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In a modern sense, comedy (from the Greek: κωμῳδία, kōmōidía) refers to any discourse or work generally intended to be humorous or amusing by inducing laughter, especially in theatre, television, film, stand-up comedy, or any other medium of entertainment. The origins of the term are found in Ancient Greece. In the Athenian democracy, the public opinion of voters was influenced by the political satire performed by the comic poets at the theaters.[1] The theatrical genre of Greek comedy can be described as a dramatic performance which pits two groups or societies against each other in an amusing agon or conflict. Northrop Frye
Northrop Frye
depicted these two opposing sides as a "Society of Youth" and a "Society of the Old".[2] A revised view characterizes the essential agon of comedy as a struggle between a relatively powerless youth and the societal conventions that pose obstacles to his hopes. In this struggle, the youth is understood to be constrained by his lack of social authority, and is left with little choice but to take recourse in ruses which engender very dramatic irony which provokes laughter.[3] Satire
Satire
and political satire use comedy to portray persons or social institutions as ridiculous or corrupt, thus alienating their audience from the object of their humour. Parody
Parody
subverts popular genres and forms, critiquing those forms without necessarily condemning them. Other forms of comedy include screwball comedy, which derives its humour largely from bizarre, surprising (and improbable) situations or characters, and black comedy, which is characterized by a form of humor that includes darker aspects of human behavior or human nature. Similarly scatological humour, sexual humour, and race humour create comedy by violating social conventions or taboos in comic ways. A comedy of manners typically takes as its subject a particular part of society (usually upper class society) and uses humor to parody or satirize the behaviour and mannerisms of its members. Romantic comedy is a popular genre that depicts burgeoning romance in humorous terms and focuses on the foibles of those who are falling in love.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Dionysiac origins, Aristophanes
Aristophanes
and Aristotle 2.2 Classical Sanskrit Dramas, Plays, and Epics of Ancient India 2.3 Shakespearean and Elizabethan
Elizabethan
comedy 2.4 19th to early 20th century 2.5 20th century film and television

3 Studies on the theory of the comic 4 Forms 5 Performing arts

5.1 Historical forms 5.2 Plays 5.3 Opera 5.4 Improvisational comedy 5.5 Joke 5.6 Stand-up comedy

6 Events and awards 7 List of comedians 8 Mass media

8.1 Literature 8.2 Film 8.3 Television
Television
and radio

8.3.1 Comedy
Comedy
networks

9 See also 10 Footnotes 11 Notations 12 External links

Etymology[edit]

Tragic Comic Masks of Ancient Greek Theatre
Theatre
represented in the Hadrian's Villa
Hadrian's Villa
mosaic.

The word "comedy" is derived from the Classical Greek κωμῳδία kōmōidía, which is a compound either of κῶμος kômos (revel) or κώμη kṓmē (village) and ᾠδή ōidḗ (singing); it is possible that κῶμος itself is derived from κώμη, and originally meant a village revel. The adjective "comic" (Greek κωμικός kōmikós), which strictly means that which relates to comedy is, in modern usage, generally confined to the sense of "laughter-provoking".[4] Of this, the word came into modern usage through the Latin comoedia and Italian commedia and has, over time, passed through various shades of meaning.[5] The Greeks and Romans confined their use of the word "comedy" to descriptions of stage-plays with happy endings. Aristotle
Aristotle
defined comedy as an imitation of men worse than the average (where tragedy was an imitation of men better than the average). However, the characters portrayed in comedies were not worse than average in every way, only insofar as they are Ridiculous, which is a species of the Ugly. The Ridiculous may be defined as a mistake or deformity not productive of pain or harm to others; the mask, for instance, that excites laughter, is something ugly and distorted without causing pain.[6] In the Middle Ages, the term expanded to include narrative poems with happy endings. It is in this sense that Dante
Dante
used the term in the title of his poem, La Commedia. As time progressed, the word came more and more to be associated with any sort of performance intended to cause laughter.[5] During the Middle Ages, the term "comedy" became synonymous with satire, and later with humour in general. Aristotle's Poetics was translated into Arabic in the medieval Islamic world, where it was elaborated upon by Arabic writers and Islamic philosophers, such as Abu Bischr, and his pupils Al-Farabi, Avicenna, and Averroes. They disassociated comedy from Greek dramatic representation and instead identified it with Arabic poetic themes and forms, such as hija (satirical poetry). They viewed comedy as simply the "art of reprehension", and made no reference to light and cheerful events, or to the troubling beginnings and happy endings associated with classical Greek comedy. After the Latin translations of the 12th century, the term "comedy" gained a more general meaning in medieval literature.[7] In the late 20th century, many scholars preferred to use the term laughter to refer to the whole gamut of the comic, in order to avoid the use of ambiguous and problematically defined genres such as the grotesque, irony, and satire.[8][9] History[edit] Dionysiac origins, Aristophanes
Aristophanes
and Aristotle[edit] See also: Old Comedy, Menander, and Ancient Greek comedy

Roman-era mosaic depicting a scene from Menander's comedy Samia ("The Woman from Samos")

Starting from 425 BCE, Aristophanes, a comic playwright and satirical author of the Ancient Greek Theater wrote 40 comedies, 11 of which survive. Aristophanes
Aristophanes
developed his type of comedy from the earlier satyr plays, which were often highly obscene.[10] The only surviving examples of the satyr plays are by Euripides, which are much later examples and not representative of the genre.[11] In ancient Greece, comedy originated in bawdy and ribald songs or recitations apropos of phallic processions and fertility festivals or gatherings.[12] Around 335 BCE, Aristotle, in his work Poetics, stated that comedy originated in Phallic processions
Phallic processions
and the light treatment of the otherwise base and ugly. He also adds that the origins of comedy are obscure because it was not treated seriously from its inception.[13] However, comedy had its own Muse: Thalia. Aristotle
Aristotle
taught that comedy was generally a positive for society, since it brings forth happiness, which for Aristotle
Aristotle
was the ideal state, the final goal in any activity. For Aristotle, a comedy did not need to involve sexual humor. A comedy is about the fortunate arise of a sympathetic character. Aristotle
Aristotle
divides comedy into three categories or subgenres: farce, romantic comedy, and satire. On the contrary, Plato
Plato
taught that comedy is a destruction to the self. He believed that it produces an emotion that overrides rational self-control and learning. In The Republic, he says that the Guardians of the state should avoid laughter, " 'for ordinarily when one abandons himself to violent laughter, his condition provokes a violent reaction.' " Plato
Plato
says comedy should be tightly controlled if one wants to achieve the ideal state. Also in Poetics, Aristotle
Aristotle
defined Comedy
Comedy
as one of the original four genres of literature. The other three genres are tragedy, epic poetry, and lyric poetry. Literature
Literature
in general is defined by Aristotle
Aristotle
as a mimesis, or imitation of life. Comedy
Comedy
is the third form of literature, being the most divorced from a true mimesis. Tragedy
Tragedy
is the truest mimesis, followed by epic poetry, comedy and lyric poetry. The genre of comedy is defined by a certain pattern according to Aristotle's definition. Comedies begin with low or base characters seeking insignificant aims, and end with some accomplishment of the aims which either lightens the initial baseness or reveals the insignificance of the aims. Classical Sanskrit Dramas, Plays, and Epics of Ancient India[edit] See also: Sanskrit Drama, Mahabharata, and Bhagavata Purana By 200 BCE,[14] in ancient Sanskrit drama, Bharata Muni's Natya Shastra defined humour (hāsyam) as one of the nine nava rasas, or principle rasas (emotional responses), which can be inspired in the audience by bhavas, the imitations of emotions that the actors perform. Each rasa was associated with a specific bhavas portrayed on stage. In the case of humour, it was associated with mirth (hasya). Shakespearean and Elizabethan
Elizabethan
comedy[edit]

Title page of the first quarto of Shakespeare's Midsummer Night's Dream (1600)

"Comedy", in its Elizabethan
Elizabethan
usage, had a very different meaning from modern comedy. A Shakespearean comedy
Shakespearean comedy
is one that has a happy ending, usually involving marriages between the unmarried characters, and a tone and style that is more light-hearted than Shakespeare's other plays.[15] The Punch and Judy
Punch and Judy
show has roots in the 16th-century Italian commedia dell'arte. The figure of Punch derives from the Neapolitan stock character of Pulcinella.[16] The figure who later became Mr. Punch made his first recorded appearance in England in 1662.[17] Punch and Judy are performed in the spirit of outrageous comedy — often provoking shocked laughter — and are dominated by the anarchic clowning of Mr. Punch.[18] Appearing at a significant period in British history, professor Glyn Edwards states: "[Pulcinella] went down particularly well with Restoration British audiences, fun-starved after years of Puritanism. We soon changed Punch's name, transformed him from a marionette to a hand puppet, and he became, really, a spirit of Britain - a subversive maverick who defies authority, a kind of puppet equivalent to our political cartoons."[17] 19th to early 20th century[edit] In early 19th century England, pantomime acquired its present form which includes slapstick comedy and featured the first mainstream clown Joseph Grimaldi, while comedy routines also featured heavily in British music hall theatre which became popular in the 1850s.[19] British comedians who honed their skills in music hall sketches include Charlie Chaplin, Stan Laurel
Stan Laurel
and Dan Leno.[20] English music hall comedian and theatre impresario Fred Karno
Fred Karno
developed a form of sketch comedy without dialogue in the 1890s, and Chaplin and Laurel were among the comedians who worked for his company.[20] Karno was a pioneer of slapstick, and in his biography Laurel stated, "Fred Karno didn't teach Charlie [Chaplin] and me all we know about comedy. He just taught us most of it".[21] Film
Film
producer Hal Roach
Hal Roach
stated: "Fred Karno is not only a genius, he is the man who originated slapstick comedy. We in Hollywood
Hollywood
owe much to him."[22] American vaudeville emerged in the 1880s and remained popular until the 1930s, and featured comedians such as W. C. Fields, Buster Keaton
Buster Keaton
and the Marx Brothers. 20th century film and television[edit]

Dean Martin
Dean Martin
and Jerry Lewis
Jerry Lewis
(ca. 1950)

Jim Carrey
Jim Carrey
mugs for the camera

Rowan Atkinson
Rowan Atkinson
as Mr. Bean

Jackie Chan
Jackie Chan
at the 2008 Cannes Film
Film
Festival

Stand-up comedian Margaret Cho

Popov the Clown
Clown
in 2009

Barry Humphries
Barry Humphries
in character in London as "Dame Edna Everage" on the day of the 2011 Wedding of Prince William and Kate Middleton

Jordan Peele
Jordan Peele
at the Peabody awards.

The advent of cinema in the late 19th century, and later radio and television in the 20th century broadened the access of comedians to the general public. Charlie Chaplin, through silent film, became one of the best known faces on earth. The silent tradition lived on well in to the 20th century through mime artists like Marcel Marceau, and the physical comedy of artists like Rowan Atkinson
Rowan Atkinson
as Mr. Bean. The tradition of the circus clown also continued, with such as Bozo the Clown
Clown
in the United States and Oleg Popov
Oleg Popov
in Russia. Radio provided new possibilities - with Britain producing the influential Goon Show after the Second World War. American cinema
American cinema
has produced a great number of globally renowned comedy artists, from Laurel and Hardy, the Three Stooges, Abbott and Costello, Dean Martin
Dean Martin
and Jerry Lewis, as well as Bob Hope
Bob Hope
during the mid-20th century, to performers like George Carlin, Robin Williams, and Eddie Murphy
Eddie Murphy
at the end of the century. Hollywood
Hollywood
attracted many international talents like the British comics Peter Sellers, Dudley Moore
Dudley Moore
and Sacha Baron Cohen, Canadian comics Dan Aykroyd, Jim Carrey, and Mike Myers, and the Australian comedian Paul Hogan, famous for Crocodile Dundee. Other centres of creative comic activity have been the cinema of Hong Kong, Bollywood, and French farce. American television has also been an influential force in world comedy: with American series like M*A*S*H, Seinfeld
Seinfeld
and The Simpsons achieving large followings around the world. British television comedy also remains influential, with quintessential works including Fawlty Towers, Monty Python, Dad's Army, Blackadder, and The Office. Australian satirist Barry Humphries, whose comic creations include the housewife and "gigastar" Dame Edna Everage, For his delivery of Dadaist and absurdist humour to millions, was described by biographer Anne Pender in 2010 as not only "the most significant theatrical figure of our time ... [but] the most significant comedian to emerge since Charlie Chaplin".[23] Studies on the theory of the comic[edit] The phenomena connected with laughter and that which provokes it have been carefully investigated by psychologists. They agree the predominant characteristics are incongruity or contrast in the object and shock or emotional seizure on the part of the subject. It has also been held that the feeling of superiority is an essential factor: thus Thomas Hobbes
Thomas Hobbes
speaks of laughter as a "sudden glory". Modern investigators have paid much attention to the origin both of laughter and of smiling, as well as the development of the "play instinct" and its emotional expression. George Meredith
George Meredith
said that "One excellent test of the civilization of a country ... I take to be the flourishing of the Comic idea and Comedy; and the test of true Comedy
Comedy
is that it shall awaken thoughtful laughter." Laughter
Laughter
is said to be the cure to being sick. Studies show that people who laugh more often get sick less.[24][25] American literary theorist Kenneth Burke
Kenneth Burke
writes that the "comic frame" in rhetoric is "neither wholly euphemistic, nor wholly debunking—hence it provides the charitable attitude towards people that is required for purposes of persuasion and co-operation, but at the same time maintains our shrewdness concerning the simplicities of ‘cashing in.’" [26] The purpose of the comic frame is to satirize a given circumstance and promote change by doing so. The comic frame makes fun of situations and people, while simultaneously provoking thought.[27] The comic frame does not aim to vilify in its analysis, but rather, rebuke the stupidity and foolery of those involved in the circumstances.[28] For example, on The Daily Show, Jon Stewart
Jon Stewart
uses the "comic frame" to intervene in political arguments, often offering crude humor in sudden contrast to serious news. In a segment on President Obama's trip to China Stewart remarks on America's debt to the Chinese government while also having a weak relationship with the country. After depicting this dismal situation, Stewart shifts to speak directly to President Obama, calling upon him to "shine that turd up."[29] For Stewart and his audience, introducing coarse language into what is otherwise a serious commentary on the state of foreign relations serves to frame the segment comically, creating a serious tone underlying the comedic agenda presented by Stewart. Forms[edit] Main article: Comedic genres Comedy
Comedy
may be divided into multiple genres based on the source of humor, the method of delivery, and the context in which it is delivered. The different forms of comedy often overlap, and most comedy can fit into multiple genres. Some of the subgenres of comedy are farce, comedy of manners, burlesque, and satire. Some comedy apes certain cultural forms: for instance, parody and satire often imitate the conventions of the genre they are parodying or satirizing. For example, in the United States, parodies of newspapers and television news include The Onion, and The Colbert Report; in Australia, shows such as Kath & Kim, Utopia, and Shaun Micallef's Mad As Hell perform the same role. Self-deprecation is a technique of comedy used by many comedians who focus on their misfortunes and foibles in order to entertain. Performing arts[edit]

Performing arts

Ballet Circus skills Clown Dance Magic

Mime Music Opera

Puppetry

Speech Theatre Ventriloquism

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Main article: Comedy
Comedy
(drama)

This section is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. You can help by converting this section to prose, if appropriate. Editing help is available. (April 2008)

Historical forms[edit]

Ancient Greek comedy, as practiced by Aristophanes
Aristophanes
and Menander Ancient Roman comedy, as practiced by Plautus
Plautus
and Terence Burlesque, from Music hall
Music hall
and Vaudeville
Vaudeville
to Performance
Performance
art Citizen comedy, as practiced by Thomas Dekker, Thomas Middleton
Thomas Middleton
and Ben Jonson Clowns
Clowns
such as Richard Tarlton, William Kempe, and Robert Armin Comedy
Comedy
of humours, as practiced by Ben Jonson
Ben Jonson
and George Chapman Comedy
Comedy
of intrigue, as practiced by Niccolò Machiavelli
Niccolò Machiavelli
and Lope de Vega Comedy
Comedy
of manners, as practiced by Molière, William Wycherley
William Wycherley
and William Congreve Comedy
Comedy
of menace, as practiced by David Campton and Harold Pinter comédie larmoyante or 'tearful comedy', as practiced by Pierre-Claude Nivelle de La Chaussée and Louis-Sébastien Mercier Commedia dell'arte, as practiced in the twentieth century by Dario Fo, Vsevolod Meyerhold, and Jacques Copeau Farce, from Georges Feydeau
Georges Feydeau
to Joe Orton
Joe Orton
and Alan Ayckbourn Jester Laughing comedy, as practiced by Oliver Goldsmith
Oliver Goldsmith
and Richard Brinsley Sheridan Restoration comedy, as practiced by George Etherege, Aphra Behn
Aphra Behn
and John Vanbrugh Sentimental comedy, as practiced by Colley Cibber
Colley Cibber
and Richard Steele Shakespearean comedy, as practiced by William Shakespeare Stand-up comedy Dadaist and Surrealist performance, usually in cabaret form Theatre
Theatre
of the Absurd, used by some critics to describe Samuel Beckett, Harold Pinter, Jean Genet
Jean Genet
and Eugène Ionesco[30] Sketch comedy

Plays[edit]

Comic theatre

Musical comedy and palace

Opera[edit]

Comic opera

Improvisational comedy[edit]

Improvisational theatre Bouffon comedy Clowns

Joke[edit]

One-liner joke Blonde jokes Shaggy-dog story Paddy Irishman joke Polish jokes Light bulb jokes

Stand-up comedy[edit] Stand-up comedy
Stand-up comedy
is a mode of comic performance in which the performer addresses the audience directly, usually speaking in their own person rather than as a dramatic character.

Impressionist (entertainment) Alternative comedy Comedy
Comedy
club Comedy
Comedy
albums

Events and awards[edit]

American Comedy
Comedy
Awards British Comedy
Comedy
Awards Canadian Comedy
Comedy
Awards Cat Laughs Comedy
Comedy
Festival The Comedy
Comedy
Festival, in Aspen, formerly the HBO Comedy
Comedy
Arts Festival Edinburgh Festival Fringe Edinburgh Comedy
Comedy
Festival Halifax Comedy
Comedy
Festival Halloween Howls Comedy
Comedy
Festival Just for Laughs
Just for Laughs
festival, in Montreal Leicester Comedy
Comedy
Festival Mark Twain Prize for American Humor Melbourne International Comedy
Comedy
Festival New Zealand International Comedy
Comedy
Festival New York Underground Comedy
Comedy
Festival HK International Comedy
Comedy
Festival

List of comedians[edit]

List of stand-up comedians List of musical comedians List of Australian comedians List of British comedians List of Canadian comedians List of Finnish comedians List of German language comedians List of Indian comedians List of Italian comedians List of Mexican comedians List of Puerto Rican comedians List of Filipino Comedian

Mass media[edit]

Literature

Major forms

Novel Poem Drama Short story Novella

Genres

Comedy Drama Epic Erotic Nonsense Lyric Mythopoeia Romance Satire Tragedy Tragicomedy

Media

Performance

play

Book

Techniques

Prose Poetry

History and lists

History

modern

Outline Glossary of terms

Books Writers Literary awards

poetry

Discussion

Criticism Theory (critical theory) Sociology Magazines

Literature
Literature
portal

v t e

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Literature[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (April 2010)

Comic novel Light poetry

Film[edit]

Comedy
Comedy
film

Anarchic comedy film Gross-out film Parody
Parody
film Romantic comedy
Romantic comedy
film Screwball comedy
Screwball comedy
film Slapstick
Slapstick
film

Television
Television
and radio[edit]

Television
Television
comedy

Situation comedy

Radio comedy

Comedy
Comedy
networks[edit]

British sitcom British comedy Comedy Central
Comedy Central
- A television channel devoted strictly to comedy. Comedy Nights with Kapil - An Indian television program German television comedy List of British TV shows remade for the American market Paramount Comedy (Spain). Paramount Comedy 1 and 2. TBS (TV network) The Comedy Channel
The Comedy Channel
(Australia) The Comedy Channel
The Comedy Channel
(UK) The Comedy Channel
The Comedy Channel
(United States) – merged into Comedy
Comedy
Central. HA! – merged into Comedy
Comedy
Central The Comedy
Comedy
Network, a Canadian TV channel. Gold

See also[edit]

Comedy
Comedy
portal

Lists of comedy films List of comedy television series List of genres Theories of humor Women in comedy

Footnotes[edit]

^ Henderson, J. (1993) Comic Hero versus Political Elite pp. 307–19 in Sommerstein, A.H.; S. Halliwell; J. Henderson; B. Zimmerman, eds. (1993). Tragedy, Comedy
Comedy
and the Polis. Bari: Levante Editori.  ^ (Anatomy of Criticism, 1957) ^ Marteinson, 2006 ^ Cornford (1934)[page needed] ^ a b Oxford English Dictionary ^ McKeon, Richard. The Basic Works Of Aristotle, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2001, p. 1459. ^ Webber, Edwin J. (January 1958). " Comedy
Comedy
as Satire
Satire
in Hispano-Arabic Spain". Hispanic Review. University of Pennsylvania Press. 26 (1): 1–11. doi:10.2307/470561. JSTOR 470561.  ^ Herman Braet, Guido Latré, Werner Verbeke (2003) Risus mediaevalis: laughter in medieval literature and art p.1 quotation:

The deliberate use by Menard of the term 'le rire' rather than 'l'humour' reflects accurately the current evidency to incorporate all instances of the comic in the analysis, while the classification in genres and fields such as grotesque, humour and even irony or satire always poses problems. The terms humour and laughter are therefore pragmatically used in recent historiography to cover the entire spectrum.

^ Ménard, Philippe (1988) Le rire et le sourire au Moyen Age dans la littérature et les arts. Essai de problématique in Bouché, T. and Charpentier H. (eds., 1988) Le rire au Moyen Âge, Actes du colloque international de Bordeaux, pp.7-30 ^ Aristophanes
Aristophanes
(1996) Lysistrata, Introduction, p.ix, published by Nick Hern Books ^ Reckford, Kenneth J. (1987)Aristophanes' Old-and-new Comedy: Six essays in perspective p.105 ^ Cornford, F.M. (1934) The Origin of Attic Comedy
Comedy
pp.3-4 quotation:

That Comedy
Comedy
sprang up and took shape in connection with Dionysiac or Phallic ritual has never been doubted.

^ "Aristotle, Poetics, lines beginning at 1449a". Perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved 2012-06-30.  ^ Robert Barton, Annie McGregor. Theatre
Theatre
in Your Life. CengageBrain. p. 218.  ^ Regan, Richard. "Shakespearean comedy" ^  Wheeler, R. Mortimer (1911). "Punch (puppet)". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 22 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 648–649.  ^ a b " Punch and Judy
Punch and Judy
around the world". The Telegraph. 11 June 2015.  ^ "Mr Punch celebrates 350 years of puppet anarchy". BBC. 11 June 2015.  ^ Jeffrey Richards (2014). "The Golden Age of Pantomime: Slapstick, Spectacle and Subversion in Victorian England". I.B.Tauris, ^ a b McCabe, John. " Comedy
Comedy
World of Stan Laurel". p. 143. London: Robson Books, 2005, First edition 1975 ^ Burton, Alan (2000). Pimple, pranks & pratfalls: British film comedy before 1930. Flicks Books. p. 51.  ^ J. P. Gallagher (1971). "Fred Karno: master of mirth and tears". p. 165. Hale. ^ Meacham, Steve (2010-09-15). "Absurd moments: in the frocks of the dame". Brisbanetimes.com.au. Retrieved 2011-12-20.  ^ "An impolite interview with Lenny Bruce". The Realist (15): 3. February 1960. Retrieved 2011-12-30.  ^ Meredith, George (1987). "Essay on Comedy, Comic Spirit". Encyclopedia of the Self, by Mark Zimmerman. Retrieved 2011-12-30.  ^ http://newantichoicerhetoric.web.unc.edu/the-comedic-frame/ ^ http://www.kbjournal.org/biebel ^ http://www.ithaca.edu/hs/history/journal/papers/sp02comedyandtragedy.html ^ Trischa Goodnow Knapp (2011). The Daily Show
The Daily Show
and Rhetoric: Arguments, Issues, and Strategies. p. 327. Lexington Books, 2011 ^ This list was compiled with reference to The Cambridge Guide to Theatre
Theatre
(1998).

Notations[edit]

Aristotle. Poetics.  Buckham, Philip Wentworth (1827). Theatre
Theatre
of the Greeks.  Marteinson, Peter (2006). On the Problem of the Comic: A Philosophical Study on the Origins of Laughter. Ottawa: Legas Press.  http://french.chass.utoronto.ca/as-sa/editors/origins.html Pickard-Cambridge, Sir Arthur Wallace

Dithyramb, Tragedy, and Comedy
Comedy
, 1927. The Theatre
Theatre
of Dionysus in Athens, 1946. The Dramatic Festivals of Athens, 1953.

Raskin, Victor (1985). The Semantic Mechanisms of Humor. Springer. ISBN 978-90-277-1821-1.  Riu, Xavier (1999). Dionysism and Comedy.  Sourvinou-Inwood, Christiane (2003). Tragedy
Tragedy
and Athenian Religion. Lexington Books. ISBN 978-0-7391-0400-2.  Trypanis, C.A. (1981). Greek Poetry
Poetry
from Homer to Seferis. University of Chicago Press.  Wiles, David (1991). The Masked Menander: Sign and Meaning in Greek and Roman Performance. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-40135-7. 

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1920 Encyclopedia Americana
Encyclopedia Americana
article Comedy.

Learning materials related to Collaborative play writing at Wikiversity

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from a professor at Dallas Baptist University 6 Elements of Comedy
Comedy
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