Columbanus (Irish: Columbán, 543 – 21 November 615), also known
as St. Columban, was an Irish missionary notable for founding a
number of monasteries from around 590 in the Frankish and Lombard
kingdoms, most notably
Luxeuil Abbey in present-day France and Bobbio
Abbey in present-day Italy. He is remembered as a key figure in the
Hiberno-Scottish mission, or Irish missionary activity in early
medieval Europe. In recent years, however, as Columbanus's deeds
and legacy have come to be re-examined by historians, the traditional
narrative of his career has been challenged and doubts have been
raised regarding his actual involvement in missionary work and the
extent to which he was driven by purely religious motives or also by a
concern for playing an active part in politics and church politics in
Columbanus taught an Irish monastic rule and penitential practices for
those repenting of sins, which emphasised private confession to a
priest, followed by penances levied by the priest in reparation for
Columbanus is one of the earliest identifiable Hiberno-Latin
2.1 Early life
2.2 Frankish Gaul
2.3 The Alps
3 Rule of Saint Columbanus
9 External links
Most of what we know about
Columbanus is based on Columbanus' own
works (as far as they have been preserved) and Jonas of Bobbio's
Vita Columbani (Life of Columbanus), which was written between 639 and
641.[Note 1] Jonas entered
Bobbio after Columbanus' death but relied
on reports of monks who still knew Columbanus. A description of
Columbanus written by an anonymous monk of
Bobbio is of
much later date. In the second volume of his Acta Sanctorum O.S.B.,
Mabillon gives the life in full, together with an appendix on the
miracles of the saint, written by an anonymous member of the Bobbio
Columbanus (the Latinised form of Columbán, meaning the white dove)
was born in the Kingdom of Meath, now part of Leinster, in Ireland in
543, the year Saint Benedict died at Monte Cassino. Prior to his
birth, his mother was said to have had visions of bearing a child who,
in the judgment of those interpreting the visions, would become a
Columbanus was well-educated in the areas of
grammar, rhetoric, geometry, and the Holy Scriptures.
Columbanus left home to study under Sinell, Abbot of Cluaninis in
Lough Erne.[Note 2] Under Sinell's instruction,
Columbanus composed a
commentary on the Psalms. He then moved to
Bangor Abbey on the coast
of Down, where Saint
Comgall was serving as the abbot. He stayed at
Bangor until his fortieth year, when he received Comgall's
permission to travel to the continent.
Columbanus in Frankish Gaul
Columbanus gathered twelve companions for his journey—Saint Attala,
Columbanus the Younger, Cummain, Domgal (Deicolus), Eogain, Eunan,
Saint Gall, Gurgano, Libran, Lua, Sigisbert, and Waldoleno—and
together they set sail for the continent. After a brief stop in
Britain, most likely on the Scottish coast, they crossed the channel
and landed in Brittany in 585. At
Saint-Malo in Brittany, there is
a granite cross bearing the saint's name to which people once came to
pray for rain in times of drought. The nearby village of Saint-Coulomb
commemorates him in name.
Columbanus and his companions were received with favour by King
Gontram of Burgundy, and soon they made their way to Annegray, where
they founded a monastery in an abandoned Roman fortress. Despite its
remote location in the Vosges Mountains, the community became a
popular pilgrimage site that attracted so many monastic vocations that
two new monasteries had to be formed to accommodate them. In 590,
Columbanus obtained from King Gontram the Gallo-Roman castle called
Luxovium in present-day Luxeuil-les-Bains, some eight miles from
Annegray. The castle, soon transformed into a monastery, was
located in a wild region, thickly covered with pine forests and
Columbanus erected a third monastery called Ad-fontanas at
present-day Fontaine-lès-Luxeuil, named for its numerous
springs. These monastic communities remained under Columbanus'
authority, and their rules of life reflected the Irish tradition in
which he had been formed. As these communities expanded and drew more
Columbanus sought greater solitude, spending periods of time
in a hermitage and communicating with the monks through an
intermediary. Often he would withdraw to a cave seven miles away, with
a single companion who acted as messenger between himself and his
During his twenty years in
Gaul (in present-day France), Columbanus
became involved in a dispute with the Frankish bishops who may have
feared his growing influence. During the first half of the sixth
century, the councils of
Gaul had given to bishops absolute authority
over religious communities. As heirs to the Irish monastic tradition,
Columbanus and his monks used the Irish Easter calculation, a version
of Bishop Augustalis's 84-year computus for determining the date of
Easter (Quartodecimanism), whereas the
Franks had adopted the
Victorian cycle of 532 years. The bishops objected to the newcomers'
continued observance of their own dating, which—among other
issues—caused the end of
Lent to differ. They also complained about
the distinct Irish tonsure. In 602, the bishops assembled to judge
Columbanus, but he did not appear before them as requested. Instead,
he sent a letter to the prelates—a strange mixture of freedom,
reverence, and charity—admonishing them to hold synods more
frequently, and advising them to pay more attention to matters of
equal importance to that of the date of Easter. In defence of his
following his traditional paschal cycle, he wrote:
I am not the author of this divergence. I came as a poor stranger into
these parts for the cause of Christ, Our Saviour. One thing alone I
ask of you, holy Fathers, permit me to live in silence in these
forests, near the bones of seventeen of my brethren now dead.
When the bishops refused to abandon the matter, Columbanus, following
Saint Patrick's canon, appealed directly to Pope Gregory I. In the
third and only surviving letter, he asks "the holy Pope, his Father"
to provide "the strong support of his authority" and to render a
"verdict of his favour", apologising for "presuming to argue as it
were, with him who sits in the chair of Peter, Apostle and Bearer of
the Keys". None of the letters were answered, most likely due to the
pope's death in 604.
Columbanus then sent a letter to Gregory's
successor, Pope Boniface IV, asking him to confirm the tradition of
his elders—if it is not contrary to the Faith—so that he and his
monks can follow the rites of their ancestors. Before Boniface
Columbanus moved outside the jurisdiction of the Frankish
bishops. Since the Easter issue appears to end around that time,
Columbanus may have stopped celebrating Irish date of Easter after
moving to Italy.[Note 3]
Columbanus was also involved in a dispute with members of the Frankish
royal family. Upon the death of King Gontram of Burgundy, the
succession passed to his nephew, Childebert II, the son of his brother
Sigebert and Sigebert's wife Brunhilda of Austrasia. When Childebert
II died, he left two sons,
Theuderic II who inherited the Kingdom of
Theudebert II who inherited the Kingdom of Austrasia.
Since both were minors, Brunhilda, their grandmother, declared herself
their guardian and controlled the governments of the two kingdoms.
Theuderic II venerated
Columbanus and often visited him, but the saint
admonished and rebuked him for his behaviour. When Theuderic began
living with a mistress, the saint objected, earning the displeasure of
Brunhilda, who thought a royal marriage would threaten her own
power. The saint did not spare the demoralised court, and
Brunhilda became his bitterest foe. Angered by the saint's moral
stand, Brunhilda stirred up the bishops and nobles to find fault with
his monastic rules. When
Theuderic II finally confronted
Luxeuil, ordering him to conform to the country's conventions, the
saint refused and was then taken prisoner to Besançon. Columbanus
managed to escape his captors and returned to his monastery at
Luxeuil. When the king and his grandmother found out, they sent
soldiers to drive him back to Ireland by force, separating him from
his monks by insisting that only those from Ireland could accompany
him into exile.
Columbanus was taken to Nevers, then travelled by boat down the Loire
river to the coast. At
Tours he visited the tomb of Saint Martin, and
sent a message to
Theuderic II indicating that within three years he
and his children would perish. When he arrived at Nantes, he wrote a
letter before embarkation to his fellow monks at Luxeuil monastery.
Filled with love and affection, the letter urges his brethren to obey
Attala, who stayed behind as abbot of the monastic community. The
They come to tell me the ship is ready. The end of my parchment
compels me to finish my letter. Love is not orderly; it is this which
has made it confused. Farewell, dear hearts of mine; pray for me that
I may live in God.
Soon after the ship set sail from Nantes, a severe storm drove the
vessel back ashore. Convinced that his holy passenger caused the
tempest, the captain refused further attempts to transport the monk.
Columbanus made his way across
Gaul to visit King
Chlothar II of
Soissons where he was gladly received. Despite the king's
offers to stay in his kingdom,
Columbanus left Neustria in 611 for the
court of King
Theudebert II of
Austrasia in the northeastern part of
the Kingdom of the Merovingian Franks.
Columbanus travelled to Metz, where he received an honourable welcome,
and then proceeding to Mainz, where he sailed upwards the
to the lands of the
Alemanni in the northern Alps, intending
to preach the Gospel to these people. He followed the
Rhine river and
its tributaries, the
Aar and the Limmat, and then on to Lake Zurich.
Columbanus chose the village of
Tuggen as his initial community, but
the work was not successful. He continued north-east by way of
Bregenz on Lake Constance. Here the saint found an oratory
dedicated to Saint Aurelia containing three brass images of their
Columbanus commanded Gallus, who knew the local
language, to preach to the inhabitants, and many were converted. The
three brass images were destroyed, and
Columbanus blessed the little
church, placing the relics of Saint Aurelia beneath the altar. A
monastery was erected, Mehrerau Abbey, and the brethren observed their
Columbanus stayed in
Bregenz for about one year.
Following an uprising against the community, possibly related to that
region being taken over by the saint's old enemy King Theuderic II,
Columbanus resolved to cross the Alps into Italy. Gallus remained
in this area and died there 646. About seventy years later at the
place of Gallus' cell the
Saint Gall was founded, which
in itself was the origin of the city of
St. Gallen again about another
three hundred years later.
Columbanus in the Alps and Italy
Columbanus arrived in
Milan in 612 and was warmly greeted by King
Agilulf and Queen
Theodelinda of the Lombards.[Note 4] He immediately
began refuting the teachings of Arianism, which had enjoyed a degree
of acceptance in Italy. He wrote a treatise against Arianism, which
has since been lost. Queen Theodelinda, the devout daughter of Duke
Garibald I of Bavaria, played an important role in restoring Nicene
Christianity to a position of primacy against Arianism, and was
largely responsible for the king's conversion to Christianity.
At the king's request,
Columbanus wrote a letter to Pope Boniface IV
on the controversy over the Three Chapters—writings by Syrian
bishops suspected of Nestorianism, which had been condemned in the
fifth century as heresy.
Pope Gregory I
Pope Gregory I had tolerated in Lombardy
those persons who defended the Three Letters, among them King Agilulf.
Columbanus agreed to take up the issue on behalf of the king. The
letter begins with an apology that a "foolish Scot (Scottus,
Irishman)" would be writing for a Lombard king. After acquainting the
pope with the imputations brought against him, he entreats the pontiff
to prove his orthodoxy and assemble a council. He writes that his
freedom of speech is consistent with the custom of his country.
Some of the language used in the letter might now be regarded as
disrespectful, but in that time, faith and austerity could be more
indulgent. At the same time, the letter expresses the most
affectionate and impassioned devotion to the Holy See.
We Irish, though dwelling at the far ends of the earth, are all
Saint Peter and Saint Paul ... we are bound to the Chair
of Peter, and although Rome is great and renowned, through that Chair
alone is she looked on as great and illustrious among us ... On
account of the two Apostles of Christ, you are almost celestial, and
Rome is the head of the whole world, and of the Churches.
If Columbanus' zeal for orthodoxy caused him to overstep the limits of
discretion, his real attitude towards Rome is sufficiently clear,
calling the pope "his Lord and Father in Christ", the "Chosen
Watchman", and the "First Pastor, set higher than all mortals".
Facade of the Abbey in Bobbio
Columbanus a tract of land called
Milan and Genoa near the
Trebbia river, situated in a defile of the
Apennine Mountains, to be used as a base for the conversion of the
Lombard people. The area contained a ruined church and wastelands
known as Ebovium, which had formed part of the lands of the papacy
prior to the Lombard invasion.
Columbanus wanted this secluded place,
for while enthusiastic in the instruction of the
Lombards he preferred
solitude for his monks and himself. Next to the little church, which
was dedicated to Saint Peter,
Columbanus erected a monastery in 614.
Bobbio Abbey at its foundation followed the Rule of Saint Columbanus,
based on the monastic practices of Celtic Christianity. For centuries
it remained the stronghold of orthodoxy in northern Italy.[Note 5]
Stone bridge over the Tebbia river leading to
Bobbio Abbey in northern
During the last year of his life,
Columbanus received messenges from
King Chlothar II, inviting the saint to return to Burgundy, now that
his enemies were dead.
Columbanus did not return, but requested that
the king always protect his monks at Luxeuil Abbey. He prepared for
death by retiring to his cave on the mountainside overlooking the
Trebbia river, where, according to a tradition, he had dedicated an
oratory to Our Lady.
Columbanus died at
Bobbio on 21 November 615.
Rule of Saint Columbanus
The Rule of Saint
Columbanus embodied the customs of
Bangor Abbey and
other Irish monasteries. Much shorter than the Rule of Saint Benedict,
the Rule of Saint
Columbanus consists of ten chapters, on the subjects
of obedience, silence, food, poverty, humility, chastity, choir
offices, discretion, mortification, and perfection.
In the first chapter,
Columbanus introduces the great principle of his
Rule: obedience, absolute and unreserved. The words of seniors should
always be obeyed, just as "Christ obeyed the Father up to death for
us." One manifestation of this obedience was constant hard labour
designed to subdue the flesh, exercise the will in daily self-denial,
and set an example of industry in cultivation of the soil. The least
deviation from the Rule entailed corporal punishment, or a severe form
of fasting. In the second chapter,
Columbanus instructs that the
rule of silence be "carefully observed", since it is written: "But the
nurture of righteousness is silence and peace". He also warns, "Justly
will they be damned who would not say just things when they could, but
preferred to say with garrulous loquacity what is evil ..." In the
Columbanus instructs, "Let the monks' food be poor and
taken in the evening, such as to avoid repletion, and their drink such
as to avoid intoxication, so that it may both maintain life and not
For indeed those who desire eternal rewards must only consider
usefulness and use. Use of life must be moderated just as toil must be
moderated, since this is true discretion, that the possibility of
spiritual progress may be kept with a temperance that punishes the
flesh. For if temperance exceeds measure, it will be a vice and not a
virtue; for virtue maintains and retains many goods. Therefore we must
fast daily, just as we must feed daily; and while we must eat daily,
we must gratify the body more poorly and sparingly ..."
Fresco of Saint
Columbanus in Brugnato Cathedral
In the fourth chapter,
Columbanus presents the virtue of poverty and
of overcoming greed, and that monks should be satisfied with "small
possessions of utter need, knowing that greed is a leprosy for monks".
Columbanus also instructs that "nakedness and disdain of riches are
the first perfection of monks, but the second is the purging of vices,
the third the most perfect and perpetual love of God and unceasing
affection for things divine, which follows on the forgetfulness of
earthly things. Since this is so, we have need of few things,
according to the word of the Lord, or even of one." In the fifth
Columbanus warns against vanity, reminding the monks of
Jesus' warning in Luke 16:15: "You are the ones who justify yourselves
in the eyes of others, but God knows your hearts. What people value
highly is detestable in God's sight." In the sixth chapter,
Columbanus instructs that "a monk's chastity is indeed judged in his
thoughts" and warns, "What profit is it if he be virgin in body, if he
be not virgin in mind? For God, being Spirit."
In the seventh chapter,
Columbanus instituted a service of perpetual
prayer, known as laus perennis, by which choir succeeded choir, both
day and night. In the eighth chapter,
Columbanus stresses the
importance of discretion in the lives of monks to avoid "the downfall
of some, who beginning without discretion and passing their time
without a sobering knowledge, have been unable to complete a
praiseworthy life." Monks are instructed to pray to God for to
"illumine this way, surrounded on every side by the world's thickest
So discretion has got its name from discerning, for the reason that it
discerns in us between good and evil, and also between the moderate
and the complete. For from the beginning either class has been divided
like light and darkness, that is, good and evil, after evil began
through the devil's agency to exist by the corruption of good, but
through God's agency Who first illumines and then divides. Thus
righteous Abel chose the good, but unrighteous Cain fell upon
In the ninth chapter,
Columbanus presents mortification as an
essential element in the lives of monks, who are instructed, "Do
nothing without counsel." Monks are warned to "beware of a proud
independence, and learn true lowliness as they obey without murmuring
and hesitation." According to the Rule, there are three components
to mortification: "not to disagree in mind, not to speak as one
pleases with the tongue, not to go anywhere with complete freedom."
This mirrors the words of Jesus, "For I have come down from heaven not
to do my will but to do the will of him who sent me." (John 6:38) In
the tenth and final chapter,
Columbanus regulates forms of penance
(often corporal) for offences, and it is here that the Rule of Saint
Columbanus differs significantly from that of Saint Benedict.
The habit of the monks consisted of a tunic of undyed wool, over which
was worn the cuculla, or cowl, of the same material. A great deal of
time was devoted to various kinds of manual labour, not unlike the
life in monasteries of other rules. The Rule of Saint
approved of by the
Synod of Mâcon in 627, but it was superseded at
the close of the century by the Rule of Saint Benedict. For several
centuries in some of the greater monasteries the two rules were
Columbanus did not lead a perfect life. According to Jonas and other
sources, he could be impetuous and even headstrong, for by nature he
was eager, passionate, and dauntless. These qualities were both the
source of his power and the cause of his mistakes. His virtues,
however, were quite remarkable. Like many saints, he had a great love
for God's creatures. Stories claim that as he walked in the woods, it
was not uncommon for birds to land on his shoulders to be caressed, or
for squirrels to run down from the trees and nestle in the folds of
his cowl. Although a strong defender of Irish traditions, he never
wavered in showing deep respect for the Holy See as the supreme
authority. His influence in Europe was due to the conversions he
effected and to the rule that he composed. It may be that the example
and success of Saint
Columba in Caledonia inspired him to similar
exertions. The life of
Columbanus stands as the prototype of
missionary activity in Europe, followed by such men as Saint Kilian,
Vergilius of Salzburg, Donatus of Fiesole, Wilfrid, Willibrord,
Suitbert of Kaiserwerdt, Saint Boniface, and Ursicinus of
The following are the principal miracles attributed to his
Procuring food for a sick monk and curing the wife of his benefactor
Escaping injury while surrounded by wolves
Causing a bear to evacuate a cave at his biddings
Producing a spring of water near his cave
Replenishing the Luxeuil granary
Multiplying bread and beer for his community
Curing sick monks, who rose from their beds at his request to reap the
Giving sight to a blind man at Orleans
Destroying with his breath a cauldron of beer prepared for a pagan
Taming a bear and yoking it to a plough
Jonas relates the occurrence of a miracle during Columbanus' time in
Bregenz, when that region was experiencing a period of severe famine.
Although they were without food, they were bold and unterrified in
their faith, so that they obtained food from the Lord. After their
bodies had been exhausted by three days of fasting, they found so
great an abundance of birds, just as the quails formerly covered the
camp of the children of Israel, that the whole country near there was
filled with birds. The man of God knew that this food had been
scattered on the ground for his own safety and that of his brethren,
and that the birds had come only because he was there. He ordered his
followers first to render grateful praises to the Creator, and then to
take the birds as food. And it was a wonderful and stupendous miracle;
for the birds were seized according to the father's commands and did
not attempt to fly away. The manna of birds remained for three days.
On the fourth day, a priest from an adjacent city, warned by divine
inspiration, sent a supply of grain to Saint Columban. When the supply
of grain arrived, the Omnipotent, who had furnished the winged food to
those in want, immediately commanded the phalanxes of birds to depart.
We learned this from Eustasius, who was present with the others, under
the command of the servant of God. He said that no one of them
remembered ever having seen birds of such a kind before; and the food
was of so pleasant savor that it surpassed royal viands. Oh, wonderful
gift of divine mercy!
Monastery ruins at Annegray
Coat of Arms of
Bobbio with doves, symbol of Columbanus
In France, the ruins of Columbanus' first monastery at
legally protected through the efforts of the Association
Internationale des Amis de St Columban, which purchased the site in
1959. The association also owns and protects the site containing the
cave, which acted as Columbanus' cell, and the holy well, which he
created nearby. At Luxeuil-les-Bains, the Basilica of Saint Peter
stands on the site of Columbanus' first church. A statue near the
entrance, unveiled in 1947, shows him denouncing the immoral life of
King Theuderic II. Formally an abbey church, the basilica contains old
monastic buildings, which have been used as a minor seminary since the
nineteenth century. It is dedicated to
Columbanus and houses a bronze
statue of him in its courtyard.
San Colombano al Lambro
San Colombano al Lambro in Milan, San Colombano Belmonte
in Turin, and
San Colombano Certénoli
San Colombano Certénoli in Genoa all take their names
from the saint. The last monastery erected by
Columbanus at Bobbio
remained for centuries the stronghold of orthodoxy in northern
Bobbio Abbey in Italy became a citadel of faith and learning,
Luxeuil Abbey in France became the "nursery of saints and
apostles". The monastery produced sixty-three apostles who carried
his rule, together with the Gospel, into France, Germany, Switzerland,
and Italy. These disciples of
Columbanus are accredited with
founding over one hundred different monasteries. The canton and
town still bearing the name of
St. Gallen testify to how well one of
his disciples succeeded.
The Missionary Society of Saint Columban, founded in 1916, and the
Missionary Sisters of St. Columban, founded in 1924, are both
dedicated to Columbanus.
Remains of Columbanus,
Bobbio Abbey crypt
The remains of
Columbanus are preserved in the crypt at
Many miracles have been credited to his intercession. In 1482, the
relics were placed in a new shrine and laid beneath the altar of the
crypt. The sacristy at
Bobbio possesses a portion of the skull of the
saint, his knife, wooden cup, bell, and an ancient water vessel,
formerly containing sacred relics and said to have been given to him
by Pope Gregory I. According to some authorities, twelve teeth of the
saint were taken from the tomb in the fifteenth century and kept in
the treasury, but these have since disappeared.
Columbanus is named in the
Roman Martyrology on 23 November, which is
his feast day in Ireland. His feast is observed by the Benedictines on
Columbanus is the patron saint of motorcyclists. In art,
Columbanus is represented bearded bearing the monastic cowl, holding
in his hand a book with an Irish satchel, and standing in the midst of
wolves. Sometimes he is depicted in the attitude of taming a bear, or
with sun-beams over his head.
^ Walker's edition is also available on CELT (University College
Cork), a website that provides Irish medieval sources with English
translations. A critical edition of Jonas' Vita Columbani was
published in 1905 by Bruno Krusch in Monumenta Germaniae Historica,
Scriptores Rerum Germaincarum in usum schoarum, vol. 37, Hannover:
Hahn 1905. See also Internet Medieval Sourcebook.
^ Cluaninis is derived from the Irish words "Cluan Inis", which mean
"meadow island". The remains of the monastery can be seen at
Bellanaleck, County Fermanagh.
^ The Italians themselves followed a third system of reckoning Easter,
based on the improvements to Victorius's system introduced by
Dionysius Exiguus at the time he devised the
Anno Domini dating
^ Some scholars believe that
Columbanus made two journeys into Italy,
which were confounded by Jonas. On his first journey,
to Rome and received from
Pope Gregory I
Pope Gregory I sacred relics. This may
possibly explain the traditional spot in St. Peter's, where Pope
Gregory I and
Columbanus are supposed to have met.
Bobbio Abbey may have been the model for the monastery in northern
Italy in Umberto Eco's novel The Name of the Rose.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae
af ag Edmonds,
Columba (1908). "St. Columbanus". The Catholic
Encyclopedia. 4. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved 15
^ "St. Columban's 1400th death anniversary celebrated in Hong Kong".
UCAN. Sunday Examiner. December 11, 2015. Retrieved 19 December
^ Flechner and Meeder, The Irish in Early Medieval Europe, pp. 1–18,
195–213, 231–41, on Googlebooks
^ Walker, G. S. Murdoch, ed. (1957). Columbani Opera. Dublin: The
Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies.
^ Lapidge, Michael (1997). Columbanus: Studies on the Latin Writings.
Woodbridge: Boydell Press. ISBN 978-0-85115-667-5.
^ O'Hara, Alexander, and Faye Taylor. "Aristocratic and Monastic
Conflict in Tenth-Century Italy: the Case of
Bobbio and the Miracula
Sancti Columbani" in Viator. Medieval and Renaissance Studies. 44:3
(2013), pp. 43–61.
^ a b c Smith 2012, p. 201.
^ Jonas 643, p. 6.
^ Jonas 643, p. 7.
^ Wallace 1995, p. 43.
^ Jonas 643, p. 10.
^ a b c "
Columbanus Today: Places of His Ministry". Monastic Ireland.
Retrieved 15 January 2013.
^ a b c "St. Columbanus". Catholic News Agency. Retrieved 16 January
^ a b c Jonas 643, p. 17.
^ Blackburn 1999, p. 767.
^ Cusack 2002, p. 173.
^ Stokes 2007, p. 132
^ Moran 2010, p. 105
^ Montalembert 1861, p. 440.
^ Allnatt 2007, p. 105.
^ Montalembert 1861, p. 444.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k
Columbanus Hibernus. Walker, G.S.M., ed.
"Monk's Rules". Corpus of Electronic Texts. University College Cork.
Retrieved 19 January 2013.
^ Montalembert 1898, II p. 405.
^ Jonas 643, p. 54.
^ Webb, Alfred (2009). A Compendium of Irish Biography. Charleston:
BiblioLife. ISBN 978-1116472684.
^ Stokes, p. 254.
^ Stokes, p. 74.
^ Stokes, p. 183.
^ Husenheth, p. 33.
Allnatt, Charles F. B. (2007). Cathedra Petri. Whitefish, Montana:
Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 978-0548785072.
Blackburn, Bonnie; Holford-Strevens, Leofranc (1999). The Oxford
Companion to the Year. Oxford University Press.
Concannon, Thomas (2010). The Life of St. Columban. Wimpole Close:
BCR. ISBN 978-1117876894.
Cusack, Margaret Anne (2002). The Illustrated History of Ireland. New
York: Gramercy. ISBN 978-0517629147.
Columba (1908). "St. Columbanus". The Catholic Encyclopedia.
4. New York: Robert Appleton Company. ASIN B000R4GCD8.
Flechner, Roy; Meeder, Sven, eds. (2016). The Irish in Early Medieval
Europe: Identity, Culture and Religion. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Gray, Patrick T.R., and Michael W. Herren (1994). "
Columbanus and the
Three Chapters Controversy" in Journal of Theological Studies, NS, 45,
Healy, John (1892). "Saint Columbanus". The ancient Irish church (1
ed.). London: Religious Tract Society. pp. 70–81.
Jonas (2009). Life of St. Columban. Charleston: BiblioLife.
Lapidge, Michael, ed (1997). Columbanus: Studies in Latin Writings.
London: Boydell Press. ISBN 978-0851156675. CS1 maint: Extra
text: authors list (link)
Mc Sweeney, Richard (2015). Abiding in Bobbio. Raleigh, North
Carolina: Lulu. ISBN 978-1329382237.
Montalembert, Charles Forbes (1861). The Monks of the West. 2. London:
Moran, Patrick Francis (2010). Irish Saints in Great Britain.
Charleston: Nabu Press. ISBN 978-1176742925.
Ó Fiaich, Tomás (2012).
Columbanus in His Own Words. Dublin:
Veritas. ISBN 978-1847303578.
O'Hara, Alexander (2015). Saint Columbanus: Selected Writings. Dublin:
Veritas. ISBN 978-1847305879.
Richter, Michael (2008).
Bobbio in the Early Middle Ages: The Abiding
Legacy of Columbanus. Dublin: Four Courts Press.
Smith, Sir William; Wace, Henry (2012). A Dictionary of Christian
Biography, Literature, Sects and Doctrines. Charleston: Nabu Press.
Stokes, Margaret (2007). Six Months in the Apennines. Whitefish,
Montana: Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 978-0548271971.
Wallace, Martin (1995). A Little Book of Celtic Saints. Belfast:
Appletree Press. ISBN 978-0862814564.
Wilson, James (1954). Life of St. Columban. Dublin: Clonmore and
Reynolds Ltd. ASIN B0007IWDF0.
The Life of St. Columban, by the Monk Jonas (Internet Medieval
"St. Columbanus". Catholic Encyclopedia. 1913.
"Columban, Saint". New International Encyclopedia. 1905.
The Order of the Knights of Saint Columbanus
Columbanus' Life and Legacy
Hiberno-Latin culture to 1169
Cenn Fáelad mac Aillila
Diarmaid the Just
Finnian of Moville
Fintán of Taghmon
Gilla Críst Ua Máel Eóin
Laidcenn mac Buith Bannaig
Laurentius of Echternach
Manchán of Min Droichit
Mo Sinu moccu Min
Muirchu moccu Machtheni
Ruben of Dairinis
On the continent
Clement of Ireland
Colman nepos Cracavist
Donatus of Fiesole
John Scotus Eriugena
Blessed Marianus Scotus
Vergilius of Salzburg
Virgilius Maro Grammaticus
Collectio canonum Hibernensis
De mirabilibus sacrae scripturae
Antiphonary of Bangor
Gospels of Mael Brigte
Hiberno-Latin after 1169
ISNI: 0000 0000 7976 3668
BNF: cb12143633s (data)