HOME
The Info List - Columbus Day


--- Advertisement ---



Columbus Day
Columbus Day
is a national holiday in many countries of the Americas and elsewhere which officially celebrates the anniversary of Christopher Columbus's arrival in the Americas
Americas
on October 12, 1492. The landing is celebrated as "Columbus Day" in the United States, as "Día de la Raza" ("Day of the Race") in some countries in Latin America, as "Día de la Hispanidad" and "Fiesta Nacional" in Spain, where it is also the religious festivity of la Virgen del Pilar, as Día de las Américas (Day of the Americas) in Belize
Belize
and Uruguay, as Día del Respeto a la Diversidad Cultural (Day of Respect for Cultural Diversity) in Argentina, and as Giornata Nazionale di Cristoforo Colombo or Festa Nazionale di Cristoforo Colombo in Italy
Italy
as well as in Little Italys around the world.[1][2] As the day of remembrance of Our Lady of the Pillar, 12 October had been declared a religious feast day throughout the Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
in 1730; the secular Fiesta de la Raza Española was first proposed by Faustino Rodríguez-San Pedro y Díaz-Argüelles in 1913.

Contents

1 United States
United States
observance

1.1 History 1.2 Local observance of Columbus Day 1.3 Non-observance

2 Latin American
Latin American
observance

2.1 Día de la Raza 2.2 Argentina 2.3 Colombia 2.4 Venezuela 2.5 Costa Rica 2.6 Brazil

3 Caribbean
Caribbean
observance 4 Italy 5 Spain 6 Opposition to Columbus celebrations 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

United States
United States
observance[edit] History[edit]

Stylized graphic from the United States
United States
Department of Defense

Celebration of Columbus's voyage in the early United States
United States
is recorded from as early as 1792, when the Tammany Society in New York City[3] (for whom it became an annual tradition)[4][5] and also the Massachusetts Historical Society
Massachusetts Historical Society
in Boston celebrated the 300th anniversary of Columbus' landing in the New World.[6][7] President Benjamin Harrison
Benjamin Harrison
called upon the people of the United States
United States
to celebrate Columbus's landing in the New World
New World
on the 400th anniversary of the event. During the anniversary in 1892, teachers, preachers, poets and politicians used rituals to teach ideals of patriotism. These rituals took themes such as citizenship boundaries, the importance of loyalty to the nation, and the celebration of social progress.[8][9][10] Many Italian-Americans observe Columbus Day
Columbus Day
as a celebration of their heritage, and the first such celebration was held in New York City on October 12, 1866.[11] The day was first enshrined as a legal holiday in the United States
United States
through the lobbying of Angelo Noce, a first generation Italian, in Denver. The first statewide holiday was proclaimed by Colorado
Colorado
governor Jesse F. McDonald in 1905, and it was made a statutory holiday in 1907.[12] In April 1934, as a result of lobbying by the Knights of Columbus
Knights of Columbus
and New York City Italian leader Generoso Pope, Congress and President Franklin Delano Roosevelt proclaimed October 12 a federal holiday under the name Columbus Day.[12][13][14] Since 1971 (Oct. 11), the holiday has been fixed to the second Monday in October,[15] coincidentally exactly the same day as Thanksgiving in neighboring Canada fixed since 1957. It is generally observed nowadays by banks, the bond market, the U.S. Postal Service, other federal agencies, most state government offices, many businesses, and most school districts. Some businesses and some stock exchanges remain open, and some states and municipalities abstain from observing the holiday.[16] The traditional date of the holiday also adjoins the anniversary of the United States
United States
Navy (founded October 13, 1775), and thus both occasions are customarily observed by the Navy (and usually the Marine Corps as well) with either a 72- or 96-hour liberty period.[citation needed] Local observance of Columbus Day[edit]

Columbus Day
Columbus Day
in Salem, Massachusetts
Salem, Massachusetts
in 1892

Actual observance varies in different parts of the United States, ranging from large-scale parades and events to complete non-observance. Most states celebrate Columbus Day
Columbus Day
as an official state holiday, though many mark it as a "Day of Observance" or "Recognition" and at least four do not recognize it at all. Most states that celebrate Columbus Day
Columbus Day
will close state services, while others operate as normal.[17] San Francisco claims the nation's oldest continuously existing celebration with the Italian-American community's annual Columbus Day Parade, which was established by Nicola Larco in 1868,[18] while New York City boasts the largest, with over 35,000 marchers and one million viewers.[19][20][21] As in the mainland U.S., Columbus Day
Columbus Day
is a legal holiday in the U.S. territory of Puerto Rico. In the United States
United States
Virgin Islands, the day is celebrated as both Columbus Day
Columbus Day
and " Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
Friendship Day".[22] Virginia
Virginia
also celebrates two legal holidays on the day, Columbus Day and Yorktown Victory Day, which honors the final victory at the Siege of Yorktown in the Revolutionary War.[23] Non-observance[edit] The U.S. states of Alaska, Hawaii, Oregon, South Dakota, and Vermont do not recognize Columbus Day
Columbus Day
at all; however, they mark the day with an alternative holiday or observance. Hawaii
Hawaii
celebrates Discoverer's Day, which commemorates the Polynesian discoverers of Hawaii
Hawaii
on the same date, the second Monday of October,[24][25] though the name change has not ended protest related to the observance of Columbus's discovery.[26] The state government does not treat either Columbus Day or Discoverer's Day as a legal holiday;[27] state, city and county government offices and schools are open for business. Similarly, in 2016, Vermont
Vermont
started celebrating Indigenous Peoples' Day
Indigenous Peoples' Day
instead of Columbus Day. Because this change was made by Governor Peter Shumlin's executive proclamation, it only applies for 2016. In the future it would have to be issued by the sitting governor on a yearly basis, or officially changed by the legislature in order to become permanent.[28] On the other hand, South Dakota
South Dakota
celebrates the day as an official state holiday known as Native American Day.[29] Until 2017, Oregon
Oregon
did not recognize Columbus Day, either as a holiday or as a commemoration; schools and public offices remained open.[30] However, on Columbus Day, 2017, Oregon
Oregon
Governor Kate Brown
Kate Brown
renamed the holiday "Indigenous Peoples' Day," to remember these cultures and commemorate the struggles of native peoples during European colonization.[31] Two additional states, Iowa
Iowa
and Nevada, do not celebrate it as an official holiday, but the states' respective governors are "authorized and requested" by statute to proclaim the day each year.[32] Several other states have removed the day as a paid holiday for government workers while still maintaining it either as a day of recognition, or as a legal holiday for other purposes. These include California
California
and Texas.[33][34][35][36][37] The city of Berkeley, California, replaced Columbus Day
Columbus Day
with Indigenous Peoples' Day
Indigenous Peoples' Day
in 1992,[38] a move which has been followed by multiple other localities including Sebastopol and Santa Cruz, California; Dane County, Wisconsin; Seattle, Washington; Missoula, Montana; Cambridge, Massachusetts; Denver, Colorado; Phoenix, Arizona; Los Angeles, California; Austin, Texas; and Salt Lake City, Utah.[39][40][34][41][42][43][44][45][46] Various tribal governments in Oklahoma designate the day Native American Day, or name it after their own tribe.[47] Latin American
Latin American
observance[edit]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Día de la Raza[edit]

Argentine government poster from 1947 including the concept of la Raza.

The date Columbus arrived in the Americas
Americas
is celebrated in some countries of Latin America. The most common name for the celebration in Spanish (including some Latin American
Latin American
communities[48] in the United States) is the Día de la Raza ("day of the race" or the "day of the [Hispanic] people"), commemorating the first encounters of Europeans
Europeans
and Native Americans. The day was first celebrated in Argentina
Argentina
in 1917, in Venezuela
Venezuela
and Colombia
Colombia
in 1921, in Chile
Chile
in 1922, and in Mexico, it was first celebrated in 1928. The day was also celebrated under this title in Spain
Spain
until 1957, when it was changed to the Día de la Hispanidad
Hispanidad
("Hispanicity Day"), and in Venezuela
Venezuela
it was celebrated under this title until 2002, when it was changed to the Día de la Resistencia Indígena (Day of Indigenous Resistance). Originally conceived of as a celebration of Hispanic influence in the Americas, as evidenced by the complementary celebrations in Spain
Spain
and Latin America, Día de la Raza has come to be seen by indigenous activists throughout Latin America
Latin America
as a counter to Columbus Day; a celebration of the native races and cultures and their resistance to the arrival of Europeans
Europeans
in the Americas.[citation needed] In the U.S. Día de la Raza has served as a time of mobilization for pan-ethnic Latino activists, particularly since the 1960s. Since then, La Raza
La Raza
has served as a periodic rallying cry for Hispanic activists. The first Hispanic March on Washington occurred on Columbus Day
Columbus Day
in 1996. The name is still used by the largest Hispanic social justice organization in the nation, the National Council of La Raza.[8] Argentina[edit] The Day of the Race was established in Argentina
Argentina
in 1916 by a decree of President Hipólito Yrigoyen. The name was changed to "Day of Respect of Cultural Diversity" by a Decree of Necessity and Urgency 1584/2010 issued by populist President Cristina Kirchner. Instigated by then Venezuelan president Chávez, she had the statue of Columbus removed from its original position near the Casa Rosada and replaced by one of Juana Azurduy. Colombia[edit] Colombia, the only country in the world with a name originated from Columbus himself, celebrates El día de la Raza y de la Hispanidad
Hispanidad
and is taken as an opportunity to celebrate the encounter of "the two worlds" and to reflect on the richness that the racial diversity has brought to the culture. Venezuela[edit]

Current state (June 6, 2006) of the Columbus Walk in Caracas. The statue was knocked down by activists after a "public trial" during the celebrations of the newly instituted "Day of the Indigenous Resistance" (October 12) in 2004.[49]

Between 1921 and 2002, Venezuela
Venezuela
celebrated Día de la Raza along with many other Latin American
Latin American
nations. The original holiday was officially established in 1921 under President Juan Vicente Gómez. In 2002, under president Hugo Chávez, the name was changed to Día de la Resistencia Indígena (Day of Indigenous Resistance) to commemorate the Indigenous peoples' resistance to European settlement. On October 12, 2004 a crowd of pro-government activists toppled the statue of Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
in Caracas
Caracas
and sprayed allusive graffiti over its pedestal. The pro-Chávez website Aporrea wrote: "Just like the statue of Saddam in Baghdad, that of Columbus the tyrant also fell this October 12, 2004 in Caracas".[50] The famous toppling of Saddam Hussein's statue had occurred the previous year. Costa Rica[edit] On September 21, 1994, Costa Rica
Costa Rica
changed the official holiday from Día de la Raza to Día del Encuentro de las Culturas(Day of the Encounter of Cultures) to recognize the mix of European, Native American (autochthonous populations), African and Asian cultures that constitute modern Costa Rican (and Latin American) culture and ethnicity. In accordance to the Costa Rican labor law, the holiday is observed on October 12. However, should this date coincide with a Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday or Friday, the employer shall agree that said holiday be postponed to the following Monday. [51] Brazil[edit] In Brazil
Brazil
Columbus Day
Columbus Day
is not celebrated. Instead, the country celebrates the arrival on the coast of present-day Brazil
Brazil
of the fleet led by Portuguese explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral
Pedro Álvares Cabral
on April 22, 1500. This date is known in Brazil
Brazil
as "O Descobrimento do Brazil" (The Discovery of Brazil). The date began to be celebrated after the country's independence from Portugal, when Brazilian Emperor Pedro II instituted the date as part of a plan to foster a sense of nationalism among Brazil's diverse citizenry—giving them a common identity and history as residents of a unique Portuguese-speaking empire surrounded by Hispanic-American Republics. [52] The Discovery of Brazil
Brazil
was originally celebrated on May 3, but scholars in the nineteen century found definitive evidence proving April 22 to be the actual date of the arrival of Cabral's fleet on South American shores. [53] In 2000, the government of Brazil
Brazil
used the date to celebrate 500 years of the existence of the country. The festivities, however, were met with protests by indigenous peoples who claimed it marked 500 years of genocide of indigenous Brazilians.[54] [55] Caribbean
Caribbean
observance[edit] Some Caribbean
Caribbean
countries also observe holidays related to Columbus Day. In Belize, October 12 is celebrated as Day of the Americas
Americas
or Pan American Day.[56][57][58] In the Bahamas, it was formerly known as Discovery Day, until 2001 when it was replaced by National Heroes Day. Italy[edit]

Monument to Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
in Genoa, Italy

Since the 18th century, many Italian communities in the Americas
Americas
have observed the Discovery of the New World
New World
as a celebration of their heritage; Cristopher Columbus
Cristopher Columbus
(whose original, Italian name is "Cristoforo Colombo") was an Italian explorer, citizen of the Republic of Genoa.[11] In Italy, Columbus Day
Columbus Day
has been officially celebrated since 2004.[2] It is officially named Giornata nazionale di Cristoforo Colombo. The "Lega Navale Italiana" has created a Regata di Colombo as a celebration of the Columbus achievement.[59] Italians have celebrated their "Cristoforo Colombo" naming after him many civilian and military ships, like the ocean liner SS Cristoforo Colombo. Spain[edit] See also: Fiesta Nacional de España Since 1987, Spain
Spain
has celebrated the anniversary of Columbus's arrival in the Americas
Americas
as its Fiesta Nacional or "National Day".[60] Previously Spain
Spain
had celebrated the day as Día de la Hispanidad, emphasizing Spain's ties with the Hispanidad, the international Hispanic community.[60] In 1981 a royal decree established the Día de la Hispanidad
Hispanidad
as a national holiday.[60] However, in 1987 the name was changed to Fiesta Nacional, and October 12 became one of two national celebrations, along with Constitution Day on December 6.[61] Spain's "national day" had moved around several times during the various regime changes of the 20th century; establishing it on the day of the international Columbus celebration was part of a compromise between conservatives, who wanted to emphasize the status of the monarchy and Spain's history, and Republicans, who wanted to commemorate Spain's burgeoning democracy with an official holiday.[61] Since 2000, October 12 has also been Spain's Day of the Armed Forces, celebrated each year with a military parade in Madrid.[61] Other than this, however, the holiday is not widely or enthusiastically celebrated in Spain; there are no other large-scale patriotic parades, marches, or other events, and the observation is generally overshadowed by the feast day of Our Lady of the Pillar (Fiestas del Pilar).[61] Opposition to Columbus celebrations[edit] See also: Columbus Day
Columbus Day
§ Non-observance

Engraving by Theodor de Bry depicting the controversial account by Bartolomé de las Casas
Bartolomé de las Casas
regarding the Brevísima relación de la destrucción de las Indias, 1552. De Bry's works are characteristic of the anti-Spanish propaganda that originated as a result of the Eighty Years' War, known as the Black Legend.

Opposition to Columbus Day
Columbus Day
dates back to at least the 19th century, when anti-immigrant nativists (see Know Nothings) sought to eliminate its celebration because of its association with immigrants from the Catholic countries of Ireland and Italy, and the American Catholic fraternal organization, the Knights of Columbus.[62] Some anti-Catholics, notably including the Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan
and the Women of the Ku Klux Klan, opposed celebrations of Columbus or monuments about him because they thought that it increased Catholic influence in the US, which was largely a Protestant country.[62] By far the more common opposition today, decrying both Columbus's and other Europeans’ actions against the indigenous populations of the Americas, did not gain much traction until the latter half of the 20th century. This opposition was led by Native Americans and expanded upon by left-wing political parties,[63][64][65][66][67] though it has become more mainstream.[68] Surveys conducted in 2013 and 2015 found 26% to 38% of American adults not in favor of celebrating Columbus Day.[69][70] There are many interrelated strands of criticism. One refers primarily to the treatment of the indigenous populations during the European colonization of the Americas
Americas
which followed Columbus's discovery. Some groups, such as the American Indian Movement, have argued that the ongoing actions and injustices against Native Americans are masked by Columbus myths and celebrations. These groups argue that the legacy of Columbus has been used to legitimize these actions. F. David Peat asserts that many cultural myths of North America
North America
exclude or diminish the culture and myths of Native Americans. These cultural myths include ideas expressed by Michael Berliner of the Ayn Rand Institute, claiming that Western civilization brought "reason, science, self-reliance, individualism, ambition, and productive achievement" to a people who were based in "primitivism, mysticism, and collectivism", and to a land that was "sparsely inhabited, unused, and underdeveloped".[71] American anthropologist Jack Weatherford
Jack Weatherford
says that on Columbus Day, Americans celebrate the greatest waves of genocide of the American Indians known in history.[72] American Indian Movement of Colorado
Colorado
leader and activist Ward Churchill
Ward Churchill
takes this argument further, contending that the mythologizing and celebration of the European settlement of the Americas
Americas
in Columbus Day
Columbus Day
make it easier for people today to avoid taking responsibility for their own actions, or the actions of their governments regarding indigenous populations. He wrote in his book Bringing the Law Back Home:

Very high on the list of those expressions of non-indigenous sensibility [that] contribute to the perpetuation of genocidal policies against [American] Indians are the annual Columbus Day celebration, events in which it is baldly asserted that the process, events, and circumstances described above are, at best, either acceptable or unimportant. More often, the sentiments expressed by the participants are, quite frankly, that the fate of Native America embodied in Columbus and the Columbian legacy is a matter to be openly and enthusiastically applauded as an unrivaled "boon to all mankind". Undeniably, the situation of American Indians will not—in fact cannot—change for the better so long as such attitudes are deemed socially acceptable by the mainstream populace. Hence, such celebrations as Columbus Day
Columbus Day
must be stopped.

A second strain of criticism of Columbus Day
Columbus Day
focuses on the character of Columbus himself. In time for the 2004 observation of the day, the final volume of a compendium of Columbus-era documents was published by the University of California, Los Angeles's Medieval and Renaissance Center. Geoffrey Symcox, the general editor of the project, asserted:[73]

While giving the brilliant mariner his due, the collection portrays Columbus as an unrelenting social climber and self-promoter who stopped at nothing—not even exploitation, slavery, or twisting Biblical scripture—to advance his ambitions… Many of the unflattering documents have been known for the last century or more, but nobody paid much attention to them until recently… The fact that Columbus brought slavery, enormous exploitation or devastating diseases to the Americas
Americas
used to be seen as a minor detail—if it was recognized at all—in light of his role as the great bringer of white man's civilization to the benighted idolatrous American continent. But to historians today this information is very important. It changes our whole view of the enterprise.

Howard Zinn
Howard Zinn
described some of the details of how Columbus personally ordered the enslavement and mutilation of the native Arawak
Arawak
people in a bid to repay his investors:

Now, from his base on Haiti, Columbus sent expedition after expedition into the interior. They found no gold fields, but had to fill up the ships returning to Spain
Spain
with some kind of dividend. In the year 1495, they went on a great slave raid, rounded up fifteen hundred Arawak men, women, and children, put them in pens guarded by Spaniards and dogs, then picked the five hundred best specimens to load onto ships. Of those five hundred, two hundred died en route. The rest arrived alive in Spain
Spain
and were put up for sale by the archdeacon of the town, who reported that, although the slaves were "naked as the day they were born," they showed "no more embarrassment than animals." Columbus later wrote: "Let us in the name of the Holy Trinity
Trinity
go on sending all the slaves that can be sold." But too many of the slaves died in captivity. And so Columbus, desperate to pay back dividends to those who had invested, had to make good his promise to fill the ships with gold. In the province of Cicao on Haiti, where he and his men believed huge gold fields to exist, they ordered all persons fourteen years or older to collect a certain quantity of gold every three months. When they brought it, they were given copper tokens to hang around their necks. American Indians found without a copper token had their hands cut off and bled to death.[74]

Most criticisms combine elements of both strains. Journalist and media critic Norman Solomon
Norman Solomon
reflects, in Columbus Day: A Clash of Myth and History, that many people choose to hold on to the myths surrounding Columbus, whereas historians who deal with the evidence are frequently depicted as “politically correct” revisionists. He quotes from the logbook Columbus's initial description of the American Indians: "They do not bear arms, and do not know them, for I showed them a sword, they took it by the edge and cut themselves out of ignorance.... They would make fine servants.... With 50 men we could subjugate them all and make them do whatever we want". In 1495, during the Second Voyage, American Indians were transported to Spain
Spain
as slaves, many dying en route. "Let us in the name of the Holy Trinity", Columbus later wrote, "go on sending all the slaves that can be sold". Solomon states that the most important contemporary documentary evidence is the multi-volume History
History
of the Indies by the Catholic priest Bartolomé de las Casas, who observed the region where Columbus was governor. In contrast to "the myth" Solomon quotes Las Casas, who describes Spaniards driven by "insatiable greed"—"killing, terrorizing, afflicting, and torturing the native peoples" with "the strangest and most varied new methods of cruelty" and how systematic violence was aimed at preventing "[American] Indians from daring to think of themselves as human beings." The Spaniards "thought nothing of knifing [American] Indians by tens and twenties and of cutting slices off them to test the sharpness of their blades," wrote Las Casas. "My eyes have seen these acts so foreign to human nature, and now I tremble as I write".[75] In the summer of 1990, 350 representatives from American Indian groups from all over the hemisphere, met in Quito, Ecuador, at the first Intercontinental Gathering of Indigenous People in the Americas, to mobilize against the 500th anniversary (quin-centennial) celebration of Columbus Day
Columbus Day
planned for 1992. The following summer, in Davis, California, more than a hundred Native Americans gathered for a follow-up meeting to the Quito
Quito
conference. They declared October 12, 1992 to be "International Day of Solidarity with Indigenous People". The largest ecumenical body in the United States, the National Council of Churches, called on Christians to refrain from celebrating the Columbus quincentennial, saying, "What represented newness of freedom, hope, and opportunity for some was the occasion for oppression, degradation and genocide for others".[76] Among the latest places in the United States
United States
to redefine how they would celebrate the holiday to the title "Indigenous Peoples' Day" by the autumn of 2016 include communities in Massachusetts, specifically Cambridge, Amherst and Northampton, with a group naming itself the "Indigenous Peoples' Day of Massachusetts" currently attempting to do the same for the state's capital city of Boston.[77] An American Hispanist, commenting on Spain’s glorification of 1492/1992, pointed out that in Spain
Spain
in 1492, the big events were the conquest of Granada and secondarily the expulsion of all of Spain’s Jews (see Alhambra decree). In 1992, it would have been politically problematic for Spain
Spain
to commemorate either of these.[78] See also[edit]

Holidays portal Italy
Italy
portal Spain
Spain
portal Latin America
Latin America
portal

Age of Discovery Indigenous Peoples' Day L'Anse aux Meadows Leif Erikson Day UN Spanish Language Day World's Columbian Exposition

References[edit]

^ Columbus Day, Giornata di Cristoforo Colombo Archived October 6, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b "Governo Italiano – Dipartimento per il Cerimoniale dello Stato". Governo.it. November 23, 2012. Retrieved 2015-01-30.  ^ "Today in History
History
- October 12". The Library of Congress. Retrieved 2018-01-17.  ^ Smith-Rosenberg, Carroll (2012-12-01). This Violent Empire: The Birth of an American National Identity. UNC Press Books. ISBN 9780807895917.  ^ Strausbaugh, John (2016-08-02). City of Sedition: The History
History
of New York City during the Civil War. Grand Central Publishing. ISBN 9781455584192.  ^ Martin, Terence (1995-01-05). Parables of Possibility: The American Need for Beginnings. Columbia University Press. p. 20. ISBN 9780231504621.  ^ Fortin, Jacey (9 October 2017). "Why People Have Protested Columbus Day Almost From Its Start". New York Times.  ^ a b Kubal, Timothy. 2008. Cultural Movements and Collective Memory: Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
and the Rewriting of the National Origin Myth. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ^ Connell, William J. (2010). "What Columbus Day
Columbus Day
Really Means". The American Scholar.  ^ Appelbaum, Yoni (October 8, 2012). "How Columbus Day
Columbus Day
Fell Victim to Its Own Success". The Atlantic. Retrieved April 23, 2013.  ^ a b Charles Speroni, "The Development of the Columbus Day
Columbus Day
Pageant of San Francisco," Western Folklore, Vol. 7, No. 4 (Oct. 1948), pp. 325–335.U.S. State Department, Bureau of International Information Programs. ^ a b Sale, Kirkpatrick, "The Conquest of Paradise", p. 359, ISBN 0-333-57479-6 ^ United States
United States
House of Representatives (April 30, 1934). "36 USC 107, ch. 184, 48 Stat. 657". United States
United States
Code. Office of the Law Revision Counsel. Archived from the original (Text) on October 19, 2012. Retrieved October 19, 2012.  ^ American Memory
American Memory
(October 6, 2010). "Today in History: October 12". Today in History. Library of Congress
Library of Congress
(National Digital Library). Archived from the original on October 19, 2012. Retrieved October 19, 2012.  ^ "LBJ Signs Bill to Set Up Five 3-Day Holidays". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. via Google News. Associated Press. June 29, 1968.  The bill in question became the Uniform Monday Holiday Act. ^ Dougherty, Conor; Reddy, Sudeep (October 10, 2009). "Is Columbus Day Sailing Off the Calendar?". The Wall Street Journal.  ^ Gore, Leada (October 12, 2015). " Columbus Day
Columbus Day
2015: What's Closed, What's Open on Monday, Oct. 12?". al.com. Alabama Media Group. Retrieved October 7, 2016.  ^ "sfcolumbusday.org". sfcolumbusday.org. Archived from the original on September 26, 2011. Retrieved October 12, 2011.  ^ "Columbus Citizens Foundation". Columbuscitizensfd.org. Retrieved October 12, 2011.  ^ "Manhattan Style 'The Annual Columbus Day
Columbus Day
Parade'". Manhattanstyle.com. Retrieved October 12, 2011.  ^ "PR Newswire 'Performers, Bands, and Red, White and Green on Fifth Avenue in NYC Columbus Day
Columbus Day
Parade'". New York: Prnewswire.com. Retrieved October 12, 2011.  ^ NextPage – LivePublish. "Title 1 Virgin Islands Code Section 171". Michie.com. Retrieved October 12, 2011.  ^ "LIS > Code of Virginia
Virginia
> 2.2-3300". Leg1.state.va.us. Retrieved October 12, 2008.  ^ " Hawaii
Hawaii
Revised Statutes, Section 8-1.5". Hawaii.gov. Retrieved July 12, 2009.  ^ " Alaska
Alaska
Statutes: AS 44.12.010. Legal Holidays". Touchngo.com. Retrieved October 12, 2011.  ^ "Idea of Discoverers' Day Insults Native Americans"[permanent dead link], Mary Adamski, Honolulu Star-Bulletin, October 13, 1998. ^ "State Observed Holidays – Department of Human Resources Development". Hawaii.gov. Archived from the original on September 20, 2008. Retrieved October 12, 2008.  ^ Evans, Brad (October 7, 2016). " Vermont
Vermont
ditches Columbus Day
Columbus Day
for Indigenous Peoples' Day". mynbc5.com.  ^ South Dakota
South Dakota
Codified Laws. ^ "Chapter 187 – Holidays; Standard of Time; Commemorations". State of Oregon. Oregon
Oregon
Legislative Website. Archived from the original on February 28, 2014. Retrieved February 24, 2014.  ^ Floyd, Stephen (6 October 2017). "Gov. Brown names Oct. 9 Indigenous Peoples Day". Herald and News. Archived from the original on 12 October 2017. Retrieved 12 October 2017.  ^ See:

Iowa
Iowa
proclamation: "1C.5 Columbus Day". Iowa
Iowa
Code. Iowa
Iowa
Legislature. 2011. Retrieved October 8, 2012.  Nevada
Nevada
proclamation: Nevada
Nevada
Revised Statues Chapter 236, section 236.025 "Columbus Day"

^ " California
California
Government Code, Section 6700". Retrieved January 19, 2011.  ^ a b Dougherty, Conor; Reddy, Sudeep (October 10, 2009). "Is Columbus Day Sailing Off the Calendar?". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 8, 2012.  ^ Ortiz, Joe (February 4, 2010). "Schwarzenegger's Dropping Two State Holidays is Legal, California
California
judge rules". The Sacramento Bee. Mcclatchydc.com. Retrieved October 8, 2012.  ^ " Texas
Texas
Government Code § 662.044. Columbus Day". Retrieved October 12, 2015.  ^ https://www.timeanddate.com/holidays/us/columbus-day ^ Paddock, Richard C. (January 13, 2008). "UC Berkeley's bones of contention". Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times.  ^ " Austin
Austin
City Council renames Columbus Day
Columbus Day
to Indigenous Peoples Day". www.statesman.com. Retrieved 2017-10-12.  ^ "What Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
achieved was momentous. He deserves a holiday". Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times. 2017-09-03. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 2017-10-12.  ^ "Cambridge City Council Meeting – June 6, 2016 Agenda". rwinters.com. Retrieved 2016-06-08.  ^ "News: UW Group Offers Alternative to Columbus". The Badger Herald. Retrieved October 12, 2011.  ^ Sattin, Brad. "Mpls. City Council Passes Indigenous Peoples Day Resolution". KSTP/ABC-5 Eyewitness News. Retrieved October 8, 2014.  ^ " Columbus Day
Columbus Day
in Seattle
Seattle
no Longer: Now Indigenous Peoples' Day". Retrieved October 6, 2014.  ^ " Columbus Day
Columbus Day
changed to Indigenous People's Day in Vermont
Vermont
and city of Phoenix". cbsnews.com.  ^ http://fox13now.com/2017/10/03/columbus-day-changed-to-indigenous-peoples-day-in-salt-lake-city/ ^ Adcock, Clifton (October 13, 2008). "Holiday Not Celebrated by Tribes: American Indians See Columbus Day
Columbus Day
As a Reminder of Harsh Treatment Ages Ago". Tulsa World.  ^ "3rd Annual Dia de la Raza Celebration". Archived from the original on April 15, 2012. Retrieved September 13, 2011.  ^ "Derriban la Estatua de Cristóbal Colón en Caracas" (in Spanish). Iblnews.com. October 13, 2004. Archived from the original on April 14, 2008.  ^ Robin Nieto (October 13, 2004), Columbus Statue Toppled in Venezuela on Day of Indigenous Resistance ^ "Ley del Día de las Culturas" (PDF) (in Spanish). Mep.go.cr. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 15, 2012.  ^ Schwarcz, Lilia Moritz (1998). As barbas do Imperador: D. Pedro II, um monarca nos trópicos (in Portuguese) (2nd ed.). São Paulo: Companhia das Letras. ISBN 978-85-7164-837-1. ^ "22 de abril: Nem sempre se comemorou o descobrimento neste dia" (in Portuguese). Uol.com.br. April 12, 2013.  ^ "500 Years Later, Brazil
Brazil
Looks Its Past in the Face". nytimes.com. April 25, 2000.  ^ "Festas e gafes nos 500 anos do Brasil" (in Portuguese). Globo.com.br. July 30, 2013.  ^ "San Pedro to Celebrate Belize's Rich Culture on Pan-American Day". The San Pedro Sun. October 7, 2013. Retrieved October 8, 2013.  ^ " Belize
Belize
celebrates Pan American Day". Breaking Belize
Belize
News. 10 October 2016. Retrieved 12 October 2016.  ^ "Holidays Act (Chapter 289)" (PDF). Laws of Belize. Government of Belize. 2000. Retrieved October 8, 2013.  ^ "Regata della "Giornata Nazionale di Cristoforo Colombo"". Lega Navale Italiana.  ^ a b c Prakke, L.; C. A. J. M. Kortmann; J. C. E. van den Brandhof (2004). Constitutional Law of 15 EU Member States. Kluwer. p. 748. ISBN 90-13-01255-8. Retrieved September 30, 2009.  ^ a b c d Molina A. de Cienfuegos, Ignacio; Martínez Bárcena, Jorge; Fuller, Linda K. (ed.) (2004). "Spain: National Days throughout the History
History
and the Geography of Spain". National Days/National Ways: Historical, Political, and Religious Celebrations around the World. p. 253. ISBN 978-0-275-97270-7. Retrieved September 30, 2009. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ a b Kubap, Timothy (2008). Cultural movements and collective memory: Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
and the rewriting of the national origin myth. Macmillan. pp. 33–38. ISBN 978-1-4039-7577-5.  ^ "Why Do We Still Celebrate Columbus Day?". Liberal America. Retrieved 28 September 2016.  ^ "Why do Liberals Hate Columbus Day?". Death and Taxes. Retrieved 28 September 2016.  ^ "Indigenous People's Opposition to Celebration and Glorification of Colonial Pirate Christopher Columbus". Retrieved October 7, 2012.  ^ "History.com: Columbus Day
Columbus Day
Alternatives". Retrieved October 7, 2012.  ^ "Columbus Day: A Celebration of Heroism, Patriotism, and Italian and Latino Pride". New Boston Post. Retrieved 21 September 2016.  ^ Holley, Peter. "More Cities Celebrating 'Indigenous Peoples Day' Amid Effort to Abolish Columbus Day". The Washington Post. Retrieved 21 September 2016.  ^ "58% Think America Should Still Honor Christopher Columbus". Rasmussen Reports. Retrieved 21 September 2016.  ^ Edwards-Levy, Ariel. "Americans Are Split Over Whether Columbus Deserves A Holiday". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 21 September 2016.  ^ Blackfoot Physics: A Journey into the Native American Universe, by F. David Peat, Weiser, 2005, ISBN 1-57863-371-0, p. 310 ^ Weatherford, Jack. "Examining the Reputation of Christopher Columbus". hartford-hwp.com. Baltimore Evening Sun, reprinted by Clergy and Laity Concerned. Retrieved 7 October 2016.  ^ UC Newsroom (October 6, 2004). "'Repertorium Columbianum' Makes Landfall". Archived from the original on 2013-01-16.  ^ Zinn, Howard (1980). "A People's History
History
of the United States".  ^ Solomon, Norman (October 1995). "Columbus Day: A Clash of Myth and History". Media Beat. Archived from the original on October 25, 2009.  ^ A Faithful Response to the 500th Anniversary of the Arrival of Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
in A Resolution of the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the USA, paragraph 1. ^ "Several Massachusetts
Massachusetts
towns, cities honor indigenous peoples over Columbus". WHDH. Associated Press. October 11, 2016. Retrieved October 11, 2016. Several Massachusetts
Massachusetts
towns and cities have for the first time opted to celebrate indigenous people rather than explorer Christopher Columbus' s 1492 arrival in the Americas.  ^ Eisenberg, Daniel (1992), "Cisneros y la quema de los manuscritos granadinos", Journal of Hispanic Philology, 16, pp. 107–124, Archived from the original on April 6, 2016, retrieved November 5, 2017 CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Columbus Day.

Berkeley's Indigenous Peoples Day – History
History
of the annual celebration, pow wow and Native American market Today in History: October 12 – An article about Columbus Day
Columbus Day
at the Library of Congress Transform Columbus Day
Columbus Day
Alliance – Denver-based organization with background on opposition to Columbus Day Columbus Day
Columbus Day
Celebrates Western Culture – Frontpagemag.com

v t e

Federal holidays in the United States

Current

New Year's Day Birthday of Martin Luther King Jr. Washington's Birthday Memorial Day Independence Day Labor Day Columbus Day Veterans Day Thanksgiving Day Christmas
Christmas
Day

Former

The Eighth (1828–1861) Victory Day (1948–1975)

Proposed

Flag Day (1950) Election Day (1993) Malcolm X Day
Malcolm X Day
(1993–1994) Democracy Day (2005, 2014) Cesar Chavez Day
Cesar Chavez Day
(2008) Susan B. Anthony Day
Susan B. Anthony Day
(2011) Native American Day (2013)

v t e

Holidays, observances, and celebrations in the United States

January

New Year's Day
New Year's Day
(federal) Martin Luther King Jr. Day
Martin Luther King Jr. Day
(federal)

Confederate Heroes Day (TX) Fred Korematsu Day
Fred Korematsu Day
(CA, FL, HI, VA) Idaho Human Rights Day (ID) Inauguration Day (federal quadrennial, DC area) Kansas Day (KS) Lee–Jackson Day
Lee–Jackson Day
(formerly Lee–Jackson–King Day) (VA) Robert E. Lee Day
Robert E. Lee Day
(FL) Stephen Foster Memorial Day
Memorial Day
(36) The Eighth (LA, former federal)

January–February

Super Bowl Sunday

February American Heart Month Black History
History
Month

Washington's Birthday/Presidents' Day (federal) Valentine's Day

Georgia Day (GA) Groundhog Day Lincoln's Birthday
Lincoln's Birthday
(CA, CT, IL, IN, MO, NJ, NY, WV) National Girls and Women in Sports Day National Freedom Day (36) Primary Election Day (WI) Ronald Reagan Day
Ronald Reagan Day
(CA) Rosa Parks Day
Rosa Parks Day
(CA, MO) Susan B. Anthony Day
Susan B. Anthony Day
(CA, FL, NY, WI, WV, proposed federal)

February–March

Mardi Gras

Ash Wednesday
Ash Wednesday
(religious) Courir de Mardi Gras
Mardi Gras
(religious) Super Tuesday

March Irish-American Heritage Month National Colon Cancer Awareness Month Women's History
History
Month

St. Patrick's Day (religious) Spring break
Spring break
(week)

Casimir Pulaski Day
Casimir Pulaski Day
(IL) Cesar Chavez Day
Cesar Chavez Day
(CA, CO, TX, proposed federal) Evacuation Day (Suffolk County, MA) Harriet Tubman Day
Harriet Tubman Day
(NY) Holi
Holi
(NY, religious) Mardi Gras
Mardi Gras
(AL (in two counties), LA) Maryland Day
Maryland Day
(MD) National Poison Prevention Week
National Poison Prevention Week
(week) Prince Jonah Kūhiō Kalanianaʻole Day (HI) Saint Joseph's Day
Saint Joseph's Day
(religious) Seward's Day (AK) Texas
Texas
Independence Day (TX) Town Meeting Day (VT)

March–April

Easter
Easter
(religious)

Palm Sunday
Palm Sunday
(religious) Passover
Passover
(religious) Good Friday
Good Friday
(CT, NC, PR, religious) Easter
Easter
Monday (religious)

April Confederate History
History
Month

420 Day April Fools' Day Arbor Day Confederate Memorial Day
Memorial Day
(AL, MS) Days of Remembrance of the Victims of the Holocaust
Days of Remembrance of the Victims of the Holocaust
(week) Earth Day Emancipation Day
Emancipation Day
(DC) Thomas Jefferson's Birthday
Jefferson's Birthday
(AL) Pascua Florida (FL) Patriots' Day
Patriots' Day
(MA, ME) San Jacinto Day
San Jacinto Day
(TX) Siblings Day Walpurgis Night
Walpurgis Night
(religious)

May Asian Pacific American Heritage Month Jewish American Heritage Month

Memorial Day
Memorial Day
(federal) Mother's Day (36) Cinco de Mayo

Harvey Milk Day
Harvey Milk Day
(CA) Law Day (36) Loyalty Day (36) Malcolm X Day
Malcolm X Day
(CA, IL, proposed federal) May Day Military Spouse Day National Day of Prayer
National Day of Prayer
(36) National Defense Transportation Day (36) National Maritime Day (36) Peace Officers Memorial Day
Memorial Day
(36) Truman Day
Truman Day
(MO)

June Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Pride Month

Father's Day (36)

Bunker Hill Day
Bunker Hill Day
(Suffolk County, MA) Carolina Day
Carolina Day
(SC) Emancipation Day
Emancipation Day
In Texas
Texas
/ Juneteenth
Juneteenth
(TX) Flag Day (36, proposed federal) Helen Keller Day
Helen Keller Day
(PA) Honor America Days (3 weeks) Jefferson Davis Day
Jefferson Davis Day
(AL, FL) Kamehameha Day
Kamehameha Day
(HI) Odunde Festival
Odunde Festival
(Philadelphia, PA) Senior Week (week) West Virginia
Virginia
Day (WV)

July

Independence Day (federal)

Lā Hoʻihoʻi Ea (HI, unofficial) Parents' Day
Parents' Day
(36) Pioneer Day (UT)

July–August

Summer vacation

August

American Family Day (AZ) Barack Obama Day
Barack Obama Day
(IL) Bennington Battle Day (VT) Hawaii
Hawaii
Admission Day / Statehood Day (HI) Lyndon Baines Johnson Day
Lyndon Baines Johnson Day
(TX) National Aviation Day
National Aviation Day
(36) Service Reduction Day (MD) Victory over Japan Day (RI, former federal) Women's Equality Day
Women's Equality Day
(36)

September Prostate Cancer Awareness Month

Labor Day
Labor Day
(federal)

California
California
Admission Day (CA) Carl Garner Federal Lands Cleanup Day (36) Constitution Day (36) Constitution Week (week) Defenders Day
Defenders Day
(MD) Gold Star Mother's Day
Gold Star Mother's Day
(36) National Grandparents Day
National Grandparents Day
(36) National Payroll Week (week) Native American Day (CA, TN, proposed federal) Patriot Day
Patriot Day
(36)

September–October Hispanic Heritage Month

Oktoberfest

Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
(religious) Yom Kippur
Yom Kippur
(religious)

October Breast Cancer Awareness Month Disability Employment Awareness Month Filipino American History
History
Month LGBT History
History
Month

Columbus Day
Columbus Day
(federal) Halloween

Alaska
Alaska
Day (AK) Child Health Day (36) General Pulaski Memorial Day German-American Day Indigenous Peoples' Day
Indigenous Peoples' Day
(VT) International Day of Non-Violence Leif Erikson Day
Leif Erikson Day
(36) Missouri Day (MO) National School Lunch Week Native American Day (SD) Nevada
Nevada
Day (NV) Sweetest Day White Cane Safety Day
White Cane Safety Day
(36)

October–November

Diwali
Diwali
(religious)

November Native American Indian Heritage Month

Veterans Day
Veterans Day
(federal) Thanksgiving (federal)

Day after Thanksgiving (24) Election Day (CA, DE, HI, KY, MT, NJ, NY, OH, PR, WV, proposed federal) Family Day (NV) Hanukkah
Hanukkah
(religious) Lā Kūʻokoʻa (HI, unofficial) Native American Heritage Day (MD, WA) Obama Day
Obama Day
(Perry County, AL)

December

Christmas
Christmas
(religious, federal)

Alabama Day (AL) Christmas
Christmas
Eve (KY, NC, SC) Day after Christmas
Christmas
(KY, NC, SC, TX) Festivus Hanukkah
Hanukkah
(religious, week) Indiana Day
Indiana Day
(IN) Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
(religious, week) National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day
National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day
(36) New Year's Eve Pan American Aviation Day (36) Rosa Parks Day
Rosa Parks Day
(OH, OR) Wright Brothers Day (36)

Varies (year round)

Eid al-Adha
Eid al-Adha
(religious) Eid al-Fitr
Eid al-Fitr
(religious) Ramadan
Ramadan
(religious, month)

Legend: (federal) = federal holidays, (state) = state holidays, (religious) = religious holidays, (week) = weeklong holidays, (month) = monthlong holidays, (36) = Title 36 Observances and Ceremonies Bold indicates major holidays commonly celebrated in the United States, which often represent the major celebrations of the month. See also: Lists of holidays, Hallmark holidays, public holidays in the United States, New Jersey, New York, Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
and the United Stat

.