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Computational economics is a research discipline at the interface of computer science, economics, and management science.[1] This subject encompasses computational modeling of economic systems, whether agent-based,[2] general-equilibrium,[3] macroeconomic,[4] or rational-expectations,[5] computational econometrics and statistics,[6] computational finance, computational tools for the design of automated internet markets, programming tool specifically designed for computational economics and the teaching of computational economics. Some of these areas are unique, while others extend traditional areas of economics by solving problems that are tedious to study without computers and associated numerical methods.[7] Computational economics uses computer-based economic modelling for the solution of analytically and statistically- formulated economic problems. A research program, to that end, is agent-based computational economics (ACE), the computational study of economic processes, including whole economies, as dynamic systems of interacting agents.[8] As such, it is an economic adaptation of the complex adaptive systems paradigm.[9] Here the "agent" refers to "computational objects modeled as interacting according to rules," not real people.[2] Agents can represent social, biological, and/or physical entities. The theoretical assumption of mathematical optimisation by agents in equilibrium is replaced by the less restrictive postulate of agents with bounded rationality adapting to market forces,[10] including game-theoretical contexts.[11] Starting from initial conditions determined by the modeler, an ACE model develops forward through time driven solely by agent interactions. The scientific objective of the method is "to ... test theoretical findings against real-world data in ways that permit empirically supported theories to cumulate over time, with each research building on the work before."[12] Computational solution tools include for example software for carrying out various matrix operations (e.g. matrix inversion) and for solving systems of linear and non-linear equations. For a repository of public-domain computational solutions, visit here. The following journals specialise in computational economics: ACM Transactions on Economics
Economics
and Computation,[13] Computational Economics,[1] Journal of Applied Econometrics,[14] Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control[15] and the Journal of Economic Interaction and Coordination.[16]

References[edit]

^ a b Computational Economics. ""About This Journal" and "Aims and Scope."

^ a b Scott E. Page, 2008. "agent-based models," The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd Edition. Abstract.

^ The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2008. 2nd Edition:  • "computation of general equilibria" by Herbert E. Scarf. Abstract.  • "computation of general equilibria (new developments)" by Felix Kubler. Abstract.

^ • Hans M. Amman, David A. Kendrick, and John Rust, ed., 1996. Handbook of Computational Economics, v. 1, ch. 1-6, preview links.

^ Ray C. Fair "Computational Methods for Macroeconometric Models," Hans M. Amman, David A. Kendrick, and John Rust, ed., 1996. Handbook of Computational Economics, v. 1, ch. , pp. 143-169. Outline.

^ • Vassilis A. Hajivassiliou, 2008. "computational methods in econometrics," The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd Edition. Abstract.   • Keisuke Hirano, 2008. "decision theory in econometrics," The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd Edition. Abstract.   • James O. Berger, 2008. "statistical decision theory," The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd Edition. Abstract.

^ • Hans M. Amman, David A. Kendrick, and John Rust, ed., 1996. Handbook of Computational Economics, v. 1, Elsevier. Description Archived 2011-07-15 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
& chapter-preview links.   • Kenneth L. Judd, 1998. Numerical Methods in Economics, MIT Press. Links to description Archived 2012-02-11 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
and chapter previews.

^ • Scott E. Page, 2008. "agent-based models," The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd Edition. Abstract.   • Leigh Tesfatsion, 2006. "Agent-Based Computational Economics: A Constructive Approach to Economic Theory," ch. 16, Handbook of Computational Economics, v. 2, [pp. 831-880]. Abstract and pre-pub PDF.   • Kenneth L. Judd, 2006. "Computationally Intensive Analyses in Economics," Handbook of Computational Economics, v. 2, ch. 17, pp. 881- 893. Pre-pub PDF.   • L. Tesfatsion and K. Judd, ed., 2006. Handbook of Computational Economics, v. 2, Agent-Based Computational Economics, Elsevier. Description Archived 2012-03-06 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
& and chapter-preview links.   • Thomas J. Sargent, 1994. Bounded Rationality in Macroeconomics, Oxford. Description and chapter-preview 1st-page links.

^ • W. Brian Arthur, 1994. "Inductive Reasoning and Bounded Rationality," American Economic Review, 84(2), pp. 406-411 Archived 2013-05-21 at the Wayback Machine.   • Leigh Tesfatsion, 2003. "Agent-based Computational Economics: Modeling Economies as Complex Adaptive Systems," Information Sciences, 149(4), pp. 262-268 Archived April 26, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.   • _____, 2002. "Agent-Based Computational Economics: Growing Economies from the Bottom Up," Artificial Life, 8(1), pp.55-82. Abstract and pre-pub PDF Archived 2013-05-14 at the Wayback Machine.

^ • W. Brian Arthur, 1994. "Inductive Reasoning and Bounded Rationality," American Economic Review, 84(2), pp. 406-411 Archived 2013-05-21 at the Wayback Machine.   • John H. Holland and John H. Miller (1991). "Artificial Adaptive Agents in Economic Theory," American Economic Review, 81(2), pp. 365-370 Archived 2011-01-05 at the Wayback Machine.   • Thomas C. Schelling, 1978 [2006]. Micromotives and Macrobehavior, Norton. Description Archived 2017-11-02 at the Wayback Machine, preview.   • Thomas J. Sargent, 1994. Bounded Rationality in Macroeconomics, Oxford. Description and chapter-preview 1st-page links.

^ • Joseph Y. Halpern, 2008. "computer science and game theory," The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd Edition. Abstract.   • Yoav Shoham, 2008. "Computer Science and Game Theory," Communications of the ACM, 51(8), pp. 75-79.   • Alvin E. Roth, 2002. "The Economist
Economist
as Engineer: Game Theory, Experimentation, and Computation as Tools for Design Economics," Econometrica, 70(4), pp. 1341–1378 Archived 2004-04-14 at the Wayback Machine.

^ Leigh Tesfatsion, 2006. "Agent-Based Computational Economics: A Constructive Approach to Economic Theory," ch. 16, Handbook of Computational Economics, v. 2, sect. 5, p. 865 [pp. 831-880]. Abstract and pre-pub PDF.

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^ "Journal of Applied Econometrics
Econometrics
- Wiley Online Library". Onlinelibrary.wiley.com. 2011. doi:10.1002/(ISSN)1099-1255. hdl:2027.42/34956. Retrieved October 31, 2011.

^ Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, including Aims & scope link. For a much-cited overview and issue, see:  • Leigh Tesfatsion, 2001. "Introduction to the Special
Special
Issue on Agent-based Computational Economics," Journal of Economic Dynamics & Control, pp. 281-293.  • [ Special
Special
issue], 2001. Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Agent-based Computational Economics
Economics
(ACE). 25(3-4), pp. 281-654. Abstract/outline links.

^ "Journal of Economic Interaction and Coordination". springer.com. 2011. Retrieved October 31, 2011.

External links[edit] Society for Computational Economics Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control - publishes articles on computational economics Agent-Based Computational Economics
Economics
- maintained by Leigh Tesfatsion The Use of Agent-Based Models in Regional Science - a study on agent-based models to simulate urban agglomeration Computational Economics
Economics
with Python - a series of lectures Computational Finance and Economic Agents Journal of Economic Interaction and Coordination - official journal of the Association of Economic Science with Heterogeneous Interacting Agents Chair of Economic Policy, University of B

.