The Info List - Communist State

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A communist state (sometimes referred as workers' state) is a state that is usually administered and governed by a single party representing the proletariat, guided by Marxist–Leninist
philosophy, with the aim of achieving communism. There have been several instances of Communist states with functioning political participation processes involving several other non-party organisations, such as trade unions, factory committees and direct democratic participation.[1][2][3][4][5] The term "Communist state" is used by Western historians, political scientists and media to refer to these countries. However, contrary to Western usage, these states do not describe themselves as "communist" nor do they claim to have achieved communism—they refer to themselves as socialist states or workers' states that are in the process of constructing socialism.[6][7][8][9] Communist states can be administered by a single, centralised party apparatus, although countries such as North Korea
North Korea
have several parties. These parties usually are Marxist–Leninist
or some variation thereof (including Maoism
in China
and Juche
in North Korea), with the official aim of achieving socialism and progressing toward communism. These states are usually termed by Marxists as dictatorships of the proletariat, or dictatorships of the working class, whereby the working class is the ruling class of the country, in contrast to capitalism, whereby the bourgeoisie is the ruling class.


1 Communist party
Communist party
as the leader of the state 2 Development of Communist states 3 State institutions in Communist states

3.1 State social institutions 3.2 Political power

4 Criticism 5 List of current states described as communist 6 Multi-party
states with governing communist parties 7 List of former communist states 8 See also 9 References

Communist party
Communist party
as the leader of the state

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In the theories of German philosopher Karl Marx, a state in any society is an instrument of oppression by one social class over another, historically a minority exploiter class ruling over a majority exploited class. Marx saw that in his contemporary time the new nation states were characterized by increasingly intensified class contradiction between the capitalist class and the working class it ruled over. He predicted that if the class contradictions of the capitalist system continue to intensify, that the working class will ultimately become conscious of itself as an exploited collective and will overthrow the capitalists and establish collective ownership over the means of production, therein arriving at a new phase of development called socialism (in Marxist understanding). The state ruled by the working class during the transition into classless society is called the "dictatorship of the proletariat". Vladimir Lenin created revolutionary vanguard theory in an attempt to expand on the concept. Lenin saw that science is something that is initially practicable by only a minority of society who happen to be in a position free from distraction so that they may contemplate it and believed that scientific socialism was no exception. He therefore advocated that the Communist party
Communist party
should be structured as a vanguard of those who have achieved full class consciousness to be at the forefront of the class struggle and lead the workers to expand class consciousness and replace the capitalist class as the ruling class, therein establishing the proletarian state. Development of Communist states During the 20th century, the world's first constitutionally socialist state was in Russia
in 1917. In 1922, it joined other former territories of the empire to become the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). After World War II, the Soviet Army
Soviet Army
occupied much of Eastern Europe and thus helped establish Communist states in these countries. Most Communist states in Eastern Europe were allied with the Soviet Union, except for Yugoslavia which declared itself non-aligned. In 1949, after a war against Japanese occupation and a civil war resulting in a Communist victory, the People's Republic
People's Republic
of China
(PRC) was established. Communist states were also established in Cambodia, Cuba, Laos
and Vietnam. A Communist state
Communist state
was established in North Korea, although it later withdrew from the Communist movement. In 1989, the Communist states in Eastern Europe collapsed under public pressure during a wave of non-violent movements which led to the dissolution of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1991. Today, the existing Communist states in the world are in China, Cuba, Laos
and Vietnam. These Communist states often do not claim to have achieved socialism or communism in their countries—rather, they claim to be building and working toward the establishment of socialism in their countries. For example, the preamble to the Socialist Republic of Vietnam's constitution states that Vietnam
only entered a transition stage between capitalism and socialism after the country was re-unified under the Communist Party
Communist Party
in 1976[10] and the 1992 constitution of the Republic of Cuba
states that the role of the Communist Party
Communist Party
is to "guide the common effort toward the goals and construction of socialism".[11] State institutions in Communist states Communist states share similar institutions, which are organized on the premise that the communist party is a vanguard of the proletariat and represents the long-term interests of the people. The doctrine of democratic centralism, which was developed by Vladimir Lenin
Vladimir Lenin
as a set of principles to be used in the internal affairs of the communist party, is extended to society at large.[12] According to democratic centralism, all leaders must be elected by the people and all proposals must be debated openly, but once a decision has been reached all people have a duty to obey that decision and all debate should end. When used within a political party, democratic centralism is meant to prevent factionalism and splits. When applied to an entire state, democratic centralism creates a one-party system.[12] The constitutions of most socialist states describe their political system as a form of democracy.[13] They thus recognize the sovereignty of the people as embodied in a series of representative parliamentary institutions. Such states do not have a separation of powers and instead they have one national legislative body (such as the Supreme Soviet in the Soviet Union) which is considered the highest organ of state power and which is legally superior to the executive and judicial branches of government.[14] Such national legislative politics in socialist states often have a similar structure to the parliaments that exist in liberal republics, with two significant differences: first, the deputies elected to these national legislative bodies are not expected to represent the interests of any particular constituency, but the long-term interests of the people as a whole; second, against Marx's advice, the legislative bodies of socialist states are not in permanent session. Rather, they convene once or several times per year in sessions which usually last only a few days.[15] When the national legislative body is not in session, its powers are transferred to a smaller council (often called a presidium) which combines legislative and executive power and in some socialist states (such as the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
before 1990), acts as a collective head of state. In some systems, the presidium is composed of important communist party members who vote the resolutions of the communist party into law. State social institutions A feature of socialist states is the existence of numerous state-sponsored social organizations (trade unions, youth organizations, women's organizations, associations of teachers, writers, journalists and other professionals, consumer cooperatives, sports clubs and so on) which are integrated into the political system. In some socialist states,[which?] representatives of these organizations are guaranteed a certain number of seats on the national legislative bodies. In socialist states, the social organizations are expected to promote social unity and cohesion, to serve as a link between the government and society, and to provide a forum for recruitment of new communist party members.[16] Political power Historically, the political organization of many socialist states has been dominated by a one-party monopoly. Some Communist governments, such as North Korea, East Germany
East Germany
or Czechoslovakia
have or had more than one political party, but all minor parties are or were required to follow the leadership of the Communist party. In socialist states, the government may not tolerate criticism of policies that have already been implemented in the past or are being implemented in the present.[17] Nevertheless, Communist parties have won elections and governed in the context of multi-party democracies, without seeking to establish a one-party state. Examples include San Marino, Nicaragua (1979–1990),[18] Moldova, Nepal
(presently), Cyprus[19] and the Indian states of Kerala, West Bengal
West Bengal
and Tripura.[20] However, for the purposes of this article these entities do not fall under the definition of socialist state. Criticism Main article: Criticisms of communist party rule Countries such as the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and China
were criticized by Western authors and organisations on the basis of a lack of multi-party Western democracy,[21][22] in addition to several other areas where socialist society and Western societies differed. For instance, socialist societies were commonly characterised by state ownership or social ownership of the means of production either through administration through party organisations, democratically elected councils and communes and co-operative structures – in opposition to the liberal democratic capitalist free market paradigm of management, ownership and control by corporations and private individuals.[23] Communist states have also been criticised for the influence and outreach of their respective ruling parties on society, in addition to lack of recognition for some Western legal rights and liberties [24] such as the right to ownership of private property, and the restriction of the right to free speech. Soviet advocates and socialists responded to these criticisms by highlighting the ideological differences in the concept of "freedom". McFarland and Ageyev noted that " Marxist–Leninist
norms disparaged laissez-faire individualism (as when housing is determined by one's ability to pay), also [condemning] wide variations in personal wealth as the West has not. Instead, Soviet ideals emphasized equality—free education and medical care, little disparity in housing or salaries, and so forth".[25] When asked to comment on the claim that former citizens of Communist states enjoy increased freedoms, Heinz Kessler, former East German defense minister, replied: "Millions of people in Eastern Europe are now free from employment, free from safe streets, free from health care, free from social security".[26] The early economic development policies of Communist states have been criticised for focusing primarily on the development of heavy industry. In his critique of states run under Marxist–Leninist
ideology, economist Michael Ellman of the University of Amsterdam
University of Amsterdam
notes that such states compared favorably with Western states in some health indicators such as infant mortality and life expectancy.[27] Similarly, Amartya Sen's own analysis of international comparisons of life expectancy found that several Marxist–Leninist
states made significant gains and commented "one thought that is bound to occur is that communism is good for poverty removal".[28] The dissolution of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
was followed by a rapid increase in poverty,[29][30][31] crime,[32][33] corruption,[34][35] unemployment,[36] homelessness,[37][38] rates of disease[39][40][41] and income inequality,[42] along with decreases in calorie intake, life expectancy, adult literacy and income.[43] List of current states described as communist See also: People's Republic

A map of states described as communist 1993–2017

The following countries are one-party states in which the institutions of the ruling communist party and the state have become intertwined. They are generally adherents of Marxism–Leninism
in particular. They are listed here together with the year of their founding and their respective ruling parties:[44]

Country Local name Since Ruling party Note

  People's Republic
People's Republic
of China In Chinese: 中华人民共和国 In Pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó 1 October 1949 Communist Party
Communist Party
of China

 Republic of Cuba In Spanish: República de Cuba 1 July 1961 Communist Party
Communist Party
of Cuba

 Lao People's Democratic Republic In Lao: Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao 2 December 1975 Lao People's Revolutionary Party

 Socialist Republic of Vietnam In Vietnamese: Cộng hòa xã hội chủ nghĩa Việt Nam 2 September 1945 (in the north) 30 April 1975 (in the south) 2 July 1976 (unified) Communist Party
Communist Party
of Vietnam

Democratic People's Republic
People's Republic
of Korea In Korean: 조선민주주의인민공화국 In Revised Romanization: Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk 9 September 1948 Workers' Party of Korea Socialist state
Socialist state
although the government's official ideology is now the Juche
part of Kimilsungism–Kimjongilism
policy of Kim Il-sung, as opposed to traditional Marxism–Leninism. In 2009, the Constitution of North Korea
North Korea
was quietly amended so that not only did it remove all Marxist–Leninist
references present in the first draft, but it also dropped all reference to "Communism".[45] It is a Kimilsungist–Kimjongilist hereditary totalitarian military dictatorship.

states with governing communist parties There are multi-party states with communist parties leading the government. Such states are not considered to be Communist states as the countries themselves allow for multiple parties and do not provide a constitutional role for their communist parties.

   Nepal: the Communist Party
Communist Party
of Nepal
(Unified Marxist–Leninist) is the leading party in the government coalition.  India: the Communist Party
Communist Party
of India
(Marxist) is in rule in the southern state of Kerala.

(to 2009), Cyprus
(to 2013) and Guyana
(to 2015) have also recently had officially Marxist–Leninist
ruling parties. List of former communist states

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1922–1991) Mongolian People's Republic
Mongolian People's Republic
(1924–1992) Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
(1943–1992) People's Socialist Republic of Albania
People's Socialist Republic of Albania
(1946–1992) People's Republic of Bulgaria
People's Republic of Bulgaria
(1946–1990) Polish People's Republic
Polish People's Republic
(1947–1989) Socialist Republic of Romania
Socialist Republic of Romania
(1947–1989) Czechoslovak Socialist Republic
Czechoslovak Socialist Republic
(1948–1990) German Democratic Republic (1949–1990) Hungarian People's Republic
Hungarian People's Republic
(1949–1989) People's Democratic Republic of Yemen
People's Democratic Republic of Yemen
(1967–1990; 1994) People's Republic of the Congo
People's Republic of the Congo
(1969–1992) Somali Democratic Republic
Somali Democratic Republic
(1969–1991) Derg
(1974–1987) People's Republic of Angola
People's Republic of Angola
(1975–1992) People's Republic of Benin
People's Republic of Benin
(1975–1990) Democratic Kampuchea
Democratic Kampuchea
(1975–1979; 1979–1982 in exile) Democratic Republic of Madagascar
Democratic Republic of Madagascar
(1975–1992) People's Republic of Mozambique
People's Republic of Mozambique
(1975–1990) Democratic Republic of Afghanistan
Democratic Republic of Afghanistan
(1978–1992) People's Revolutionary Government of Grenada
People's Revolutionary Government of Grenada
(1979–1983) People's Republic of Kampuchea
People's Republic of Kampuchea
(1979–1989) People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
(1987–1991) Seychelles
peoples Marxist government (1977-1992) Mauritanian Peoples Party (1961-1978) Burma socialist republic (1944-2010)

See also

Capitalist state Communist society Criticisms of communist party rule List of anti-capitalist and communist parties with national parliamentary representation List of communist parties List of socialist states People's democracy (Marxism–Leninism) Socialism
in one country Socialist state


Wikimedia Commons has media related to Communist countries.

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after World War Two: 1945-1990. Aldine Transaction. p. 21. ISBN 978-0202362281. Contrary to Western usage, these countries describe themselves as 'Socialist' (not 'Communist'). The second stage (Marx's 'higher phase'), or 'Communism' is to be marked by an age of plenty, distribution according to needs (not work), the absence of money and the market mechanism, the disappearance of the last vestiges of capitalism and the ultimate 'whithering away' of the State.  ^ Steele, David Ramsay (September 1999). From Marx to Mises: Post Capitalist Society
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Communist Party
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Communist Party
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Communist states


Angola Benin Congo-Brazzaville Ethiopia
(1974–1987) Ethiopia
(1987–1991) Madagascar Mozambique Somalia


Cuba Grenada


Afghanistan Cambodia
(1976–1979) Cambodia
(1979–1993) China North Korea Laos Mongolia Tuva Vietnam

North Vietnam

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Gilan Iranian Azerbaijan Kurdish Republic of Mahabad South Vietnam Soviet China


Albania Bulgaria Czechoslovakia East Germany Hungary
(1949–1989) Poland Romania Soviet Union Yugoslavia


Alsace-Lorraine Bavaria Bremen Finland Hungary
(1919) Galicia Ireland Slovakia (1919)