India is the supreme law of India. It lays down
the framework defining fundamental political principles, establishes
the structure, procedures, powers and duties of government
institutions and sets out fundamental rights, directive principles and
the duties of citizens. It is the longest written constitution of any
sovereign country in the world.[Note 1] B. R. Ambedkar, the
chairman of the Drafting Committee, is widely considered to be its
It imparts constitutional supremacy and not parliamentary supremacy,
as it is not created by the Parliament but, by a constituent assembly,
and adopted by its people, with a declaration in its preamble.
Parliament cannot override the constitution.
It was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 26 November 1949, and
came into effect on 26 January 1950. With its adoption, the Union
India became the modern and contemporary
Republic of India
replacing the Government of
India Act, 1935 as the country's
fundamental governing document. To ensure constitutional autochthony,
the framers of the constitution repealed the prior Acts of the British
Parliament via Article 395 of the constitution.
its coming into force on 26 January each year, as
India a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic
republic, assuring its citizens of justice, equality, and liberty, and
endeavours to promote fraternity among them.
1.1 Previous legislation used as sources
2 Constituent assembly
2.2 Influence of other constitutions
4 The constitution and the government
5 The constitution and the legislature
6 The constitution and the judiciary
6.1 Judicial review
7 The constitution – a living document
8 See also
9.1 Notes on Article 21
12 External links
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar, chairman of the Drafting Committee, presenting
the final draft of the Indian
Constitution to Dr.
Rajendra Prasad on
25 November 1949
The major portion of the
Indian subcontinent was under British rule
from 1857 to 1947. When the
India came into force on
26 January 1950, it repealed the Indian Independence Act.
to be a dominion of the British Crown and became a sovereign
democratic republic. The date of 26 January was chosen to commemorate
Purna Swaraj declaration of independence of 1930.
Articles 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 60, 324, 366, 367, 379, 380, 388, 391, 392,
393 and 394 of the
Constitution came into force on 26 November 1949
and the remaining articles on 26 January 1950.
Previous legislation used as sources
It is drawn from many sources. Keeping in mind the needs and
India its framers borrowed different features freely
from previous legislation viz. Government of
India Act 1858, Indian
Councils Act 1861, Indian Councils Act 1892, Indian Councils Act 1909,
India Act 1919, Government of
India Act 1935 and the
Indian Independence Act 1947. The last legislation which led to the
creation of the two independent nations of
India and Pakistan provided
for the division of the erstwhile Constituent Assembly into two, with
each new assembly having sovereign powers transferred to it, to enable
each to draft and enact a new constitution, for the separate
A meeting of the Constituent Assembly of India, 1950 CE
Main article: Constituent Assembly of India
It was drafted by the Constituent Assembly, which was elected by
elected members of the provincial assemblies. The 389 member
Constituent Assembly took almost three years (two years, eleven months
and eighteen days to be precise) to complete its historic task of
Constitution for independent India, during which, it held
eleven sessions over 165 days. Of these, 114 days were spent on the
consideration of the draft Constitution. On 29 August 1947, the
Constituent Assembly set up a Drafting Committee under the
Chairmanship of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar to prepare a draft
India. While deliberating upon the draft Constitution, the assembly
moved, discussed and disposed of as many as 2,473 amendments out of a
total of 7,635 tabled. Dr B.R. Ambedkar, Sanjay Phakey, Jawaharlal
Nehru, C. Rajagopalachari, Rajendra Prasad, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel,
Kanaiyalal Munshi, Ganesh Vasudev Mavalankar, Sandipkumar Patel,
Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, Shyama Prasad Mukherjee, Nalini Ranjan Ghosh,
Balwantrai Mehta were some important figures in the assembly.
There were more than 30 members of the scheduled classes. Frank
Anthony represented the Anglo-Indian community, and the
represented by H. P. Modi. The Chairman of the Minorities Committee
was Harendra Coomar Mookerjee, a distinguished Christian who
represented all Christians other than Anglo-Indians. Ari Bahadur
Gurung represented the Gorkha Community. Prominent
jurists like Alladi Krishnaswamy Iyer,
Benegal Narsing Rau and K. M.
Ganesh Mavlankar were also members of the Assembly. Sarojini
Naidu, Hansa Mehta, Durgabai Deshmukh,
Rajkumari Amrit Kaur
Rajkumari Amrit Kaur and
Vijayalakshmi Pandit were important women members.
The first temporary 2-day president of the Constituent Assembly was Dr
Sachchidananda Sinha. Later,
Rajendra Prasad was elected president of
the Constituent Assembly. The members of the Constituent Assembly
met for the first time on 9 December 1946.
B. N. Rau was appointed as the Constitutional Adviser to the
Constituent Assembly in formulating the Indian
Constitution in 1946.
He was responsible for the general structure of its democratic
framework of the
Constitution and prepared its initial draft in
February 1948. This draft was debated, revised and finally adopted
Constituent Assembly of India
Constituent Assembly of India on 26 November 1949.
On 14 August 1947 meeting of the Assembly, a proposal for forming
various committees was presented. Such committees included a
Committee on Fundamental Rights, the Union Powers Committee and Union
Constitution Committee. On 29 August 1947, the Drafting Committee was
appointed, with Dr
B. R. Ambedkar
B. R. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other
members assisted by a constitutional advisor. These members were
Pandit Govind Ballabh Pant,
Kanaiyalal Maneklal Munshi (K M Munshi,
Ex- Home Minister, Bombay),
Alladi Krishnaswamy Iyer (Ex- Advocate
General, Madras State), N Gopalaswami Ayengar (Ex-Prime Minister,
J&K and later member of Nehru Cabinet), B L Mitter (Ex-Advocate
General, India), Md. Saadullah (Ex- Chief Minister of Assam, Muslim
League member) and D P Khaitan (Scion of Khaitan Business family and a
renowned lawyer). The constitutional advisor was Sir Benegal Narsing
Rau (who became First Indian Judge in International Court of Justice,
1950–54). Later B L Mitter resigned and was replaced by Madhav Rao
(Legal Advisor of Maharaja of Vadodara). On D P Khaitan's death, T T
Krishnamachari was included in the drafting committee. A draft
Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the
Assembly on 4 November 1947, which was debated and over 2000
amendments were moved over a period of two years. Finally on 26
November 1949, the process was completed and the Constituent Assembly
adopted the Constitution. 284 members signed the document and the
process of constitution making was complete. This day is
celebrated as National Law Day or
Jawaharlal Nehru signing the Constitution
The assembly met in sessions open to the public, for 166 days, spread
over a period of 2 years, 11 months and 18 days before adopting the
Constitution, the 308 members of the assembly signed two copies of the
document (one each in
Hindi and English) on 24 January 1950. The
India is hand-written with beautiful
calligraphy, each page beautified and decorated by artists from
Beohar Rammanohar Sinha
Beohar Rammanohar Sinha and Nandalal Bose. The
illustrations on the cover and pages represent styles from the
different civilisations of the subcontinent, ranging from the
Mohenjodaro civilisation, in the Indus Valley, to the
present. The calligraphy in the book was done by Prem Behari Narain
Raizda. It was published in Dehra Dun, and photolithographed at the
offices of Survey of India. The entire exercise to produce the
original took nearly five years. Two days later, on 26 January 1950,
India became the law of all the States and
territories of India. Rs.1,00,00,000 was official estimate of
expenditure on constituent assembly. It has undergone many amendments
since its enactment.
The original 1950
India is preserved in helium cases
in the Parliament house, New Delhi. There are two original versions of
this – one in
Hindi and the other in English. The original
constitution can be viewed here.
Influence of other constitutions
Parliamentary form of government
The idea of single citizenship
The idea of the Rule of law
Institution of Speaker and his role
Procedure established by Law
United States Constitution
United States Bill of Rights
Federal structure of government
Independence of the judiciary and separation of powers among the three
branches of the government
President as supreme commander of
Equal Protection under law
Directive principles of state policy
Freedom of trade and commerce within
the country and between the states
Power of the national legislature to make
laws for implementing treaties, even on
matters outside normal Federal jurisdiction
Terminology for the Preamble
Ideals of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity
A quasi-federal form of government —
a federal system with a strong central government
Distribution of powers between the central government and state
Residual powers retained by the central government
Constitution of the Soviet Union
Fundamental Duties u/a 51-A
A Constitutionally mandated Planning Commission
to oversee the development of the economy
Emergency Provision u/a 356,
Weimar Constitution (Germany)
Amendment of Constitution, South Africa
Due Procedure of Law, Japan
The Indian constitution is the world's longest.[Note 1] At its
commencement, it had 395 articles in 22 parts and 8 schedules. It is
made up of approximately 145,000 words, making it the second largest
active constitution in the world.  In its current form (September
2012), it has a preamble, 25[Note 2] parts with 448 [Note 3] articles,
12[Note 4] schedules, 5 appendices and 101 amendments, the latest
of which came into force on 8 September 2016.
The individual articles of the constitution are grouped together into
the following parts:
with the words "socialist" and "secular" added to it in 1976 by the
42nd constitutional amendment .
Part I – Union and its Territory
Part II – Citizenship.
Part III – Fundamental Rights
Part IV – Directive Principles of State Policy
Part IVA – Fundamental Duties
Part V – The Union
Part VI – The States
Part VII – States in the B part of the First schedule
Part VIII – The Union Territories
Part IX – The Panchayats
Part IXA – The Municipalities
Part IXB – The Co-operative Societies.
Part X – The scheduled and Tribal Areas
Part XI – Relations between the Union and the States
Part XII – Finance, Property, Contracts and Suits
Part XIII – Trade and Commerce within the territory of India
Part XIV – Services Under the Union, the States
Part XIVA – Tribunals
Part XV – Elections
Part XVI –
Special Provisions Relating to certain Classes
Part XVII – Languages
Part XVIII – Emergency Provisions
Part XIX – Miscellaneous
Part XX – Amendment of the Constitution
Part XXI – Temporary, Transitional and
Part XXII – Short title, date of commencement, Authoritative
Hindi and Repeals.
Schedules are lists in the
Constitution that categorise and tabulate
bureaucratic activity and policy of the Government.
First Schedule (Articles 1 and 4) – This lists the states and
territories of India, lists any changes to their borders and the laws
used to make that change.
Second Schedule (Articles 59(3), 65(3), 75(6), 97, 125, 148(3),
158(3), 164(5), 186 and 221) – This lists the salaries of
officials holding public office, judges, and Comptroller and Auditor
General of India.
Third Schedule (Articles 75(4), 99, 124(6), 148(2), 164(3), 188 and
219) – Forms of Oaths – This lists the oaths of offices
for elected officials and judges.
Fourth Schedule (Articles 4(1) and 80(2)) – This details the
allocation of seats in the
Rajya Sabha (the upper house of Parliament)
per State or Union Territory.
Fifth Schedule (Article 244(1)) – This provides for the
administration and control of Scheduled Areas[Note 5] and Scheduled
Tribes[Note 6] (areas and tribes needing special protection due to
Sixth Schedule (Articles 244(2) and 275(1)) – Provisions made
for the administration of tribal areas in Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura,
Seventh Schedule (Article 246) — The union (central
government), state, and concurrent lists of responsibilities.
Eighth Schedule (Articles 344(1) and 351)—The official languages.
Ninth Schedule (Article 31-B) – Validation of certain Acts and
Tenth Schedule (Articles 102(2) and 191(2)) – "Anti-defection"
provisions for Members of Parliament and Members of the State
Eleventh Schedule (Article 243-G) —Panchayat Raj (rural local
Twelfth Schedule (Article 243-W) — Municipalities (urban local
Appendix I – The
Constitution (Application to Jammu and
Kashmir) Order, 1954.
Appendix II – Re-statement, with reference to the present text
of the Constitution, of the exceptions and modifications subject to
Constitution applies to the State of Jammu and Kashmir.
Appendix III – Extracts from the
Amendment) Act, 1978.
Appendix IV – The
Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act,
Appendix V – The
Constitution (Eighty-eighth Amendment) Act,
The constitution and the government
Institutions of governance – the Parliament, the President, the
Judiciary, the Executive, etc. get their power from the Constitution
and are bound by it. With the aid of the Constitution,
governed by a parliamentary system of government with the executive
directly accountable to the legislature. It states that there shall be
a President of
India who shall be the head of the executive, under
Articles 52 and 53. The President's duty is to preserve, protect and
defend the constitution and the law under Article 60 of the Indian
constitution. Article 74 provides that there shall be a Prime Minister
as the head of union cabinet which would aid and advise the President
in performing his constitutional duty. Union cabinet is collectively
responsible to the House of the People per Article 75(3).
India is federal in nature but unitary in spirit.
The common features of a federation such as written Constitution,
supremacy of Constitution, rigidity of Constitution, two government,
division of powers, bicameralism and independent judiciary as well as
unitary features like single Constitution, single citizenship,
integrated judiciary, flexible Constitution, a strong Centre,
appointment of state governor by the Centre, All-
Emergency Provisions etc. can be seen in Indian Constitution. This
unique combination makes it quasi-federal in form.
Each state and each
Union territory of
India has its own government.
Analogous to President and Prime Minister, each has a Governor (in
case of states) or Lieutenant Governor (in the case of Union
territories) and a Chief Minister. Article 356 permits the President
to dismiss a state government and assume direct authority when a
situation has arisen in which the Government of the State cannot be
carried on in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution. This
power, known as President's rule, was abused earlier as state
governments came to be dismissed on the flimsiest of grounds, and more
due to the political discomfiture of the party in power at the centre.
Post – Bommai judgment, such a course of action has
been rendered rather difficult, as the courts have asserted their
right to review it. Consequently, very few state governments have
been disbanded since.
The 73rd and 74th Amendment Act also introduced the system of
Panchayati Raj in rural areas and Municipality in urban areas. Also,
Article 370 of the
Constitution gives special status to the State of
Jammu and Kashmir.
The constitution and the legislature
Main article: Amendment of the
Constitution of India
See also: List of amendments of the
Constitution of India
The process of addition, variation or repeal of any part of the
constitution by the parliament under its constituent powers, is called
amendment of the constitution. The procedure is laid out in
Article 368. An amendment bill must be passed by each House of the
Parliament by a majority of the total membership of that House when at
least two-thirds members are present and voted. In addition to this,
certain amendments which pertain to the federal nature of the
Constitution must be ratified by a majority of state legislatures.
Unlike the ordinary bills under legislative powers of Parliament as
per Article 245 (with exception to money bills), there is no provision
for joint sitting of the two houses (
Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha) of the
parliament to pass a constitutional amendment bill. During recess of
Parliament, President can not promulgate ordinances under his
legislative powers per Article 123, Chapter III which needs
constitutional amendment. Deemed amendments to the constitution which
can be passed under legislative powers of Parliament, are no more
valid after the addition of Article 368 (1) by Twenty-fourth Amendment
Constitution of India.
As of September 2015[update], there have been 120 amendment bills
presented in the parliament, out of which 100 have been passed to
become Amendment Acts. Despite the supermajority requirement for
amendments to pass, the
India is the most frequently
amended national governing document in the world. The Constitution
is so specific in spelling out government powers that many of these
amendments address issues dealt with by ordinary statute in other
democracies. As a result, the document is amended roughly twice a
year, and three times every two years.
In 2000, the National Commission to Review the Working of the
Constitution (NCRWC) was set up to look into updating the
constitution. Government of India, establishes term based law
commissions to recommend law reforms for maximising justice in society
and for promoting good governance under the rule of law.
Basic structure doctrine
The Supreme Court has ruled in Kesavananda Bharati v. State of Kerala
case that an amendment cannot destroy what it seeks to modify, which
means, while amending anything in the Constitution, it cannot tinker
with the "basic structure" or its framework, which is immutable. Such
an amendment will be declared invalid even though no part of the
constitution is explicitly prevented from being amended, nor does the
basic structure doctrine protect any single provision of the
Constitution. Yet, this "doctrine of basic features" lays down that,
Constitution when "read as a whole", that what comes to be
understood as its basic features cannot be abridged, deleted or
abrogated. What these "basic features" are, have not been defined
exhaustively anywhere, and whether a particular provision of the
India is a "basic feature" is decided as and when an
issue is raised before a court in an instant case.
The judgment in the
Kesavananda Bharati v. State of Kerala
Kesavananda Bharati v. State of Kerala case laid
down the following as the basic structure of the constitution of
The Supremacy of the Constitution
Republican and Democratic form of the Government
Secular Character of the Constitution
Maintenance of Separation of powers
The Federal Character of the Constitution
This implies that the Parliament, while amending the Constitution, can
only amend it to the extent so as to not destroy any of the aforesaid
characters. The Supreme Court/High Court(s) may declare the amendment
null and void if this is violated, by performing Judicial review. This
is typical of Parliamentary governments, where the Judiciary has to
exercise an effective check on the exercise of the powers of the
Parliament, which in many respects is supreme.
Golak Nath v. State of Punjab
Golak Nath v. State of Punjab case of 1967, the Supreme Court
ruled that the State of Punjab could not restrict any of the
Fundamental rights protected by the basic structure doctrine.
Extent of land ownership and practice of profession, in this case,
were held to be a fundamental right. The ruling of the Golak Nath
v. State of Punjab case was eventually overturned with the
ratification of the 24th Amendment in 1971.
The constitution and the judiciary
The Judiciary interprets the
Constitution as its final arbiter. It
is its duty as mandated by the Constitution, to be its watchdog, by
calling for scrutiny any act of the legislature or the executive, who
otherwise, are free to enact or implement these, from overstepping
bounds set for them by the Constitution. It acts like a guardian
in protecting the fundamental rights of the people, as enshrined in
the Constitution, from infringement by any organ of the state. It also
balances the conflicting exercise of power between the centre and a
state or among states, as assigned to them by the Constitution.
While pronouncing decisions under its constitutional mandate, it is
expected to remain unaffected by pulls and pressures exerted by other
branches of the state, citizens or interest groups. And crucially,
independence of the judiciary has been held to be a basic feature of
the Constitution, and which being inalienable, has come to
mean – that which cannot be taken away from it by any act or
amendment by the legislature or the executive.
Judicial review is adopted in the
India from judicial
review in the United States. In the Indian constitution, Judicial
review is dealt with under Article 13. Judicial Review refers that the
Constitution is the supreme power of the nation and all laws are under
its supremacy. Article 13 states that:
All pre-constitutional laws, if in part or completely in conflict with
the Constitution, shall have all conflicting provisions deemed
ineffective until an amendment to the
Constitution ends the conflict.
In such situation the provision of that law will again come into
force, if it is compatible with the constitution as amended. This is
called the Doctrine of Eclipse.
In a similar manner, laws made after adoption of the
the Constituent Assembly must be compatible with the constitution,
otherwise the laws and amendments will be deemed to be void ab initio.
In such situations, the Supreme Court or High Court interprets the
laws to decide if they are in conformity with the Constitution. If
such an interpretation is not possible because of inconsistency, and
where a separation is possible, the provision that is inconsistent
with constitution is considered to be void. In addition to article 13,
articles 32, 226 and 227 provide a constitutional basis to judicial
review in India.
Due to the adoption of the thirty-eighth amendment, the Indian Supreme
Court was not allowed to preside over any laws adopted during a state
of emergency that infringes upon fundamental rights under article 32
i.e. Right to Constitutional Remedies. Later with the Forty-second
Amendment of the
Constitution of India, article 31 C was widened and
article 368(4) and 368(5) were added, which stated that any law passed
by the parliament can't be challenged in the court on any ground. The
Supreme court in the Minerva Mills v. Union of
India case said that
Judicial Review is one of the basic character of the constitution and
therefore can't be taken away quashing Article 368(4)&(5) as well
as 31 C.
The constitution – a living document
Constitution is first and foremost a social document, and
is aided by its Parts III & IV (Fundamental Rights & Directive
Principles of State Policy, respectively) acting together, as its
chief instruments and its conscience, in realising the goals set by it
for all the people."[Note 7]
The Constitution's provisions have consciously been worded in
generalities, though not in vague terms, instead of making them rigid
and static with a fixed meaning or content as in an ordinary statute,
so that they may be interpreted by coming generations of citizens with
the onward march of time, to apply to new and ever-changing and
demanding situations, making the
Constitution a living and an organic
Justice Marshall asserts: “It is the nature of (a)
Constitution that only its great outlines be marked”. It is a
document intended “to endure for ages” and therefore, it has to be
interpreted not merely on the basis of the intention and understanding
of the its framers but on the experience of its working effectively,
in the existing social and political context.
For instance, "right to life" as guaranteed under Article 21,[nb 1]
has by interpretation been expanded to progressively mean a whole lot
of human rights[nb 2]
In the conclusion of his Making of India's Constitution, Justice
"If the Indian constitution is our heritage bequeathed to us by our
founding fathers, no less are we, the people of India, the trustees
and custodians of the values which pulsate within its provisions! A
constitution is not a parchment of paper, it is a way of life and has
to be lived up to. Eternal vigilance is the price of liberty and in
the final analysis, its only keepers are the people."
Constitution Day (India)
History of democracy
List of national constitutions
Rule according to higher law
Uniform civil code
Uniform civil code of India
^ a b The
Constitution of Yugoslavia briefly held this position from
1974 till the nation split up in 1990.
Constitution was in 22 Parts originally. Part VII & IX
(older) was repealed in 1956, whereas newly added Part IVA, IXA, IXB
& XIVA by Amendments to the
Constitution in different times
(lastly added IXB by the 97th Amendment).
^ Although the last article of the
Constitution is Article 395, the
total number, as of March 2013 is 465. New articles added through
amendments have been inserted in the relevant location in the original
constitution. In order not to disturb the original numbering, the new
articles are inserted with alpha numeric enumerations. For example,
Article 21A pertaining to Right to Education was inserted by the 86th
^ By 73rd & 74th Amendment, the lists of administrative subjects
of Panchayat raj & Municipality included in the
Schedule 11 & 12 respectively in the year 1993.
^ Scheduled Areas are autonomous areas within a state, administered
federally, usually populated by a predominant Scheduled Tribe.
Scheduled Tribes are groups of indigenous people, identified in the
Constitution, struggling socioeconomically
^ These lines by
Granville Austin from his book The Indian
Constitution: Cornerstone of a Nation at p. 50, have been
authoritatively quoted many times
Notes on Article 21
^ Art. 21 – "No person shall be deprived of his life or
personal liberty except according to procedure established by law"
^ Right to speedy trial
Right to water
Right to livelihood
Right to health
Right to education
^ "Preface, The constitution of India" (PDF). Government of India.
Retrieved 5 February 2015.
^ Pylee, M.V. (1997). India's Constitution. S. Chand & Co.
p. 3. ISBN 81-219-0403-X.
^ "Constitutional supremacy vs parliamentary supremacy" (PDF).
Retrieved 12 October 2015.
^ "Introduction to
Constitution of India". Ministry of Law and Justice
of India. 29 July 2008. Retrieved 14 October 2008.
^ Swaminathan, Shivprasad (26 January 2013). "India's benign
constitutional revolution". The Hindu: opinion. Retrieved 18 February
^ Das, Hari (2002). Political System of India. Anmol Publications.
p. 120. ISBN 81-7488-690-7.
^ WP(Civil) No. 98/2002 (12 September 2002). "Aruna Roy & Ors. v.
India & Ors." (PDF). Supreme Court of India.
p. 18/30. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
^ "Preamble of the
Constitution of India" (PDF). Ministry of Law &
Justice. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
^ a b c d "The Constituent Assembly Debates (Proceedings):(9th
December,1946 to 24 January 1950)". The Parliament of
Retrieved 22 February 2008.
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 11 May 2011.
Retrieved 12 May 2014.
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 February 2012.
Retrieved 13 June 2013.
Constitution Day". 26 November 2015. Retrieved 2
^ "Some Facts of Constituent Assembly". Parliament of India. National
Informatics Centre. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011.
Retrieved 14 April 2011. On 29 August 1947, the Constituent Assembly
set up a Drafting Committee under the Chairmanship of B. R. Ambedkar
to prepare a Draft
Constitution for India
^ On National Law Day, saluting two remarkable judges, Firstpost, 26
^ PM Modi greets people on
Constitution Day, DNA India, 26 November
^ "Original unamended constitution of India, January, 1950". Retrieved
17 April 2014.
^ "THE CONSTITUTION (AMENDMENT) ACTS".
India Code Information System.
Ministry of Law, Government of India. Retrieved 9 December 2013.
Constitution of India". www.wdl.org. World Digital Library.
Retrieved 4 March 2016.
^ Sridhar, Madabhushi. "Evolution and Philosophy behind the Indian
Constitution (page 22)" (PDF). Dr.Marri Channa Reddy Human Resource
Development Institute (Institute of Administration), Hyderabad.
Retrieved 22 October 2015.
^ "Borrowed features of Constitution". Retrieved 15 February
^ Miglani, Dr. Deepak. "
Constitution of India: A 'Bag of Borrowings'".
Retrieved 15 February 2014.
Constitution is Not the Longest". scocablog.com.
Constitution of india". Ministry of Law and Justice, Govt. of
Constitution (Ninety-ninth Amendment) Act, 2014" (PDF). 1, Law
Street. Retrieved 23 June 2015.
^ Baruah, Aparijita (2007). Preamble of the
Constitution of India: An
Insight and Comparison with Other Constitutions. New Delhi: Deep &
Deep. p. 177. ISBN 81-7629-996-0. Retrieved 12 November
^ Chishti, Seema; Anand, Utkarsh (30 January 2015). "Legal experts say
debating Preamble of
Constitution pointless, needless". The Indian
Express. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
^ "Forty-Second Amendment to the Constitution". Ministry of Law and
Justice of India. 28 August 1976. Retrieved 14 October 2008.
^ Part I
^ Part II
^ Part IV
^ Part V
^ Part VI
^ Part VII
^ Part VIII
^ Part IX
^ Part IXA
^ Originally Articles mentioned here were immune from judicial review
on the ground that they violated fundamental rights. but in a landmark
judgement in 2007, the Supreme Court of
India held in I.R. Coelho v.
State of Tamil Nadu and others that laws included in the 9th schedule
can be subject to judicial review if they violated the fundamental
rights guaranteed under Article 14, 15, 19, 21 or the basic structure
Constitution (ambiguous) – I.R. Coelho (dead) by L.Rs.
v. State of Tamil Nadu and others(2007) 2 S.C.C. 1
^ a b Menon, N.R. Madhava (26 September 2004). "Parliament and the
Judiciary". The Hindu. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
^ M Laxmikanth. "3". Indian Polity (4th ed.). McGraw Hill Education.
p. 3.2. ISBN 978-1-25-906412-8.
^ Krishnakumar, R. "'Article 356 should be abolished'". Frontline
(Vol. 15 :: No. 14 :: 4–17 July 1998). Retrieved 9
^ Rajendra Prasad, R.J. "'Bommai verdict has checked misuse of Article
356'". Frontline (Vol. 15 :: No. 14 :: 4–17 July 1998).
Retrieved 9 November 2015.
^ Swami, Praveen. "Protecting secularism and federal fair play".
Frontline (Vol. 14 :: No. 22 :: 1–14 Nov. 1997). Retrieved
9 November 2015.
^ a b "Pages 311 & 312 of original judgement: A. K. Roy, Etc vs
India And Anr on 28 December, 1981". Retrieved 23 August
^ Krishnamurthi, Vivek (2009). "Colonial Cousins: Explaining
Canada's Unwritten Constitutional Principles" (PDF). Yale Journal of
International Law. 34 (1): 219. Archived from the original (PDF) on
^ Kuri's blog: National Commission to review the working of the
Constitution(NCRWC). Kurishravan.blogspot.in (23 February 2011).
Retrieved on 2013-07-28.
^ Dhamija, Dr. Ashok (2007). Need to Amend a
Constitution and Doctrine
of Basic Features. Wadhwa and Company. p. 568.
ISBN 9788180382536. Retrieved 17 June 2014.
^ a b aDvantage. "Doctrine of Basic Structure – Constitutional
Law". www.legalserviceindia.com. Retrieved 26 January 2016.
^ Jacobsohn, Gary J. (2010). Constitutional Identity. Cambridge,
Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. p. 52.
^ a b Dalal, Milan (2008). "India's New Constitutionalism: Two Cases
That Have Reshaped Indian Law". Boston College International
Comparative Law Review. 31 (2): 258–260. Retrieved 5 March
^ Mehta, Pratap Bhanu (2002). Hasan, Zoya; Sridharan, E.; Sudarshan,
R., eds. Article – The Inner Conflict of Constitutionalism: Judicial
Review and the 'Basic Structure' (Book – India's Kiving
Constitution: Ideas, Practices, Controversies) ((2006)Second
Impression (2002)First ed.). Delhi: Permanent Black. p. 187.
ISBN 81-7824-087-4. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
^ Bhattacharyya, Bishwajit. "Supreme Court Shows Govt Its LoC". the
day after (1–15 Nov 2015). Archived from the original on 5 May 2016.
Retrieved 10 November 2015.
^ National Comionmission to Review the Working of the Constitution. "A
Consultation Paper on the Financial Autonomy of the Indian Judiciary".
New Delhi (26 September 2001). Retrieved 5 November
^ Chakrabarty, Bidyut (2008). Indian Politics and Society Since
Independence: Events, Processes and Ideology (First ed.). Oxon(UK),
New York (USA): Routledge. p. 103. ISBN 978-0-415-40867-7.
Retrieved 5 November 2015.
^ Sorabjee, Soli J. (1 November 2015). "A step in the Wrong
Direction". The Week. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
^ V. Venkatesan – A fresh look at the relevance of three early
doctrines that have defined the Indian
Constitution over the years.
Front-line (Vol. 29 – Issue 05 :: 10–23 Mar. 2012)
^ Jain, M.P. (2010). Indian Constitutional Law. LexisNexis
Butterworths Wadhwa Nagpur. p. 921.
^ Lectures By Professor Parmanad Singh, Jindal Global Law School.
^ Jacobsohn, Gary (2010). Constitutional Identity. Cambridge,
Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. p. 57.
^ Raghavan, Vikram (2010). "The biographer of the Indian
constitution". Seminar. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
Justice D. M. "Principle of Constitutional
Interpretation: Some Reflections". (2004) 4 SCC (Jour) 1. Retrieved 6
^ Gaur, K. D. (2002). Article – Law and the Poor: Some Recent
India (Book – Criminal Law and Criminology).
New Delhi: Deep & Deep. p. 564. ISBN 81-7629-410-1.
Retrieved 9 November 2015.
^ Narain, Vrinda. "Water as a Fundamental Right: A Perspective from
India" (PDF). Vermont Law Review. 34:917: 920. Retrieved 9 November
^ Khosla, Madhav (2011). "Making social rights conditional: Lessons
from India" (PDF). I•con (2010). 8 (4): 761.
doi:10.1093/icon/mor005. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
^ H. R. Khanna. Making of India's Constitution. Eastern Book Co,
Lucknow, 1981. ISBN 978-81-7012-108-4.
Justice H.R (2015). Making of India's
Edition 2008, (Reprinted 2015) ed.). Eastern Book Company.
Austin, Granville (1999). The Indian Constitution: Cornerstone of a
Nation (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press.
Austin, Granville (2003). Working a Democratic Constitution: A History
of the Indian Experience (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press.
Baruah, Aparajita (2007). Preamble of the
Constitution of India :
An Insight & Comparison. Eastern Book Co.
Basu, Durga Das (1965). Commentary on the constitution of India :
(being a comparative treatise on the universal principles of justice
and constitutional government with special reference to the organic
instrument of India). 1–2. S. C. Sarkar & Sons (Private)
Basu, Durga Das (1984). Introduction to the
Constitution of India
(10th ed.). South Asia Books. ISBN 0-8364-1097-1.
Basu, Durga Das (1981). Shorter
Constitution of India. Prentice-Hall
of India. ISBN 978-0-87692-200-2.
Das, Hari Hara (2002). Political System of India. Anmol Publications.
Dash, Shreeram Chandra (1968). The
Constitution of India; a
Comparative Study. Chaitanya Pub. House.
Dhamija, Dr. Ashok (2007). Need to Amend a
Constitution and Doctrine
of Basic Features. Wadhwa and Company. ISBN 9788180382536.
Ghosh, Pratap Kumar (1966). The
Constitution of India: How it Has Been
Framed. World Press.
Jayapalan, N. (1998). Constitutional History of India. Atlantic
Publishers & Distributors. ISBN 81-7156-761-4.
Khanna, Hans Raj (1981). Making of India's Constitution. Eastern Book
Co. ISBN 978-81-7012-108-4.
Rahulrai, Durga Das (1984). Introduction to the
Constitution of India
(10th ed.). South Asia Books. ISBN 0-8364-1097-1.
Pylee, M.V. (1997). India's Constitution. S. Chand & Co.
Pylee, M.V. (2004). Constitutional Government in India. S. Chand &
Co. ISBN 81-219-2203-8.
Sen, Sarbani (2007). The
Constitution of India: Popular Sovereignty
and Democratic Transformations. Oxford University Press.
Sharma, Dinesh; Singh, Jaya; Maganathan, R.; et al. (2002). Indian
Constitution at Work. Political Science, Class XI. NCERT.
"The Constituent Assembly Debates (Proceedings):(9th December,1946 to
24 January 1950)". The Parliament of
India Archive. Retrieved 22
Find more about
Constitution of Indiaat's sister projects
Definitions from Wiktionary
Media from Wikimedia Commons
News from Wikinews
Quotations from Wikiquote
Texts from Wikisource
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Learning resources from Wikiversity
Original as published in the Gazette of India
Original Unamended version of the
Constitution of India
Ministry of Law and
Justice of India – The
India as of 29 July 2008
Constitution of India". Commonwealth Legal Information
Institute. – online copy
Government of India
Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles and Fundamental Duties
Union List •
State List • Concurrent List)
Prime Minister (list)
Vice President (list)
India Services (IAS • IFS/IFoS • IPS)
Secretaries (Defence • Finance • Foreign • Home)
Chief Minister (list)
Lok Sabha (Speaker)
Rajya Sabha (Chairman)
Leader of the Opposition
Supreme Court (Chief Justice)
Judiciary of India
Supreme Court of India
Justice of India
List of Chief Justices of India
List of sitting judges
High Courts of India
Chief Justices of High Courts of India
District Courts of India
List of district courts of India
Judicial Magistrate of First Class
Courts of Judicial Magistrate of First Class
Judicial Magistrate of Second Class
Courts of Judicial Magistrate of Second Class
Constitution of India
Law of India
Indian Penal Code
Appointment of Judges
National Judicial Appointments Commission
Science and technology
Indus Valley Civilization
Partition of Bengal
World War II
Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF)
Autonomous administrative divisions
States and territories
Union Council of Ministers
Fundamental rights, principles and duties
Border Security Force
Border Security Force (BSF)
Central Industrial Security Force
Central Industrial Security Force (CISF)
Central Reserve Police Force
Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF)
Indo-Tibetan Border Police
Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP)
National Security Guard
National Security Guard (NSG)
Railway Protection Force
Railway Protection Force (RPF)
Sashastra Seema Bal
Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB)
Special Protection Group (SPG)
Bureau of Police Research and Development
Bureau of Police Research and Development (BPR&D)
Central Bureau of Investigation
Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI)
Directorate of Revenue Intelligence (DRI)
Intelligence Bureau (IB)
Joint Intelligence Committee (JIC)
Narcotics Control Bureau
Narcotics Control Bureau (NCB)
National Investigation Agency
National Investigation Agency (NIA)
Research and Analysis Wing
Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW)
List of companies
Ministry of Finance
Ministry of Commerce and Industry
Economic Advisory Council
Central Statistical Office
Securities and Exchange Board of India
Make in India
FDI in India
Historical exchange rates data of the Indian rupee
Reserve Bank of India
India Government Mint
Foreign exchange reserves
Bombay Stock Exchange
National Stock Exchange
Multi Commodity Exchange
Jammu and Kashmir
Science and technology
Universities in India
Medical colleges in India
Law colleges in India
Engineering colleges in India
Hospitals in India
Standard of living
Water supply and sanitation
Arts and entertainment
Constitution of Asia
East Timor (Timor-Leste)
United Arab Emirates
British Indian Ocean Territory
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Indian Penal Code
Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973
Acts of the Parliament
Real Estate (Regulation and Development) Act, 2016
Consumer Protection Act, 1986
Essential Commodities Act
Essential Services Maintenance Act
Benami Transactions (Prohibition) Act, 1988
Black Money (Undisclosed Foreign Income and Assets) and Imposition of
Tax Act, 2015
Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988
The Lokpal and Lokayuktas Act, 2013
Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Act, 1957
Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002
Whistle Blowers Protection Act, 2011
Armed Forces (
Special Powers) Act
Armed Forces Tribunal Act, 2007
Arms Act, 1959
Army Act, 1950
Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 2013
Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act
Indian Evidence Act
Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015
National Security Act (India)
Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005
Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe (Prevention of Atrocities) Act,
Indian Institutes of Management Act, 2017
Institutes of Technology Act, 1961
National Institutes of Technology Act, 2007
Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009
University Grants Commission Act, 1956
Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act
Biological Diversity Act, 2002
Environment Protection Act, 1986
Indian Forest Act, 1927
National Green Tribunal Act
Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act
Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers' Rights Act, 2001
Wildlife Protection Act, 1972
Aadhaar (Targeted Delivery of Financial and other Subsidies, benefits
and services) Act, 2016
Banking Regulation Act, 1949
Conservation of Foreign Exchange and Prevention of Smuggling
The Electricity Act, 2003
Expenditure Tax Act, 1987
Finance Act (India)
Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act, 2003
Foreign Contribution Regulation Act
Foreign Exchange Management Act
Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act,
Government Securities Act, 2006
Indian Contract Act, 1872
Indian Stamp Act, 1899
Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016
Insurance Act, 1938
Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881
Securities Laws (Amendment) Act, 2014
Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement
of Security Interest Act, 2002
The Competition Act, 2002
The High Denomination Bank Notes (Demonetisation) Act, 1978
The Income-tax Act, 1961
Property Act 1882
Urban Land (Ceiling and Regulation) Act, 1976
Central Council of Homoeopathy Act, 1973
Clinical Establishments (Registration and Regulation) Act, 2010
Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940
Drugs and Magic Remedies (Objectionable Advertisements) Act, 1954
Indian Medical Council Act
Mental Health Act, 1987
Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 1985
Bonded Labor System (Abolition) Act, 1976
Factories Act,1948, India
Industrial Disputes Act, 1947
Interstate Migrant Workmen Act 1979
Maternity Benefit (Amendment) Act, 2017
Minimum Wages Act 1948
National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005
Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and
Redressal) Act, 2013
Unorganised Workers' Social Security Act 2008
Hindu Adoptions and Maintenance Act (1956)
Majority Act (India)
Hindu Minority and Guardianship Act
Hindu Succession Act, 1956
Special Marriage Act, 1954
The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955
The Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Divorce) Act 1986
Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act
Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act
National Food Security Act, 2013
Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques Act, 1994
The Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006
Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers
(Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006
Street Vendors Act, 2014
Anti-Superstition and Black Magic Act
The Bombay Prohibition Act, 1949
Bombay Prohibition (Gujarat Amendment) 2009
Chhattisgarh Food Security Act, 2012
Maharashtra Control of Organised Crime Act
The Gujarat Local Authorities Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2009
Puducherry Prevention of Anti-Social Activities Act
Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014
Bihar Reorganisation Act, 2000
Madhya Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2000
Punjab Reorganisation Act, 1966
States Reorganisation Act, 1956
Uttar Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2000
Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act
Motor Vehicles Act, 1988
National Waterways Act, 2016
Inland Vessels Act
Metro Railways Act, 1978
Metro Railway Act, 2002
Organisation / Body
Chartered Accountants Act, 1949
Companies Act 2013
Gram Nyayalayas Act, 2008
Indian Trusts Act, 1882
Panchayats (Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act 1996
Reserve Bank of
India Act, 1934
The Indian Partnership Act, 1932
Societies Registration Act, 1860
The Limited Liability Partnership Act, 2008
Repealing and Amending Act, 2015
Repealing and Amending (Second) Act, 2015
Repealing and Amending Act, 2016
Repealing and Amending Act, 2017
Repealing and Amending (Second) Act, 2017
India Services Act, 1951
Property Act, 1968
Information Technology Act, 2000
Nuclear Liability Act
Official Secrets Act (India)
Representation of the People Act, 1951
Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition,
Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act, 2013
Right to Information Act, 2005
State Emblem of
India (Prohibition of Improper Use) Act, 2005
The Foreigners Act, 1946
Age of Consent Act, 1891
Caste Disabilities Removal Act, 1850
Criminal Tribes Act
Hindu Widows' Remarriage Act, 1856
English Education Act 1835
Prevention of Seditious Meetings Act, 1907
Anti-Copying Act, 1992
Foreign Exchange Regulation Act
Gift Tax Act, 1958
Illegal Migrants (Determination by Tribunal) Act, 1983
Interest Tax Act, 1974
Maintenance of Internal Security Act
Prevention of Terrorism Act, 2002
Terrorist and Disruptive Activities (Prevention) Act
The Gold (Control) Act, 1968
Wealth Tax Act, 1957
Foreign Education Providers Bill, 2013
Geospatial Information Regulation Bill
Gujarat Control of Organised Crime Act
Marriage Laws Amendment Bill
Road Transport and Safety Bill
Uniform civil code
Judges Assets Bill