Defensor Santiago
(1989–1990) Florencio Abad
Florencio Abad
(1990) Benjamin Liong (1990–1992)

Minister/Secretary of Agriculture

Ramon Mitra, Jr.
Ramon Mitra, Jr.
(1986–1987) Carlos Dominguez (1987–1989) Senen Bacani (1989–1992)

Minister/Secretary of Education, Culture and Sports

Lourdes Quisimbing (1986–1989) Isidro Cariño (1989–1992)

Minister/Secretary of Finance

Jaime Ongpin (1986–1987) Vicente Jaime (1987–1990) Jesus Estanislao (1990–1992)

Minister/Secretary of Foreign Affairs

Salvador Laurel
Salvador Laurel
(1986–1987) Manuel Yan (1987) Raul Manglapus
Raul Manglapus
(1987–1992)

Minister/Secretary of Health

Alfredo Bengzon (1987–1991) Antonio Periquet (1991–1992)

Minister/Secretary of the Interior and Local Government

Aquilino Pimentel, Jr.
Aquilino Pimentel, Jr.
(1986–1987) Cesar Sarino (1987–1992)

Minister/Secretary of Justice

Neptali Gonzales (1986–1987) Sedfrey Ordoñez (1987–1990) Franklin Drilon
Franklin Drilon
(1990–1991) Silvestre Bello III (1991–1992) Eduardo Montenegro (1992)

Minister/Secretary of Public Information

Teodoro Locsin, Jr.
Teodoro Locsin, Jr.
(1986-1992)

Minister/Secretary of Labor and Employment

Augusto Sanchez (1986-1992)

Minister/Secretary of National Defense

Juan Ponce Enrile
Juan Ponce Enrile
(1986) Rafael Ileto (1986–1988) Fidel Ramos
Fidel Ramos
(1988–1991) Renato de Villa (1991–1992)

Minister/Secretary of Public Works and Highways

Rogaciano Mercado (1986) Vicente Jayme (1986–1987) Juanito Ferrer (1987–1988) Fiorello Estuar (1988–1990) Jose de Jesus
Jose de Jesus
(1990–1992)

Minister/Secretary of Social Welfare and Development

Mila Pardo de Tavera (1986-1992)

Minister/Secretary of Tourism

Jose Gonzales (1986–1987) Rafael Alunan III (1987–1989) Narzalina Lim (1989–1992)

Minister/Secretary of Trade and Industry

Jose Concepcion, Jr. (1986–1991) Peter Garrucho (1991–1992)

National Economic and Development Authority

Solita Monsod
Solita Monsod
(1986–1989) Jesus Estanislao (1989–1990) Cayetano Paderanga, Jr.
Cayetano Paderanga, Jr.
(1990–1992)

Minister of Budget and Management

Alberto Romulo
Alberto Romulo
(1986–1987)

Minister of General Services

Antonio Ziga (1986–1987)

Minister for Human Rights

Jose W. Diokno
Jose W. Diokno
(1986–1987)

Minister for Good Government

Jovito Salonga
Jovito Salonga
(1986–1987)

Executive Secretary

Joker Arroyo
Joker Arroyo
(1986–1987) Catalino Macaraig, Jr.
Catalino Macaraig, Jr.
(1987–1990) Oscar Orbos (1990–1991) Franklin Drilon
Franklin Drilon
(1991–1992)

Solicitor General

Sedfrey A. Ordoñez (1986–1987) Francisco Chavez (1987–1992) Ramon Desuasido (1992)

Chairman of the Metropolitan Manila
Manila
Authority

Jejomar Binay
Jejomar Binay
(1990–1991) Ignacio Bunye
Ignacio Bunye
(1991–1992)

v t e

Ramon Magsaysay Award recipients

Government Service (1958–2008)

 Cambodia

Ek Sonn Chan

 China

Yuan Longping

 India

C.D. Deshmukh J. M. Lyngdoh

 Indonesia

Raden Kodijat Ali Sadikin

 Japan

Morihiko Hiramatsu Hiroshi Kuroki Yukiharu Miki

 Laos

Keo Viphakone

 Malaysia

Mohamed Suffian Mohamed Hashim B. C. Shekhar

 Pakistan

Akhtar Hameed Khan

 Philippines

Jose Vasquez Aguilar Francisca Reyes-Aquino Hilario Davide, Jr. Grace Padaca Jesse Robredo Jovito R. Salonga Miriam Defensor Santiago Haydee Yorac

 Singapore

Goh Keng Swee

 Thailand

Anand Panyarachun Chamlong Srimuang Jon Ungphakorn Phon Sangsingkeo Prawase Wasi Puey Ungpakorn

 Taiwan

Shih-chu Hsu Kwoh-Ting Li Jiang Menglin

Public Service (1958–2008)

 Burma

Tee Tee Luce

 Ceylon

Mary H. Rutnam

 China

Gao Yaojie Jiang Yanyong Liang Congjie Wu Qing

 India

Baba Amte Banoo Jehangir Coyaji Manibhai Desai Jayaprakash Narayan V. Shanta

 Indonesia

H.B. Jassin Teten Masduki

 Pakistan

Ruth Pfau

 Philippines

Center for Agriculture and Rural Development Mutually Reinforcing Institutions (CARD MRI)

 South Korea

Kim Sun-tae Park Won-soon

 Spain based in  Philippines

Joaquin Villalonga

 Thailand

Fua Hariphitak Mechai Viravaidya Nilawan Pintong Phra Parnchand Prateep Ungsongtham Hata Sirindhorn Sithiporn Kridakara Sophon Suphapong Therdchai Jivacate Thongbai Thongpao

Community Leadership (1958–2008)

 Bangladesh

Tahrunessa Abdullah Fazle Hasan Abed Muhammad Yunus Zafrullah Chowdhury Mohammed Yeasin Angela Gomes

 Burma

Cynthia Maung

 India

Mandakini Amte & Prakash Amte Mabelle Arole & Rajanikant Arole Pandurang Shastri Athavale Chandi_Prasad_Bhatt Ela Bhatt Vinoba Bhave Aruna Roy Shantha Sinha Rajendra Singh

 Japan

Fusaye Ichikawa

 Laos

Sombath Somphone

 Malaysia

Tunku Abdul Rahman

   Nepal

Mahabir Pun

 Philippines

Gawad Kalinga
Gawad Kalinga
Community Development Foundation Antonio Meloto

 Thailand

Aree Valyasevi Krasae Chanawongse Prayong Ronnarong

 Tibet

14th Dalai Lama

Journalism, Literature, and the Creative Communication Arts (1958–2008)

 Bangladesh

Matiur Rahman Abdullah Abu Sayeed

 Burma

Edward Michael Law-Yone

 Ceylon or  Sri Lanka

Wannakuwatta Amaradeva Tarzie Vittachi

 India

Mahasweta_Devi Palagummi Sainath Amitabha_Chowdhury

 Indonesia

Atmakusuma Astraatmadja Mochtar Lubis

 Japan

Akira Kurosawa Yasuji Hanamori Michiko Ishimure Akio Ishii

   Nepal

Bharat Koirala

 Philippines

Zacarias Sarian F. Sionil José Lino Brocka Radio Veritas James Reuter Bienvenido Lumbera Nick Joaquin Raul Locsin Eugenia Duran Apostol Sheila Coronel

 Thailand

Prayoon Chanyavongs

 Great Britain based in  Philippines

Robert McCulloch Dick

Peace and International Understanding (1958–2008)

 China

Tang Xiyang

 India

Mother Teresa Jockin Arputham Laxminarayan Ramdas

 Indonesia

Ahmad Syafi'i Maarif

 Japan

Ikuo Hirayama Tetsu Nakamura Saburo Okita Seiei Toyama

   Nepal

Sanduk Ruit

 Pakistan

Ibn Abdur Rehman

 Philippines

Operation Brotherhood Summer Institute of Linguistics William Masterson Harold Ray Watson International Institute of Rural Reconstruction Press Foundation of Asia Asian Institute of Management Corazon Aquino

 South Korea

Pomnyun
Pomnyun
Sunim

 Thailand

Asian Institute of Technology The Royal Project

 United States based in  Thailand

Genevieve Caulfield

Emergent Leadership (2001–)

 Burma

Ka Hsaw Wa

 China

Chen Guangcheng

 Cambodia

Oung Chanthol

 India

Sanjiv_Chaturvedi Arvind Kejriwal Nileema Mishra Sandeep Pandey

 Indonesia

Ambrosius Ruwindrijarto Dita Indah Sari

 Philippines

Benjamin Abadiano

 South Korea

Yoon Hye-ran

 Sri Lanka

Ananda Galappatti

 Timor-Leste

Aniceto Guterres Lopes

 United States based in  Hong Kong

Chung To

Uncategorized (2009–)

 Bangladesh

Syeda Rizwana Hasan A.H.M. Noman Khan

 Cambodia

Yang Saing Koma Koul Panha

 China

Fu Qiping Huo Daishan Ma Jun Pan Yue Yu Xiaogang

 India

Kulandei Francis Harish Hande Deep Joshi

 Indonesia

Hasanain Juaini Tri Mumpuni

 Japan

Tadatoshi Akiba

 Philippines

Alternative Indigenous Development Foundation, Inc. (AIDFI) Christopher Bernido Ma. Victoria Carpio-Bernido Romulo Davide Antonio Oposa Jr.

 Taiwan

Chen Shu-chu

 Thailand

Krisana Kraisintu

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 72191166 LCCN: n85281089 ISNI: 0000 0001 1474 7488 GND: 118830805 SUDOC: 083051317 BNF: cb12721238j (data) NLA: 35316441 NDL: 00620274 BNE: XX5286954 SN

.