A commander-in-chief, also called supreme commander, is the person
that exercises supreme command and control over an armed forces or a
military branch. As a technical term, it refers to military
competencies that reside in a country's executive leadership – a
head of state or a head of government.
Often, a commander-in-chief role if held by an official, need not be
or have been a commissioned officer or even a veteran. Such countries
follow the principle of civilian control of the military.
2 Heads of state as commanders-in-chief
2.12 People's Republic of China
2.12.1 Hong Kong
2.14 Czech Republic
2.16 Dominican Republic
2.38 Republic of China
2.41 Saudi Arabia
2.44 South Africa
2.45 South Korea
2.47 Sri Lanka
2.51 United Kingdom
2.52 United States
3 Other officeholders as commanders-in-chief or other situations
3.2.1 Present, Federal Republic (1956-)
3.2.2 East Germany (1960-1990)
3.2.3 Before 1945
3.9 North Korea
4 See also
The formal role and title of a ruler commanding the armed forces
Imperator of the Roman Kingdom,
Roman Republic and Roman
Empire, who possessed imperium (command and other regal)
In English use, the term first applied to King
Charles I of England
Charles I of England in
1639. It continued to be used during the
English Civil War. A nation's head of state (monarchical or
republican) usually holds the nominal position of commander-in-chief,
even if effective executive power is held by a separate head of
government. In a parliamentary system, the executive branch is
ultimately dependent upon the will of the legislature; although the
legislature does not issue orders directly to the armed forces and
therefore does not control the military in any operational sense.
Governors-general and colonial governors are also often appointed
commander-in-chief of the military forces within their territory.
A commander-in-chief is sometimes referred to as supreme commander,
which is sometimes used as a specific term. The term is also used for
military officers who hold such power and authority, not always
through dictatorship, and as a subordinate (usually) to a head of
state (see Generalissimo). The term is also used for officers who hold
authority over an individual military branch, special branch or within
a theatre of operations.
Heads of state as commanders-in-chief
This includes heads of states who:
Are chief executives with the political mandate to undertake
discretionary decision-making, including command of the armed forces.
Mostly ceremonial heads of state (constitutional monarchs, viceroys
and presidents in parliamentary republics) with residual substantive
reserve powers over the armed forces, acting under normal
circumstances on the constitutional advice of chief executives with
the political mandate to undertake discretionary decision-making.
According to the Constitution of Afghanistan, the President of
Afghanistan is the commander-in-chief of Afghan Armed Forces.
According to the Constitution of Albania, the President of the
Republic of Albania is the commander-in-chief of Albanian Armed
Forces. The incumbent commander-in-chief is President Ilir Meta.
Mauricio Macri of Argentina, as the commander-in-chief of
Argentine Armed Forces
Argentine Armed Forces since December 10th 2015.
Under part II, chapter III, article 99, subsections 12, 13, 14 and 15,
the Constitution of
Argentina states that the President of the
Argentine Nation is the "
Commander-in-chief of all the armed forces of
the Nation". It also states that the president is entitled to provide
military posts in the granting of the jobs or grades of senior
officers of the armed forces, and by itself on the battlefield; runs
with its organization and distribution according to needs of the
Nation and declares war and orders reprisals with the consent and
approval of the Argentine National Congress.
The Ministry of Defense is the government department that assists and
serves the president in the management of the armed forces (Army, Navy
and Air Force).
Being the head of state, the
President of Armenia
President of Armenia holds the title of
Commander in Chief of the
Armenian Armed Forces
Armenian Armed Forces (Armenian:
Հայաստանի Զինված ուժերի գերագույն
հրամանատար). Despite this, all administrative and
operational power over the military is vested in the Prime Minister of
Armenia, who is the country's de facto representative under the 2015
constitution. The hereditary title and rank of Sparapet'
(Armenian: սպարապետ) was a used to describe the supreme
commander of the military forces of ancient and medieval Armenia.
Since it's introduction in the 2nd century BC, it is often used today
to describe famous and high ranking military officials. Notable
Armenians to have held the title include Garegin Nzhdeh, the supreme
commander of the Republic of Mountainous Armenia. and
Vazgen Sargsyan, the two time Defense Minister of
Armenia and Prime
Minister in the 1990s.
General of Australia The Lord Gowrie (right) signing the
declaration of war against
Japan with Prime Minister John Curtin
(left) looking on. (8 December 1941)
Under chapter II of section 68 titled Command of the naval and
military forces, the
Constitution of Australia
Constitution of Australia states that:
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command in chief of the naval and military forces of the Commonwealth
is vested in the Governor
General as the Queen's
In practice, however, the Governor-
General does not play an active
part in the Australian Defence Force's command structure, and the
democratically accountable Australian Cabinet (chaired by the Prime
Minister) de facto controls the ADF. The Minister for Defence and
several subordinate ministers exercise this control through the
Australian Defence Organisation. Section 8 of the Defence Act 1903
states:The Minister shall have the general control and administration
of the Defence Force, and the powers vested in the Chief of the
Defence Force, the Chief of Navy, the Chief of Army and the Chief of
Air Force by virtue of section 9, and the powers vested jointly in the
Secretary and the Chief of the Defence Force by virtue of section 9A,
shall be exercised subject to and in accordance with any directions of
Main article: President of Austria § Commander-in-chief
The commander-in-chief is the president, although executive power and
responsibility for national defense resides with the prime minister.
The only exception was the first commander-in-chief,
General M. A. G.
Bangladesh Liberation War
Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971, who was commander of
all Bangladesh Forces, reinstated to active duty by official BD
government order, which after independence was gazetted in 1972. He
retired on 7 April 1972 and relinquished all authority and duties to
the President of Bangladesh.
Former President Lula, with his wife Marisa Letícia, reviews troops
during Independence Day military parade in Brasília, Brazil.
Article 142 of the
Brazilian Constitution of 1988 states that the
Brazilian Armed Forces
Brazilian Armed Forces is under the supreme command of the President
of the Republic.
Alexander Lukashenko wearing the official uniform of the
Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of Belarus.
President of Belarus
President of Belarus is the Commander-in-Chief of the Belarusian
Armed Forces (Belarusian: Галоўнакамандуючы
Узброенымі Сіламі Рэспублікі
Беларусь). Unlike other former Soviet republics,
the Belarusian commander in chief has an official uniform befitting of
the rank, which the president wears on official occasion and
ceremonies in relation to the military. The role of commander in chief
is laid out in Article 28 of the Constitution of Belarus, which states
that he/she has the authority to "appoint and dismiss the high command
of the Armed Forces".
Sultan of Brunei
Sultan of Brunei is the Commander-in-Chief of the Royal Brunei
Further information: Commander-in-Chief of the Canadian Armed Forces
The powers of command-in-chief over the
Canadian Armed Forces
Canadian Armed Forces are
vested in the Canadian monarch, and are delegated to the
General of Canada, who also uses the title
Commander-in-Chief. In this capacity, the governor general
is entitled to the uniform of a general/flag officer, with the crest
of the office and special cuff braid serving as rank insignia.
By constitutional convention, the Crown's prerogative powers over the
armed forces and constitutional powers as commander-in-chief are
exercised on the advice of the prime minister and the rest of Cabinet,
the governing ministry that commands the confidence of the House of
Commons. According to the National Defence Act, the Minister of
National Defence is responsible and accountable to parliament for all
matters related to national defence and the Canadian Armed
Forces. In theory, the governor general could also use his
or her powers as commander-in-chief to stop any attempts to use the
Canadian Forces unconstitutionally, though this has never occurred and
would likely be highly controversial.
People's Republic of China
Main article: Supreme Military Command of the People's Republic of
Article 93 of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China
states the authority to direct the Central Military Commission of the
Communist Party of China and the Central Military Commission of the
Republic of China
Republic of China is vested with the Central Military
Commission; composed of a Chairman, and numerous Vice-Chairmen and
members. The same article also states that the Chairman of the Central
Military Commission assumes overall responsibility for the work of the
Central Military Commission, and that it is responsible to the
National People's Congress
National People's Congress and the Standing Committee.
Furthermore, Article 80 gives the President of the People's Republic
of China (in addition to ceremonial head of state duties) the power to
proclaim martial law, proclaim a state of war, and to issue
mobilisation orders upon the decision of National People's Congress
and its Standing Committee.
The CMC Chairman and the President are distinctly separate state
offices and they have not always been held by the same persons.
However, beginning in 1993, during the tenure of
Jiang Zemin as CMC
General Secretary of the Communist Party, it has been
standard practice to have the President, the Chairman of the Central
Military Commission, and the
General Secretary of the Communist Party
to be normally held by the same person; although the slight
differences in the start and end of terms for those respective offices
means that there is some overlap between an occupant and his
Hong Kong was under British authority, the civilian Governor was
ex officio Commander-in-Chief of the British Forces Overseas Hong
Kong. After the territory's handover to the People's Republic of China
in 1997, the commanders of the People's Liberation Army Hong Kong
Garrison are PLA personnel from mainland China.
According to the Croatian constitution, the
President of Croatia
President of Croatia is
the Commander-in-Chief of Armed Forces of the Republic of Croatia. In
peace, the commander-in-chief exercises his command through the
Minister of Defense. In war and in cases where the Minister of Defense
is not fulfilling orders, the commander-in-chief exercises his command
directly through the chief of
According to the 1992 constitution, the President of the Czech
Republic is the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces according to
Article 63(1)(c), and appoints and promotes generals under Article
63(1)(f). The President needs the countersignature of the Prime
Minister for decisions concerning the above-mentioned provisions as
per Articles 63(3-4), or otherwise they are not valid. The Prime
Minister may delegate to other ministers the right to countersign
these decisions of the President. The political responsibility for the
Armed Forces is borne by the Government, which in Article 67 is
defined as the "supreme body of executive power". According to
Articles 39 & 43, the Parliament must give consent to the dispatch
of Czech military forces outside the territory of the Czech
The Ministry of Defence is the central authority of the state
administration for the control of the Armed Forces. The
actual day-to-day management is vested in the Chief of the General
Staff, the Czech chief of defence equivalent.
The position of the Danish monarch as the head of the military is
deeply rooted in tradition. While the 1953 constitution does not
explicitly designate the monarch as commander-in-chief; it is
implicit, given the general provision in article 12 and the more
specific wording of article 19 (2): "Except for purposes of defence
against an armed attack upon the Realm or Danish forces, the King
shall not use military force against any foreign state without the
consent of the Folketing. Any measure which the King may take in
pursuance of this provision shall forthwith be submitted to the
However, when reading the Danish Constitution, it is important to bear
in mind that the King in this context is understood by Danish jurists
to be read as the Government (consisting of the Prime Minister and
other ministers). This is a logical consequence of articles 12, 13 and
14, all of which in essence stipulates that the powers vested in the
monarch can only be exercised through ministers, who are responsible
for all acts. Thus, the Government, in effect, holds the supreme
command authority implied in articles 12 and 19(2).
Danish Defence Law (Danish: Forsvarsloven) designates in article 9
Minister of Defence as the supreme authority in Defence (Danish:
højeste ansvarlige myndighed for forsvaret). Under the Minister is
the Chief of Defence, the senior-ranking professional military officer
heading the Defence Command, who commands the Army, the Navy, the Air
Force and other units not reporting directly to the Ministry of
King Christian IV onboard his flagship during the 1644 Battle of
Colberger Heide, by Wilhelm Marstrand. The King's personal commitment
during the battle, are memorized in first lines of the Danish royal
HDMY Dannebrog, the Danish royal yacht named after the national flag
and operated by the Royal Danish Navy, in Vagur,
Faroe Islands on 21
According to the Constitution, Article 128, Section II, Title IV, the
President is the head of foreign policy, the civil administration and
the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, the National Police and
all other state's security agencies.
In Egypt, the President of the Republic holds the ceremonial title of
Commander of the Armed Forces. A member of the government,
usually defence minister, is commander-in-chief of the Egyptian Armed
Forces, the incumbent being Sedki Sobhi. The president still remains
the only individual capable of declaring war. Until the election of
Mohamed Morsi in June 2012, prior Egyptian presidents had all been
former military officers, and during the
Yom Kippur War
Yom Kippur War the president
played a major role at all levels of the planning of the war, and was
in a literal sense Supreme
Commander of the Armed Forces giving direct
orders to the commanders from the headquarters during the war as field
marshal of the army, marshal of the air force and air defence forces
and admiral of the navy.
Anwar Sadat often wore his military uniform,
while former president
Hosni Mubarak had abandoned this tradition.
King of Swaziland
King of Swaziland is
Commander in Chief of the Umbutfo Eswatini
According to the Finnish constitution, the
President of Finland
President of Finland is the
commander-in-chief of all Finnish military forces. In practice, the
everyday command and control is in the hands of
Chief of Defence
Chief of Defence and
Commander of the Finnish Border Guard. The economic administration
Finnish Defence Force
Finnish Defence Force is the responsibility of Ministry of
Defence. The duty of the president is to decide upon:§31
main principles of the military defence of the realm
principles of the execution of the military defence
other military command matters with wide-ranging importance to the
military activity or the military establishment
any other military command issue that he wishes to decide upon
Since the constitutional reform of 2000, the
Minister of Defence has
the right to be present when the president uses his command powers,
unless the matter is of immediate concern. In questions of strategic
importance, the Prime Minister has the same right.:§32
The president commissions and promotes officers and decides on
activating reservists for extraordinary service and on the
mobilisation of the Defence
Forces.:§40:§ 128.2 If
Parliament is not in session when a decision to mobilise is taken, it
must be immediately convened.:§ 129 Declarations of a
state of emergency (Finnish: valmiustila, literally, "state of
preparedness") and state of war (Finnish: puolustustila, lit. "state
of defence") are declared by a presidential decree, given after a
motion by the government, which is then submitted to the Parliament
The president has, in a state of emergency, the right to transfer the
position of the commander-in-chief to another Finnish
Main article: Chief of the Armed Forces (France)
In France, the President of the Republic is designated as "Chef des
Armées" (literally "Chief of the Armies") under article 15 of the
constitution, and is as such the supreme executive authority in
military affairs. Article 16 provides the president with extensive
However, owing to the nature of the semi-presidential system, the
prime minister also has key constitutional powers under article 21:
"He shall be responsible for national defence" and has "power to make
regulations and shall make appointments to civil and military
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Nicolas Sarkozy, President of the Republic and
Georgelin, Chief of the Defence Staff, reviewing troops during the
Bastille Day military parade
Bastille Day military parade on the
Champs-Élysées in Paris.
Napoléon I, Emperor of the French, reviewing the Imperial Guard at
Battle of Jena-Auerstedt
Battle of Jena-Auerstedt in 1806, by Horace Vernet.
Since the reign of Louis XIV,
France has been strongly centralized.
After crushing local nobles engaged in warlord-ism, the Kings of
France retained all authority with the help of able yet discreet Prime
ministers (Mazarin, Richelieu).
The 1789 Revolution transferred the supreme authority to the King (in
the context of the short-lived constitutional Monarchy), then to the
multi-member Comité de Salut Public during the Convention, and later
to the Directoire, before being regained in the hands of Consul
Napoléon Bonaparte, later Emperor Napoléon I, alone.
The Restoration restored the authority of the King, first in an
absolute monarchy, then the constitutional
July Monarchy of Louis
Philippe, before it was overthrown in turn by the Second Republic and
later the Second Empire of Napoleon III.
The following Third Republic was a parliamentary system, where the
military authority was held by the President of the Council of
Ministers. During World War I, the many visits to the trenches by the
Georges Clemenceau impressed the soldiers and earned
him the nickname Father of Victory (French: Le Père de la Victoire).
During World War II, Maréchal
Philippe Pétain assumed power and held
the supreme authority in Vichy France, while Général Charles De
Gaulle, acting on behalf of the previous regime, founded the Free
French Forces, upon which he held supreme authority all through the
The following and short-lived Fourth Republic was a parliamentary
system, which was replaced by the present Fifth Republic, a
Commander-in-chief of the
Ghana Armed Forces
Ghana Armed Forces (GAF) military
rank was held by GAF military personnel until the ratification of the
Constitution of Ghana
Constitution of Ghana ratified by Ghana Air Force (GHF) Flight
Jerry Rawlings and in accordance to the Constitution of
Head of State of Ghana
Head of State of Ghana and
President of Ghana
President of Ghana is the
Commander-in-chief of GAF. The incumbent
Commander-in-chief of GAF
(Ghana Armed Forces) is
Head of State of Ghana
Head of State of Ghana and President of Ghana
John Dramani Mahama.
According to the Guyanese constitution, the President is
Chief of the Armed Forces. Unusually; there is a rank insignia for the
Supreme command of the
Indian Armed Forces
Indian Armed Forces is vested in the President
of India, although effective executive power and responsibility for
national defence resides with the
Cabinet of India headed by the Prime
Minister. This is discharged through the Ministry of Defence, headed
by the Minister of Defence, which provides the policy framework and
resources to the Armed Forces to discharge their responsibilities in
the context of the defence of the country.
On 15 August 1947, each service was placed under its own
commander-in-chief. In 1955, the three service chiefs were
re-designated as the Chief of the Army Staff (rank of general), the
Chief of the Naval Staff (rank of vice-admiral) and the Chief of the
Air Staff (rank of air marshal) with the president as the supreme
commander. The Chief of the Air Staff was raised to the rank of air
chief marshal in 1965 and the Chief of the Naval Staff raised to the
rank of admiral in 1968.
According to Article 10 of the Constitution of Indonesia, the
President of Indonesia
President of Indonesia holds the supreme command of the Indonesian
National Armed Forces. Day-to-day operations of the Armed Forces is
handled by the commander of the Armed Forces (Indonesian: Panglima
TNI, a 4-star officer whom can be
General (Army/Marine), Admiral
Air Chief Marshal
Air Chief Marshal (Air Force)).
Indonesian Armed Forces has three service branches: Indonesian Army,
Indonesian Navy (including Indonesian Marine Corps), and Indonesian
Air Forces. Each service branch is headed by a Chief of Staff (also a
4-star officer) who has the task of developing soldier professionalism
in each branch. However, the commanding authority is held by Commander
of Indonesian National Armed Forces. Commanders have direct commanding
authority to Main Combatants Command (Indonesian: Komando Utama
Tempur) from all service branches such as Army
Special Forces Command,
Army Strategic Reserve Command, Military Area Command, Fleet Command,
Military Sea Traffic Command, National Air Defense Command and
Air-Force Operational Command. The
Commander of the Armed Forces is
appointed by the president from active Chiefs of Staff (Army, Navy, or
Air Force) and must get approval from the House of Representatives.
Chief of Staff is also appointed by the president from senior military
officers. The president as commander-in-chief also has authority in
senior military officer mutation and promotion in tour of duty.
Minister of Defense has responsibility to assist the president in
defense issues and create policies about authorization use of military
force, manage defense budget, etc. For authorization use of military
forces or declaration of war, the president must get approval from
House of Representatives. The
Commander of Armed Forces gives
recommendations to the Minister of Defense in creating national
Main article: Commander-in-Chief of the Iranian Armed Forces
Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei, the commander-in-chief of the Iranian
Before 1979, the
Shah was the commander-in-chief in Iran. After the
inception of the Islamic Republic, the
President of Iran
President of Iran was initially
appointed that task, with
Abolhassan Bani Sadr
Abolhassan Bani Sadr being the first
Abolhassan Bani Sadr
Abolhassan Bani Sadr was impeached on 22
June 1981. It was after this event that the role of commander-in-chief
Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran
Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran was given to the
Supreme Leader of Iran.
Commander of the Defence Forces is the President of
Ireland, but in practice the Minister for Defence acts on
the President's behalf and reports to the Government of
Ireland. The Minister for Defence is advised by the
Council of Defence on the business of the Department of
Defence. The Defence Forces are organised under the Chief
of Staff, a three star officer, and are organised into three service
branches, the Army, Naval Service, and Air Corps.
The Constitution of Italy, in article 87, states that the President of
"is the commander of the armed forces and chairman of the supreme
defense council constituted by law; he declares war according to the
decision of the parliament".
Chapter 131 of the
Constitution of Kenya
Constitution of Kenya identifies the President as
the Commander-in-Chief of the
Kenya Defence Forces
Kenya Defence Forces and the chairperson
of the National Security Council. The President appoints a
chief of general staff, known as the Chief of the Kenya Defence
Forces, who acts as the principal military adviser to the President
and the National Security Council. The Chief of the Kenya Defence
Forces is drawn from one of the branches of the Armed Forces, the
Kenya Army, the
Kenya Navy or the Kenya Air Force.
In accordance with Article 42 of the Constitution of Latvia, the
President of Latvia
President of Latvia is Commander-in-Chief of the Latvian National
Armed Forces. Being a civilian, in times of war, he or she may appoint
a chief military commander.
In accordance with Article 41 of the Federal Constitution of Malaysia,
Yang di-Pertuan Agong
Yang di-Pertuan Agong is Supreme
Commander of the Malaysian Armed
Forces. As such, he is the highest-ranking officer in the military
establishment, with the power to appoint the Chief of Staff (on the
advice of the Armed Forces Council). He also appoints the service
heads of each of the three branches of the military.
The Federal Constitution establishes that the office of Supreme
Commander is attached to the person of the
Yang di-Pertuan Agong
Yang di-Pertuan Agong as
the Federation's head of state:
Federal Constitution, Article 41 - The
Yang di-Pertuan Agong
Yang di-Pertuan Agong shall be
Commander of the Armed Forces of the Federation.
The Federal Parliament passed the Federal Armed Forces Act to
consolidate in one law all regulations that govern the three services
( Army, Navy, and Air Force ). It establishes the function and duties
of the Federal Head of State in the capacity as Supreme Commander.
In the Republic of Mauritius, the President of the Republic is the
commander-in-chief, according to Article 28 of the
After independence in 1968,
Mauritius continued to recognise the Queen
of Mauritius, as represented by the Governor-
General of Mauritius, as
commander-in-chief. After the country was proclaimed a Commonwealth
Republic in 1992, the new constitution stipulated that a President
would assume the position of the head of state and commander-in-chief.
In accordance with the Nigerian Constitution, the President of Nigeria
is the commander-in-chief of the Nigerian Armed Forces.
Harald V, King of Norway, officially retains executive power. Article
25 of the constitution states: "The King is commander-in-chief of the
armed forces of the realm"
However, following the introduction of a parliamentary system of
government, the duties of the Monarch have since become strictly
representative and ceremonial, such as the formal appointment and
dismissal of the Prime Minister and other ministers in the executive
government. Accordingly, the Monarch is commander-in-chief of the
Norwegian Armed Forces, and serves as chief diplomatic official abroad
and as a symbol of unity.
In the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, before the 1973 Constitution, the
head of the armed forces, i.e., the Chief of the Army Staff, was
referred as "Commander-in-Chief".:105 The term was
replaced by "Chief of Staff" on 20 March 1972:62 The Chief
of Staff is a four-star officer whose term is 3 years, but can be
extended or renewed once. The Chief of Army/Air/Naval Staff is chosen
by the Prime Minister of Pakistan.
President of the Philippines
President of the Philippines is both head of state and head of
government, and is mandated by Article VII, Section 18 of the 1987
Constitution to be Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces.
During the Fourth Republic, the 1973 Constitution introduced by
Ferdinand Marcos created a parliamentary system that split the
Executive into two, with the prime minister retaining the office of
commander-in-chief and the president reduced to a mere figurehead. The
wording of Article VII, Section 9 in the previous constitution enabled
Marcos as commander-in-chief to declare Martial Law and suspend the
writ of habeas corpus on 21 September 1972. Marcos also issued an
edict, conferring the rank of five-star general in the military to the
President, as Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. He consequently
sat as both president and prime minister until 1981, when martial law
was lifted and
Cesar Virata succeeded him to the latter office and
amendments were made to the 1973 Constitution to turn it into a strong
president semi-presidential system in which the office of
commander-in-chief was officially returned to the President. Salvador
Laurel was the country's last prime minister when the office was
abolished after the 1986 People Power Revolution, and the position's
powers were again merged with the Presidency.
The current Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines
is President Rodrigo Duterte, serving as the supreme commander of all
Filipino military units in the Philippines.
In Poland, the President is Commander-in-Chief of the Polish Armed
Forces. However, the art. 134 ust. 4 of the constitution states: The
President of the Republic, for a period of war, shall appoint the
Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces on request of the Prime
Minister. He may dismiss the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces in
accordance with the same procedure. The authority of the
Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, as well as the principle of
his subordination to the constitutional organs of the Republic of
Poland, shall be specified by statute.
During the interbellum period, the
General Inspector of the Armed
Forces was appointed the commander-in-chief for the time of war
Commander of the Armed Forces). However, after the war this
function ceased to exist—thus it is likely that if Poland formally
participates in a war, Chief of the
General Staff of the Polish Armed
Forces will be appointed Supreme Commander.
President of the Portuguese Republic
President of the Portuguese Republic is the constitutional Supreme
Commander of the Armed Forces (in Portuguese: Comandante Supremo das
Forças Armadas). However, the operational command is delegated in the
Chief of the
General Staff of the Armed Forces.
In the Portuguese military parlance, the term "Commander-in-Chief" (in
Portuguese: comandante-em-chefe or simply comandante-chefe) refers to
the unified military commander of all the land, naval and air forces
in a theater of operations.
Republic of China
As stipulated in the Constitution of the Republic of China, the
President is also the Commander-in-Chief of the ROC Armed Forces
(including the Military Police), the
Special Forces, and the National
Main article: Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Armed Forces
The ceremony of passing the
Cheget (i.e. the nuclear briefcase) from
Dmitry Medvedev's military aide to Vladimir Putin's military aide
during the 2012 presidential inauguration.
According to the Constitution of the Russian Federation, (Chapter 4,
Article 87, Section 1) the President is the Supreme Commander-in-Chief
of the Armed Forces. The President approves the military
doctrine and appoints the defense minister and the chief and other
members of the general staff.
Russian Armed Forces
Russian Armed Forces is divided into three services: the Russian
Ground Forces, the Russian Navy, and the Russian Air Force. In
addition there are three independent arms of service: Strategic
Missile Troops, Russian Aerospace Defense Forces, and the Russian
Airborne Troops. The Air Defence Troops, the former Soviet Air Defence
Forces, have been subordinated into the Air Force since 1998.
According to the Constitution of Rwanda, The
President of Rwanda
President of Rwanda is
Commander-in-chief of Rwanda Defence Forces.
Article 60 of the
Basic Law of Saudi Arabia
Basic Law of Saudi Arabia states: "The King is the
commander-in-chief of all the armed forces. He appoints officers and
puts an end to their duties in accordance with the law."
Article 61 further states: "The King declares a state of emergency,
general mobilization and war, and the law defines the rules for this."
Lastly, Article 62 states: "If there is a danger threatening the
safety of the Kingdom or its territorial integrity, or the security of
its people and its interests, or which impedes the functioning of the
state institutions, the King may take urgent measures in order to deal
with this danger And if the King considers that these measures should
continue, he may then implement the necessary regulations to this
In accordance with the law, the
President of Serbia
President of Serbia is
Commander-in-chief of Armed Forces and in command of the military. He
appoints, promotes and recalls officers of the Army of
In Slovenia, the commander-in-chief is formally the President of
Slovenia, although he or she does not exercise this position in
peacetime. Instead, this role is usually assumed by the Minister of
Chapter 11, section 202(1) of the
Constitution of South Africa
Constitution of South Africa states
President of South Africa
President of South Africa is the Commander-in-Chief of the
South African National Defence Force. The constitution places
conditions on when and how that power may be employed and requires
regular reports to the Parliament of South Africa.
Current President of
South Korea President Moon Jae-in
In accordance with the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, the
commander-in-chief is the President of South Korea.
King Felipe VI in uniform of
General of the Navy at the
Naval NCO Academy in 2014.
As with most remaining European monarchies, the position of the
Spanish monarch as the nominal head of the armed forces is deeply
rooted in traditions going centuries back.
Spanish Constitution of 1978
Spanish Constitution of 1978 gives the King in article 62 (h):
supreme command of the Armed Forces
However, article 64 require that all official acts of the King must be
countersigned, by the President of the Government or other competent
minister, for them to become valid. Furthermore, article 97 stipulates
that; The Government shall conduct domestic and foreign policy, civil
and military administration and the defence of the State
And article 98 furthermore specifies the composition of the
Government (which the King is not a member of). No provision in the
constitution requires the King/Government to seek approval from the
Cortes Generales before sending the armed forces abroad.
Since 1984, the Chief of the Defence Staff is the professional head of
the armed forces and, under the authority of the Minister of Defence,
is responsible for military operations and military organisation.
As head of state, the President of Sri Lanka, is nominally the
commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The National Security Council,
chaired by the president is the authority charged with formulating and
executing defence policy for the nation. The highest level of military
headquarters is the Ministry of Defence, since 1978 except for a few
rare occasions the president retained the portfolio defence, thus
being the Minister of Defence. The ministry and the armed forces have
been controlled by the during these periods by either a Minister of
Deputy Minister for defence, and of recently the Permanent
Secretary to the Ministry of Defence. Prior to 1978 the prime minister
held the portfolio of
Minister of Defence and External Affairs, and
was supported by a
Parliamentary Secretary for Defence and External
Responsibility for the management of the forces is Ministry of
Defence, while the planning and execution of combined operations is
the responsibility of the Joint Operations Command (JOC). The JOC is
headed by the Chief of the Defence Staff who is the most senior
officer in the Armed Forces and is an appointment that can be held by
an Air Chief Marshal, Admiral, or General. The three services have
their own respective professional chiefs: the
Commander of the Army,
Commander of the Navy and the
Commander of the Air Force, who have
In Suriname, the constitution gives the president "supreme authority
over the armed forces and all of its members".
See also: Head of the Royal Thai Armed Forces
The "Head of the Thai Armed Forces" (Thai:
จอมทัพไทย; RTGS: Chom Thap Thai) is a position
vested in the Thai monarch, most recently held by King Bhumibol
Adulyadej until his death in October 2016, who as sovereign and head
of state is the commander-in-chief of the Royal Thai Armed
Founder President of Turkey and
Commander-in-chief of Turkish Armed
Forces Mareşal Mustafa Kemal Pasha (center),
General Mehmet Emin
General Ali Sait Pasha (right) at İnebolu in 1925.
President of the Republic of Turkey
President of the Republic of Turkey has the constitutional right to
represent the Supreme Military Command of the Turkish Armed Forces, on
behalf of the Turkish Grand National Assembly, and to decide on the
mobilization of the Turkish Armed Forces, to appoint the Chief of the
General Staff, to call the National Security Council to meet, to
preside over the National Security Council, to proclaim martial law or
state of emergency, and to issue decrees having the force of law, upon
a decision of the Council of Ministers meeting under his/her
chairmanship. With all these issues above written in the Constitution
of Turkey, the executive rights are given to the President of the
Republic of Turkey to be represented as the commander-in-chief of the
Commander-in-chief of the British Armed Forces
The British monarch is the "Head of the Armed Forces" and
has also been described as "Commander-In-Chief of the Armed Forces of
the Crown". Long-standing constitutional convention,
however, has vested de facto executive authority, by the exercise of
Royal Prerogative powers, in the Prime Minister and the Secretary of
State for Defence. The Prime Minister (acting with the support of the
Cabinet) makes the key decisions on the use of the armed
forces. The Queen, however, remains the
"ultimate authority" of the military, with officers and personnel
swearing allegiance only to the monarch.
Main article: Powers of the president of the United States
According to Article II, Section 2, Clause I of the Constitution, the
president of the United States is “
Commander in Chief of the Army
and Navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several
States, when called into the actual Service of the United
Since the National Security Act of 1947, this has been understood to
mean all United States Armed Forces.
U.S. ranks have their roots in British military traditions, with the
president possessing ultimate authority, but no rank, maintaining a
The exact degree of authority that the Constitution grants to the
president as commander-in-chief has been the subject of much debate
throughout history, with Congress at various times granting the
President wide authority and at others attempting to restrict that
In U.S. states, the governor also serves as the commander-in-chief of
the National Guard, State Militia, and State Defense Forces. In the
Commonwealth of Kentucky, for example, KRS 37.180 states:
The Governor shall be commander in chief of the Kentucky active
militia, and the adjutant general shall be the executive officer and
shall be responsible to the Governor for the proper functioning of the
Kentucky active militia, and he is hereby authorized and empowered to
take necessary action to perfect and maintain an efficient
organization for the purposes herein set out. He shall have charge of
all matters of administration and organization, which shall be in all
respects, insofar as necessary and applicable, the same as that of the
Similarly, Section 7 of Article 5 of the Constitution of
State of California
State of California states:
The Governor is commander in chief of a militia that shall be provided
by statute. The Governor may call it forth to execute the law.
The Uzbek President holds the constitutional position of Supreme
Commander of the Armed Forces of Uzbekistan, according to the
Constitution of Uzbekistan. In this capacity, he/she gives decisions
on declaring war or martial law, the appointment of senior officials,
and the development of the armed forces. In the event of an attack on
the republic, the president announce a state of war and will submit
within 72 hours a resolution for a plan of action to the Oliy Majlis.
When the country is in a wartime situation, the Minister of Defense
will serve in an official capacity as the Deputy Supreme
Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces, essentially assisting the
president in his day-to-day activities and decisions regarding
According to the Venezuelan constitution, the President is Commander
in chief of the Armed Forces. The office of the Venezuelan military
supreme commander in chief has always been held by the President of
Venezuela as per constitutional requirements. However, with a new law
sanctioned in 2008, the "Comandante en Jefe" rank is not only a
function attributed to the executive branch but a full military rank
given to the president upon taking office. Upon assumption he receives
a saber, epaulette, shoulder knot, shoulder board and sleeve insignia
and full military uniform to be used in military events while
performing the duties as president. The shoulder insignia mirrors
Cuban practice but is derived from the German-styled officer rank
The commander-in-chief of the armed forces is the President of
Vietnam, through his post as Chairman of National Defense and Security
Council. Though this position is nominal and real power is assumed by
the Central Military Commission of the Communist Party of Vietnam. The
Secretary of Central Military Commission (usually the General
Secretary of the Communist Party of Vietnam) is the de facto
Minister of Defence oversees operations of the Ministry of
Defence, and the Vietnam People's Army. He also oversees such agencies
General Staff and the
General Logistics Department. However,
military policy is ultimately directed by the Central Military
Commission of the ruling Communist Party of Vietnam.
Other officeholders as commanders-in-chief or other situations
The 1995 Constitution designates the
Prime Minister of Ethiopia
Prime Minister of Ethiopia as
"Commander-in-Chief of the national armed forces" in Article
Present, Federal Republic (1956-)
New recruits standing in front of the Reichstag building, before
Bundeswehr oath. Due to its infamous history of the 20th
century, and before Prussian militarism; Germany of today puts a
strong emphasis on having armed forces compatible with a parliamentary
Upon the re-militarization of
West Germany in 1955, when it joined
Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany
Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany was amended in
1956 to include constitutional provisions for the command of the armed
In peacetime, under Article 65a, the Federal Minister of Defence
(German: Bundesminister der Verteidigung) holds the supreme command
authority (German: Inhaber der Befehls- und Kommandogewalt - IBuK)
over the Bundeswehr.
Bundestag declares the state of defence (German:
Verteidigungsfall), the Federal Chancellor, under Article 115b,
assumes the command authority over the armed forces. As of
2018[update], this has never happened.
President of Germany
President of Germany has thus no role in the command of the
forces, although he continues to receive the ceremonial honors due to
his position as a head of state.
Werner von Blomberg
Werner von Blomberg (left) saluting
Adolf Hitler (right) with a
baton at the 1937 Nuremberg Rally.
The rationale for placing the command authority over the armed forces
directly with the responsible minister in charge of the military
establishment, and thus breaking with the longstanding German
constitutional tradition in both earlier monarchical and republican
systems of placing it with the head of state, was that in a democratic
parliamentary system the command authority should directly reside
where it would be exercised and where it is subject to the
parliamentary control of the
Bundestag at all times. By assigning it
directly to the responsible minister, instead of with the Federal
Chancellor, this also meant that military affairs is but one of the
many integrated responsibilities of the government; in stark contrast
of earlier times when the separate division of the military
establishment from the civil administration allowed the former to act
as a state within a state (in contrast to the Federal Republic, the
Weimar Republic began with the Ebert–Groener pact, which kept the
military establishment as an autonomous force outside the control of
politics; the 1925 election of
Paul von Hindenburg
Paul von Hindenburg as Reichpräsident,
surrounded by his camarilla and the machinations of Kurt von
Schleicher, did little to reverse the trend).
East Germany (1960-1990)
The legislature of the
German Democratic Republic
German Democratic Republic (GDR), the
Volkskammer, enacted on 13 February 1960 the Law on the Formation of
the National Defense Council of the GDR, which established a council
consisting of a chairman and at least 12 members. This was later
incorporated into the GDR Constitution in April 1968. The National
Defense Council held the supreme command of the National People's Army
(including the internal security forces), and the Council's chairman
General Secretary of the ruling Socialist Unity Party)
was considered the GDR's commander-in-chief.
The GDR joined with the
Federal Republic of Germany
Federal Republic of Germany on 3 October 1990,
upon which the GDR's constitution and armed forces were abolished.
During the Kingdom of Prussia, German Empire,
Weimar Republic and the
Nazi era, whoever was the head of state—the King of Prussia/German
Emperor (under the Constitution of the Kingdom of Prussia/Constitution
of the German Empire) to 1918, the Reichspräsident (under the Weimar
Constitution) to 1934, and the
Führer from 1934 to 1945—was the
Head of the Armed Forces (German: Oberbefehlshaber: literally "Supreme
Below the level of the Head of State, each military branch (German:
Teilstreitkraft) had its own head who reported directly to the Head of
State and held the highest rank in his service; in the
Generalfeldmarschall, and in the
Reichsmarine - Grossadmiral.
Adolf Hitler assumed power as Führer
(after the death of President Paul von Hindenburg), he would later
grant his war minister,
Generalfeldmarschall Werner von Blomberg, the
title of Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces in 1935, when
conscription was reintroduced. However, in 1938 due to the
Blomberg–Fritsch Affair, Hitler withdrew the Commander-in-Chief
title, abolished the war ministerial post and assumed personal command
of the Armed Forces. The war ministerial post was de facto overtaken
by the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht, which was headed by
Wilhelm Keitel until the German surrender.
According to Article 45 of the Greek Constitution, the President is
the Head of the Greek Armed Forces, but their administration is
exercised by the Government. The Prime Minister, the
Minister for National Defence and the Chief of the
General Staff are
the ones who command the Armed Forces.
In Israel, the applicable basic law states that the ultimate authority
Israel Defense Forces rests with the Government of Israel
(chaired by the Prime Minister) as a collective body. The authority of
the Government is exercised by the Minister of Defense on behalf of
the Government. However, the Commander-in-Chief of the IDF is the
General Staff who, despite being subordinate to the Minister
of Defense, holds the highest level of command within the
In Japan, prior to the
Meiji Restoration the role of the
commander-in-chief was vested in the shōgun (the most militarily
powerful samurai daimyō). After the dissolution of the Tokugawa
shogunate the role of the commander-in-chief, resided with the Emperor
of Japan. The present-day constitutional role of the Emperor is that
of a ceremonial figurehead without any military role.
After Japan's move towards democracy, the position of
Commander-in-Chief of the
Japan Self-Defense Forces is held by the
Prime Minister of Japan. Military authority runs from the Prime
Minister to the cabinet-level Minister of Defense of the Japanese
Ministry of Defense.
Malta Armed Forces Act does not directly establish the President
Malta as the Supreme
Commander of the Armed Forces. However,
Maltese law allows the President to raise by voluntary enlistment and
maintain an armed force. Likewise, the law allows the President to
issue orders in order to the administrate the armed forces.
It is important to note that the Armed Forces do not swear allegiance
President of Malta
President of Malta but rather to the Republic of Malta. On this
basis, there is no direct link between the head of state and the armed
forces. For this reason, this link is mediated by the Minister
responsible for defence.
Nonetheless, the Presidential Palaces are guarded by the Armed Forces
as a symbolic gesture of social cohesion.
Myanmar Commander-in Chief, Senior
General Min Aung Hlaing
In Myanmar, the
Commander-in-Chief of Defence Services
Commander-in-Chief of Defence Services (Tatmadaw) is
the commanding officer national military, a position vested in a
military officer, not the President. The commander-in-chief is,
however, a member of the
National Defence and Security Council and
reports to the President and the State Counsellor of Myanmar. The
commander-in-chief is assisted in his/her role by the Deputy
Chief of Defence
Chief of Defence Services.
Royal insignia (Dutch: distinctief) worn by King
Willem-Alexander, instead of a regular military rank, whenever he
wears a Dutch military uniform.
Constitution of the Netherlands
Constitution of the Netherlands states, in article 97, that "the
Government shall have supreme authority over the armed forces".
Article 42 defines the Government as the Monarch and the ministers,
and that only ministers are responsible for acts of government.
Article 45 further defines the ministers as constituting the Cabinet,
chaired by the Prime Minister, with "authority to decide upon overall
Before a constitution change took place in 1983, even though the
equivalent section stated that: "The King shall have supreme authority
over the armed forces"; that did not give the monarch any autonomous
Minister of Defence has the primary ministerial responsibility for
the armed forces, which are formally a part of the Ministry of
Chief of Defence
Chief of Defence is the highest ranked
professional military officer, and serves as an intermediary between
Minister of Defence and the Armed Forces, and is responsible to
the Minister for military-strategic planning, operations and
deployment of the Armed Forces.
Flag of the Supreme Commander
Constitution of North Korea
Constitution of North Korea is ambiguous about which official
really is the country's head of state.
Is it the Eternal President of the Republic, the late Kim Il-sung,
designated as such in the preamble;
is it the President of the Presidium of the Supreme People's Assembly,
who under article 117 of the constitution directs the work of the
Presidium, represents the State, and accredits North Korean diplomats
and receives credentials from foreign diplomats;
or is it the
Chairman of the National Defence Commission
Chairman of the National Defence Commission who in
article 100 is described as the "highest military leading organ of
State power and an organ for general control over national defense of
the Democratic People's Republic of Korea"?
In any case, the North Korean constitution, in article 102, is quite
explicit regarding which official commands the armed forces:
Chairman of the National Defence Commission
Chairman of the National Defence Commission of the Democratic
People's Republic of Korea is the supreme commander of the whole armed
forces of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and commands and
directs all the armed forces of the State.
The Chairman is formally elected by the Supreme People's Assembly
(article 91:5) and serves for terms of office of five
years (articles 101 & 90:1); but in
practice, the office is hereditary within the Kim Dynasty, as the late
Kim Jong-il was posthumously designated as "Eternal Chairman of the
National Defence Commission", while his son, Kim Jong-un, was
appointed as the "First Chairman of the National Defence
The Swedish Monarch (King Carl XVI Gustaf) is no longer the
Commander-in-Chief of the Swedish Armed Forces, although he continues
to receive treatment befitting a head of state.
In Sweden, with the
Ordinance of Alsnö in 1280, nobles were exempted
from land taxation if they provided cavalrymen to the King's service.
Swedish War of Liberation
Swedish War of Liberation (1521–53) from the Kalmar
Union, a Guards
Regiment was formed under the King and from there the
Swedish Army has its roots. During the age of the Swedish
Empire, several kings—Gustavus Adolphus, Charles X, Charles XI &
Charles XII—personally led their forces into battle. Under the
Instrument of Government of 1809, which was in force until the current
Instrument of Government of 1974 went into force on 1 January 1975;
the Monarch was in §§ 14-15 explicitly designated as the
Commander-in-Chief of the
Swedish Armed Forces
Swedish Armed Forces (Swedish: Högste
At present, the Government (Swedish: Regeringen) as a collective body,
chaired and formed by the Prime Minister of Sweden, holds the highest
Executive Authority, subject to the will of the Riksdag; and is thus
the present day closest equivalent of a command-in-chief, although not
explicitly designated as such. The reason for this change
was, apart from the fact that the King was since 1917 no longer
expected to make political decisions without ministerial advice, that
the new Instrument of Government was intended to be made as
descriptive on the workings of the State as possible, and reflective
on how decisions are actually made. Minister of Justice Lennart Geijer
further remarked in the government bill that any continued pretensions
of royal involvement in government decisions would be of a "fictitious
nature" and "highly unsatisfactory".
Certain Government decisions regarding the Armed Forces (Swedish:
Särskilda regeringsbeslut) may be delegated to the Minister for
Defence, under the supervision of the Prime Minister and to the extent
laid down in ordinances.
To add to some confusion to the above, the title of the agency head of
Swedish Armed Forces
Swedish Armed Forces and highest ranked commissioned officer on
active duty, is actually Supreme
Commander of the Swedish Armed Forces
However, the Monarch (as of present King Carl XVI Gustaf), is still a
four-star general and admiral à la suite in the Swedish Army, Navy
and Air Force and is by unwritten convention regarded as the foremost
representative of the Swedish Armed Forces. The King has,
as part of his court, a military staff. The military staff is headed
by a senior officer (usually a general or admiral, retired from active
service) and is composed of active duty military officers serving as
aides to the King and his family.
The epaulet for the wartime-only office and rank of General.
Supreme authority over the military belongs to the Federal Council,
which is the Swiss collegial head of state. Notwithstanding the
previous sentence, under the Constitution, the Federal Council can
only, in the operational sense, command a maximum of 4,000 soldiers,
with a time limit of three weeks of mobilisation. For it
to field more service personnel, the Federal Assembly must elect a
General who is given four stars. Thus, the
General is elected by the Federal Assembly to give him the same
democratic legitimacy as the Federal Council.
In peacetime, the Armed Forces are led by the Chief of the Armed
Forces (Chef der Armee), who reports to the head of the Federal
Department of Defence, Civil Protection and Sports and to the Federal
Council as a whole. The Chief of the Armed Forces has the rank of
Korpskommandant or Commandant de corps (OF-8 in
In a time of declared war or national emergency, however, the Federal
Assembly, assembled as the United Federal Assembly, specifically for
the purpose of taking on the war-time responsibilities elect a General
as commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces under Article 168 of the
Constitution. Whilst the
General acts as the highest military
authority with a high degree of autonomy, he is still subordinate to
the Federal Council (See Articles 58, 60, 174, 177, 180 &
185). The Federal Assembly retains the sole power to
dismiss the General, but the
General remains subordinate to the
Federal Council by the Council's ability to demobilise and hence
making the position of
Four generals were appointed in Swiss history,
General Henri Dufour
during the Swiss Civil War,
Hans Herzog during the
Ulrich Wille during the First World War,
Henri Guisan during the
Second World War
Second World War ("la Mob", "the
Mobilisation"). Although Switzerland remained neutral during the
latter three conflicts, the threat of having its territory used as a
battlefield by the much bigger war parties of Germany and France
required mobilization of the army.
NATO and the European Union, the term
Chief of Defence
Chief of Defence (CHOD)
is usually used as a generic term for the highest-ranked office held
by a professional military officer on active duty, irrespective of
their actual title or powers.
Other Articles of Interest
Civilian control of the military
Command and control
Minister of Defence
State within a state
^ LacusCurtius • Roman Law — Auctor (Smith's Dictionary, 1875)
^ For example: "Ordered, That this House joins and agrees with the
House of Commons in this Vote; and that the Lord
Admiral is hereby
desired, from both Houses of Parliament, that the
Commander in Chief
of this Summer's Fleet under his Lordship, may be the Earl of
Warwicke.", House of Lords Journal 15 March 1642
^ Dupuy, Trevor N., Curt Johnson, and Grace P. Hayes. "Supreme
Commander." Dictionary of Military Terms. New York: The H.W. Wilson
^ "CONSTITUTION OF THE ARGENTINE NATION". Argentine Senate. Archived
from the original on 22 October 2013. Retrieved 21 January
2014..mw-parser-output cite.citation font-style:inherit
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vteHighest military ranks
Grand Constable of France
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Admiral of the Navy
Da yuan shuai
First marshal of the empire
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Chom Thap Thai
Marshal of Italy
Marshal of the air force
Marshal of Peru
Marshal of the Russian Federation
Marshal of the Soviet Union
Marshal of Yugoslavia
Vojvoda (Serbia and Yugoslavia)
Supreme Allied Commander
vteUnited States Armed Forces
Military budget of the United States
Commander-in-chief: President of the United States
Secretary of Defense
Deputy Secretary of Defense
Secretary of Homeland Security
Deputy Secretary of Homeland Security
Joint Chiefs of Staff:
United States Congress: Committees on Armed Services:
Active duty four-star officers
United States military seniority
National Security Act of 1947
Department of Defense (Secretary): Army (Secretary)
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Department of Homeland Security (Secretary): Coast Guard
Army (Chief of Staff)
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Military Auxiliary Radio System
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Unified Combatant Command
United States Code
Operations and history
World War II
By Ethnoreligious group:
Army Center of Military History
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Officer candidate school:
Awards & decorations:
Creeds & Codes:
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World War I
A = Army
MC = Marine Corps
N = Navy
AF = Air Force
CG = Coast Guard