The Whig Party was a political party active in the middle of the 19th
century in the United States. Four
United States Presidents belonged
to the party while in office. It emerged in the 1830s as the
leading opponent of Jacksonians, pulling together former members of
the National Republican (one of the successors of the
Democratic-Republican Party) and the Anti-Masonic Party. It had links
to the upscale traditions of the Federalist Party. Along with the
rival Democratic Party, it was central to the
Second Party System
Second Party System from
the early 1840s to the mid-1860s. It originally formed in
opposition to the policies of President
Andrew Jackson (in office
1829–1837) and his Democratic Party. In particular, the Whigs
supported the supremacy of the
United States Congress over the
presidency and favored a program of modernization, banking and
economic protectionism to stimulate manufacturing. It appealed to
entrepreneurs, planters, reformers and the emerging urban middle
class, but had little appeal to farmers or unskilled workers. It
included many active Protestants and voiced a moralistic opposition to
the Jacksonian Indian removal. Party founders chose the "Whig" name to
echo the American Whigs of the 18th century who fought for
independence. The underlying political philosophy of the American Whig
Party was not directly related to the British Whig party. Historian
Frank Towers has specified a deep ideological divide:
Democrats stood for the 'sovereignty of the people' as expressed in
popular demonstrations, constitutional conventions, and majority rule
as a general principle of governing, whereas Whigs advocated the rule
of law, written and unchanging constitutions, and protections for
minority interests against majority tyranny.
The Whig Party nominated several presidential candidates in 1836.
William Henry Harrison
William Henry Harrison of
Ohio was nominated in 1840, former
Henry Clay of
Kentucky in 1844 and General
Zachary Taylor of
Louisiana in 1848. Another war hero, General
Winfield Scott of New
Jersey, was the Whig Party's last presidential nominee in 1852. In its
two decades of existence, the Whig Party had two of its candidates,
Harrison and Taylor, elected president and both died in office. John
Tyler succeeded to the presidency after Harrison's death in 1841, but
was expelled from the party later that year. Millard Fillmore, who
became President after Taylor's death in 1850, was the last Whig
The party fell apart because of the internal tension over the
expansion of slavery to the territories. With deep fissures in the
party on this question, the anti-slavery faction prevented the
nomination for a full term of its own incumbent President Fillmore in
the 1852 presidential election—instead, the party nominated General
Scott. Most Whig Party leaders eventually quit politics (as Abraham
Lincoln did temporarily) or changed parties. The Northern voter base
mostly gravitated to the new Republican Party. In the South, most
Know Nothing Party, which unsuccessfully ran Fillmore in
the 1856 presidential election, by which time the Whig Party had
become virtually defunct. Some former Whigs became Democrats. The
Constitutional Union Party experienced significant success from
conservative former Whigs in the
Upper South during the 1860
presidential election. Whig ideology as a policy orientation persisted
for decades and played a major role in shaping the modernizing
policies of the state governments during Reconstruction.
1.3 A brief golden age
1.4 Compromise of 1850
2 Party platform
2.1 Whig issues
4 Presidents from the Whig Party
5 Electoral history
5.1 Presidential elections
5.2 Congressional elections
6 See also
9.1 Further reading
10 External links
The name "Whig" derived from a term that Patriots used to refer to
themselves during the American Revolution. It indicated hostility to
British Sovereign and despite the identical name it did not
directly derive from the British Whig Party (see etymology).
The American Whigs were modernizers who saw President Andrew Jackson
as "a dangerous man on horseback" with a "reactionary opposition" to
the forces of social, economic and moral modernization. The
Democratic-Republicans who formed the Whig Party, led by Kentucky
Senator Henry Clay, drew on a Jeffersonian tradition of compromise,
balance in government and territorial expansion combined with national
unity and support for a Federal transportation network and domestic
manufacturing. Casting their enemy as "King Andrew", they sought to
identify themselves as modern-day opponents of governmental
Despite the apparent unity of Jefferson's Democratic-Republicans from
1800 to 1824, the American people ultimately preferred partisan
opposition to popular political agreement. As Jackson purged his
opponents, vetoed internal improvements and killed the Second Bank of
the United States, alarmed local elites fought back. In 1831, Henry
Clay re-entered the Senate and started planning a new party. He
defended national rather than sectional interests. Clay's plan for
distributing the proceeds from the sale of lands among the states in
the public domain was intended to serve the nation by providing the
states with funds for building roads and canals, which would stimulate
growth and knit the sections together. However, his Jacksonian
opponents distrusted the federal government and opposed all federal
aid for internal improvements and they again frustrated Clay's plan.
Jacksonians promoted opposition to the National Bank and internal
improvements and support of egalitarian democracy, state power and
Tariff of Abominations
Tariff of Abominations of 1828 had outraged Southern
feelings—the South's leaders held that the high duties on foreign
imports gave an advantage to the North (where the factories were
located). Clay's own high tariff schedule of 1832 further disturbed
them as did his stubborn defense of high duties as necessary to his
American System. However, Clay moved to pass the Compromise of 1833,
which met Southern complaints by a gradual reduction of the rates on
imports to a maximum of twenty percent. Controlling the Senate for a
while, Whigs passed a censure motion denouncing Jackson's arrogant
assumption of executive power in the face of the true will of the
people as represented by Congress.
The Whig Party began to take shape in 1833. Clay had run as a National
Republican against Jackson in 1832, but carried only 49 electoral
votes against Jackson's 219 and the National Republicans became
discredited as a major political force. The Whig Party emerged in the
aftermath of the 1832 election, the
Nullification Crisis and debates
regarding the Second Bank of the United States, which Jackson
denounced as a monopoly and from which he abruptly removed all
government deposits. People who helped to form the new party included
supporters of Clay, supporters of Massachusetts Senator Daniel
Webster, former National Republicans, former Anti-Masons, former
disaffected Jacksonians (led by John C. Calhoun), who viewed Jackson's
actions as impinging on the prerogatives of Congress and the states;
and small remnants of Federalist Party, people whose last political
activity was with them a decade before. The "Whig" name emphasized the
party's opposition to Jackson's perceived executive tyranny and the
name helped the Whigs shed the elitist image of the National
Clay was the clear leader of the Whig Party nationwide and in
Washington, but he was vulnerable to Jacksonian allegations that he
associated with the upper class at a time when white males without
property had the right to vote and wanted someone more like
themselves. The Whigs nominated a war hero in 1840 and emphasized that
William Henry Harrison
William Henry Harrison had given up the high life to live in a log
cabin on the frontier—Harrison won.
In the 1836 elections, the party was not yet sufficiently organized or
unified to run one nationwide candidate—instead, William Henry
Harrison was its candidate in the Northern and border states, Hugh
Lawson White ran in the South,
Daniel Webster ran in his home state of
Massachusetts and in South Carolina the Whig's presidential candidate
was Willie P. Mangum. Whigs hoped that four candidates would amass
enough Electoral College votes among them to deny a majority to Martin
Van Buren. That would move the election to the House of
Representatives, allowing the ascendant Whigs to select their most
popular man as president.
Van Buren won 170 ballots in the Electoral College, with only 148
ballots needed to win, but the Whig strategy came very close to
succeeding. In Pennsylvania, which had 30 ballots in the Electoral
College, Harrison got 87,235 votes to Van Buren's 91,457. A change of
just a few thousand votes in that state would have reduced Van Buren's
ballot count to only 140, eight short of winning.
In late 1839, the Whigs held their first national convention and
William Henry Harrison
William Henry Harrison as their presidential candidate. In
March 1840, Harrison pledged to serve only one term as President if
elected, a pledge that reflected popular support for a constitutional
limit to presidential terms among many in the Whig Party. Harrison
went on to victory in 1840, defeating Van Buren's re-election bid
largely as a result of the
Panic of 1837
Panic of 1837 and subsequent depression.
Harrison served only 31 days and became the first President to die in
office. He was succeeded by John Tyler, a Virginian and states' rights
absolutist. Tyler vetoed the Whig economic legislation and was
expelled from the Whig party in September 1841.
The Whigs' internal disunity and the nation's increasing prosperity
made the party's activist economic program seem less necessary and led
to a disastrous showing in the 1842 Congressional election.
A brief golden age
An Available Candidate: The One Qualification for a Whig President—a
political cartoon about the 1848 presidential election which refers to
Zachary Taylor or Winfield Scott, the two leading contenders for the
Whig Party nomination in the aftermath of the Mexican–American War
Nathaniel Currier in 1848, digitally restored)
Horace Greeley's New-York Daily Tribune—the leading Whig
Henry Clay for President and
Millard Fillmore for
The central issue in the 1840s was expansion, with proponents of
"manifest destiny" arguing for aggressive westward expansion, even at
the risk of war with Mexico (over the annexation of Texas) and Britain
(over control of Oregon).
Daniel Walker Howe argues: "Nevertheless
American imperialism did not represent an American consensus; it
provoked bitter dissent within the national polity". That is, most
Democrats strongly supported manifest destiny and most Whigs strongly
opposed it. John Mack Faragher's analysis of the political
polarization between the parties is the following:
Most Democrats were wholehearted supporters of expansion, whereas many
Whigs (especially in the North) were opposed. Whigs welcomed most of
the changes wrought by industrialization but advocated strong
government policies that would guide growth and development within the
country's existing boundaries; they feared (correctly) that expansion
raised a contentious issue the extension of slavery to the
territories. On the other hand, many Democrats feared
industrialization the Whigs welcomed. [...] For many Democrats,
the answer to the nation's social ills was to continue to follow
Thomas Jefferson's vision of establishing agriculture in the new
territories in order to counterbalance industrialization.
By 1844, the Whigs began their recovery by nominating Henry Clay, who
lost the presidential race to Democrat
James K. Polk
James K. Polk in a closely
contested race, with Polk's policy of Western expansion (particularly
the annexation of Texas) and free trade triumphing over Clay's
protectionism and caution over the
Texas question. The Whigs, both
Northern and Southern, strongly opposed expansion into Texas, which
they (including Whig Congressman Abraham Lincoln) saw as an
unprincipled land grab.
In 1848, the Whigs, seeing no hope of success by nominating Clay,
nominated General Zachary Taylor, a hero of the Mexican–American
War. They stopped criticizing the war and adopted only a very vague
platform. Taylor defeated Democratic candidate
Lewis Cass and the
anti-slavery Free Soil Party, who had nominated former President
Martin Van Buren. Van Buren's candidacy split the Democratic vote in
New York, throwing that state to the Whigs. However, at the same time
the Free Soilers probably cost the Whigs several Midwestern states.
Compromise of 1850
Taylor was firmly opposed to the proposed
Compromise of 1850
Compromise of 1850 (an
initiative of Clay) and was committed to the admission of California
as a free state. He proclaimed that he would take military action to
prevent the secession of southern states. On July 9, 1850, Taylor died
and Vice President Millard Fillmore, a long-time Whig, became
President. Fillmore helped push the Compromise through Congress in the
hopes of ending the controversies over slavery and its five separate
bills became law in September 1850.
After 1850, the Whigs were unable to deal with the slavery issue.
Their Southern leaders nearly all owned slaves. The northeastern
Whigs, led by Daniel Webster, represented businessmen who loved
national unity and a national market, but cared little about slavery
one way or another. However, many Whig voters in the North thought
that slavery was incompatible with a free labor, free market economy
and supported the Wilmot Proviso, which did not pass Congress, but
would have stopped the expansion of slavery. No one found a compromise
that would keep the party united. Furthermore, the burgeoning economy
made full-time careers in business or law much more attractive than
politics for ambitious young Whigs, thus the Whig Party leader in
Illinois, Abraham Lincoln, simply abandoned politics after 1849,
instead attending to his law business.
When new issues of nativism, prohibition and anti-slavery burst on the
scene in the mid-1850s, few looked to the quickly disintegrating Whig
Party for answers. In the North, most ex Whigs joined the new
Republican Party and in the South, they flocked to a new short-lived
The election of 1852 marked the beginning of the end for the Whigs.
The deaths of
Henry Clay and
Daniel Webster that year severely
weakened the party. The
Compromise of 1850
Compromise of 1850 had fractured the Whigs
along pro- and anti-slavery lines, with the anti-slavery faction
having enough power to deny Fillmore the party's nomination in 1852.
The Whig Party's 1852 convention in New York City saw the historic
Alvan E. Bovay
Alvan E. Bovay and the New-York Daily Tribune's Horace
Greeley, a meeting that led to correspondence between the men as the
early Republican Party meetings in 1854 began to take place.
Attempting to repeat their earlier successes, the Whigs nominated
popular General Winfield Scott, who lost decisively to the Democrats'
Franklin Pierce. The Democrats won the election by a large margin:
Pierce won 27 of the 31 states, including Scott's home state of New
Jersey. Whig Representative
Lewis D. Campbell
Lewis D. Campbell of
Ohio was particularly
distraught by the defeat, exclaiming: "We are slain. The party is
dead—dead—dead!". Increasingly, politicians realized that the
party was dead.
In 1854, the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which opened the new territories
to slavery, was passed. Southern Whigs generally supported the Act
while Northern Whigs remained strongly opposed. Most remaining
Northern Whigs, like Lincoln, joined the new Republican Party and
strongly attacked the Act, appealing to widespread Northern outrage
over the repeal of the Missouri Compromise. Other Whigs joined the
Know Nothing Party, attracted by its nativist crusades against
so-called "corrupt" Irish and German immigrants. In the South, the
Whig Party vanished—but as Thomas Alexander has shown, Whiggism as a
modernizing policy orientation persisted for decades. Historians
estimate that in the South in 1856 former Whig Fillmore retained 86
percent of the 1852 Whig voters when he ran as the American Party
candidate. He won only 13% of the Northern vote, though that was just
enough to tip Pennsylvania out of the Republican column. The future in
the North, most observers thought at the time, was Republican. Scant
prospects for the shrunken old party seemed extant and after 1856
virtually no Whig organization remained at the regional level.
Twenty-six states sent 150 delegates to the last national convention
in September 1856. The convention met for only two days and on the
second day (and only ballot) quickly nominated Fillmore for President,
who had already been nominated for President by the Know Nothing
Andrew Jackson Donelson was nominated for Vice President. Some
Whigs and others adopted the mantle of the Opposition Party for
several years and enjoyed some individual electoral successes.
In 1860, many former Whigs who had not joined the Republicans
regrouped as the Constitutional Union Party, which nominated only a
national ticket. It had considerable strength in the border states,
which feared the onset of civil war. Its presidential candidate, John
Bell, finished third in the electoral college.
During the Lincoln Administration (1861–1865), ex Whigs dominated
the Republican Party and enacted much of their American System. Later,
their Southern colleagues dominated the white response to
Reconstruction. In the long run, the
United States adopted Whiggish
economic policies coupled with a Democratic strong presidency.
During the latter part of the
American Civil War
American Civil War and during the
Reconstruction Era, many former Whigs tried to regroup in the South,
calling themselves "conservatives" and hoping to reconnect with the ex
Whigs in the North. These were merged into the Democratic Party in the
South, but they continued to promote modernization policies such as
large-scale railroad construction and the founding of public
In today's discourse in American politics, the Whig Party is often
cited as an example of a political party that lost its followers and
its reason for being as by the expression "going the way of the
Whigs", a term referred to by Donald Critchlow in his book, The
Conservative Ascendancy: How the GOP Right Made Political History.
Critchlow points out that the application of the term by Republicans
in the Republican Party of 1974 may have been a misnomer—the old
Whig party enjoyed more political support before its demise than the
Republican Party in the aftermath of Nixon's resignation.
The Whigs suffered greatly from factionalism throughout their
existence as well as weak party loyalty that stood in contrast to the
strong party discipline that was the hallmark of a tight Democratic
Party organization. One strength of the Whigs was a superb network
of newspapers—their leading editor was
Horace Greeley of the
powerful New-York Daily Tribune.
In the 1840s, Whigs won 49 percent of gubernatorial elections, with
strong bases in the manufacturing Northeast and in the border states.
The trend over time was for the Democratic vote to grow faster and for
the Whigs to lose more and more marginal states and districts. After
the close 1844 contest, the Democratic advantage widened and the Whigs
could win the White House only if the Democrats split. This was partly
because of the increased political importance of the Western states,
which generally voted for Democrats; and Irish Catholic and German
immigrants, who voted heavily for the Democrats.
The Whigs appealed to voters in every socio-economic category, but
proved especially attractive to the professional and business classes:
doctors, lawyers, merchants, ministers, bankers, storekeepers, factory
owners, commercially oriented farmers and large-scale planters. In
general, commercial and manufacturing towns and cities voted Whig,
save for strongly Democratic precincts in Irish Catholic and German
immigrant communities—the Democrats often sharpened their appeal to
the poor by ridiculing the Whigs' aristocratic pretensions. Protestant
religious revivals also injected a moralistic element into the Whig
The Whigs celebrated Clay's vision of the American System that
promoted rapid economic and industrial growth in the United States.
Whigs demanded government support for a more modern, market-oriented
economy, in which skill, expertise and bank credit would count for
more than physical strength or land ownership. Whigs sought to promote
faster industrialization through high tariffs, a business-oriented
money supply based on a national bank and a vigorous program of
government funded "internal improvements" (what we now call
infrastructure projects), especially expansion of the road and canal
systems. To modernize the inner United States, the Whigs helped create
public schools, private colleges, charities and cultural institutions.
Many were pietistic Protestant reformers who called for public schools
to teach moral values and proposed prohibition to end the liquor
The Democrats harkened to the Jeffersonian ideal of an egalitarian
agricultural society, believing that traditional farm life bred
republican simplicity while modernization and urbanization threatened
to create a politically powerful caste of rich aristocratic men who
threatened to subvert republicanism. In general the Democrats enacted
their policies at the national level while the Whigs succeeded in
passing modernization projects in most states.
Arguing that universal public education was the best way to turn the
nation's unruly children into disciplined, judicious republican
Horace Mann (1796–1859) won widespread approval from
modernizers, especially among fellow Whigs, for building public
schools. Indeed, most states adopted one version or another of the
system he established in Massachusetts, especially the program for
normal schools to train professional teachers.
The Whig Party was never a homogeneous party and was essentially
divided into two main factions: the anti-slavery Conscience Whigs,
based in Northern states; and the pro-South Cotton Whigs, also based
in the industrial North who wanted to maintain good business terms
with the southern planters. While the "Consciences" were noted for
their moral opposition to slavery, their Cottons counterpart's close
association with the New England textile industry led them to
de-emphasize the slavery issue. Notable Consciences included Charles
Henry Wilson and Charles Francis Adams while the Cottons were
led by such figures as Edward Everett,
Robert C. Winthrop
Robert C. Winthrop and Abbott
The Consciences split from the Whig party in 1848, when the national
party nominated the slave-owning General
Zachary Taylor for President
and played a role in the creation of the new Free Soil Party, which
nominated Adams for Vice President on a ticket with anti-slavery
former Democratic President Martin Van Buren.
Following the failure of the
Free Soil Party
Free Soil Party in the election that
year, most Conscience Whigs returned to the Whig fold and more
followed after the
Compromise of 1850
Compromise of 1850 temporarily neutralized the
issue of slavery. During the mid-1850s, several Conscience leaders
played an important role later in the foundation of the Republican
In Liberia, the True Whig Party—named in direct emulation of the
American Whig party, was founded in 1869 and it dominated politics in
that country from 1878 until 1980.
Occasionally, small groups in the
United States form parties that take
the Whig name, but they seldom last long or elect anyone. In 2006, the
Florida Whig Party
Florida Whig Party was formed and fielded one candidate for Congress
in the elections of 2010 and it disbanded in 2012.
In 2008, a group of veterans formed the Modern Whig Party. It
occasionally claimed a local officeholder supported this party.
The Quincy Herald-Whig, a daily newspaper published as of 2014 in
western Illinois, is a direct descendant of a 19th century Whig Party
news sheet, the Quincy Whig.
See also Stephen Simpson, editor of the Philadelphia Whig, a 19th
century newspaper devoted to the Whig cause.
Presidents from the Whig Party
William Henry Harrison
March 4, 1841
April 4, 1841
April 4, 1841
March 4, 1845
March 4, 1849
July 9, 1850
July 9, 1850
March 4, 1853
Additionally, John Quincy Adams, elected President as a
Democratic-Republican, later became a National Republican, then an
Anti-Masonic and then a Whig after he was elected to the House of
Representatives in 1831.
Presidents Abraham Lincoln, Rutherford B. Hayes,
Chester A. Arthur
Chester A. Arthur and
Benjamin Harrison were Whigs before switching to the Republican Party,
from which they were elected to office.
Outcome of election
William H. Harrison
73 / 294
Hugh Lawson White
26 / 294
14 / 294
Willie Person Mangum
11 / 294
William H. Harrison
234 / 294
105 / 275
163 / 290
William Alexander Graham
42 / 296
House of Representatives
overall seats won
75 / 242
James K. Polk
100 / 242
109 / 242
Robert M. T. Hunter
142 / 242
73 / 223
John W. Jones
79 / 227
John W. Davis
116 / 230
108 / 233
54 / 234
Nathaniel P. Banks
overall seats won
17 / 52
Richard M. Johnson
20 / 52
29 / 52
27 / 52
24 / 54
George M. Dallas
19 / 58
25 / 60
22 / 62
18 / 62
William R. King
14 / 62
3 / 62
John C. Breckinridge
^ a: Merged in the Opposition Party at 34th Congress
^ b: Office left vacant when Tyler assumed the presidency on
April 4, 1841.
^ c: Office left vacant when Fillmore assumed the presidency
on July 9, 1850.
^ d: Office left vacant after King's death on April 18,
American election campaigns in the 19th century
American School economics and the Whigs
History of the
United States Republican Party
List of political parties in the United States
List of Whig National Conventions
United States National Democratic/Whig Party presidential
Modern Whig Party
Whig (British political faction)
^a Although Tyler was elected Vice President as a Whig, his policies
soon proved to be opposed to most of the Whig agenda and he was
officially expelled from the party in September 1841, five months
after taking office as President.
^ "National Republican Party". Dictionary of American History. 2003.
In 1834 the
National Republican Party was absorbed by the new and
larger Whig Party [...].
^ The Editors of
Encyclopædia Britannica (July 20, 1998). "Whig
Party". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved August 29, 2017.
^ Holt, Michael F. (2003). The Rise and Fall of the American Whig
Party. Oxford University Press. p. 4.
^ Adam, Richards. "The Whigs: Definition & Explanation".
Study.com. Retrieved August 29, 2017. The Whigs focused on the notion
^ "Whigs From The Past". Modern Whig Party. Archived from the original
on October 28, 2014. Retrieved December 7, 2014.
^ Holt (1999), p. 231.
^ Holt (1999), pp. 27–30.
^ Frank Towers, "Mobtown's Impact on the Study of Urban Politics in
the Early Republic." Maryland Historical Magazine 107 (Winter 2012)
pp: 469-75, p. 472, citing Robert E, Shalhope, The Baltimore Bank
Riot: Political Upheaval in Antebellum Maryland (2009) p. 147.
^ a b c Alexander (1961).
^ Peter Charles Hoffer (2006). The Brave New World: A History of Early
America. JHU Press. p. 449. ISBN 978-0-8018-8483-2.
^ David Brown, "Jeffersonian Ideology and the Second Party System."
Historian 1999 62(1): 17–30.
^ Holt, Michael F. (2003). The Rise and Fall of the American Whig
Party. Oxford University Press. pp. 26–29. Retrieved September
^ Daniel Walker Howe, What Hath God Wrought: The Transformation of
America, 1815–1848, (2007) pp. 705–6
John Mack Faragher et al. Out of Many: A History of the American
People, (2nd ed. 1997) page 413
^ Holt pp. 979–80.
^ Donald T. Critchlow, The Conservative Ascendancy: How the GOP Right
Made Political History (2007) p. 103. Additional examples are of
^ Critchlow, Donald T. "The Conservative Ascendancy: how the GOP right
made political history". Harvard University Press. Retrieved May 9,
^ Lynn Marshall. "The Strange Stillbirth of the Whig Party," American
Historical Review, (1967) v. 72 pp. 445–68
^ Holt (1999) p. 83
Donald T. Critchlow
Donald T. Critchlow and Philip R. VanderMeer, eds. (2012). The
Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History. Oxford
UP. pp. 280, 358–59, 381–83. CS1 maint: Extra text:
authors list (link)
^ Critchlow and VanderMeer, eds. (2012). The Oxford Encyclopedia of
American Political and Legal History. p. 213. CS1 maint:
Extra text: authors list (link)
^ Mark Groen, "The Whig Party and the Rise of Common Schools,
1837–1854," American Educational History Journal Spring/Summer 2008,
Vol. 35 Issue 1/2, pp. 251–260
^ John R. McKivigan (1999). Abolitionism and American Politics and
Government. Taylor & Francis. p. 120.
^ Eric Foner (1995). Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of
the Republican Party Before the Civil War: With a New Introductory
Essay. Oxford UP. p. 113.
^ Louis Sandy Maisel; Mark D. Brewer (2008). Parties and Elections in
America: The Electoral Process. Rowman & Littlefield.
^ Dominik Zaum; Christine Cheng (2011). Corruption and Post-Conflict
Peacebuilding: Selling the Peace?. Routledge. p. 133.
^ "The Florida Whig Party". Retrieved September 22, 2014.
^ "Is it time for a new political party?". Retrieved September 22,
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Whig Party in
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