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The Collective Security Treaty Organization
Collective Security Treaty Organization
(CSTO; Russian: Организация Договора о Коллективной Безопасности, Organizacija Dogovora o Kollektivnoj Bezopasnosti, ODKB) is an intergovernmental military alliance that was signed on 15 May 1992. In 1992, six post-Soviet states belonging to the Commonwealth of Independent States—Russia, Armenia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan—signed the Collective Security Treaty (also referred to as the " Tashkent
Tashkent
Pact" or "Tashkent Treaty").[1] Three other post-Soviet states—Azerbaijan, Belarus, and Georgia—signed the next year and the treaty took effect in 1994. Five years later, six of the nine—all but Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Uzbekistan—agreed to renew the treaty for five more years, and in 2002 those six agreed to create the Collective Security Treaty Organization as a military alliance. Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
rejoined the CSTO in 2006 but withdrew in 2012. Nikolai Bordyuzha
Nikolai Bordyuzha
was appointed secretary general of the new organization. On 23 June 2006, Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
became a full participant in the CSTO; and its membership was ratified by the Uzbek parliament on 28 March 2008.[2] It suspended its membership in 2012. The CSTO is an observer organization at the United Nations
United Nations
General Assembly. The CSTO charter reaffirmed the desire of all participating states to abstain from the use or threat of force. Signatories would not be able to join other military alliances or other groups of states,[3] while aggression against one signatory would be perceived as an aggression against all. To this end, the CSTO holds yearly military command exercises for the CSTO nations to have an opportunity to improve inter-organization cooperation. A CSTO military exercise called "Rubezh 2008" was hosted in Armenia, where a combined total of 4,000 troops from all seven constituent CSTO member countries conducted operative, strategic and tactical training with an emphasis towards furthering efficiency of the collective security element of the CSTO partnership.[4] The largest of such exercises was held in Southern Russia
Russia
and central Asia in 2011, consisting of more than 10,000 troops and 70 combat aircraft.[5] In order to deploy military bases of a third country in the territory of the CSTO member-states, it is necessary to obtain the official consent of all its members.[6] The CSTO employs a "rotating presidency" system in which the country leading the CSTO alternates every year.[7]

Contents

1 Member states

1.1 Potential future members 1.2 History

2 Policy agenda

2.1 Information Technology & Cyber Security

3 Recent developments 4 Collective Rapid Reaction Force 5 Kyrgyz conflict 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Member states[edit] Stamp of Kazakhstan, 2012 Member and observer states of the Collective Security Treaty Organization:

Country

Membership

Year of entry

 Armenia

full member

1994

 Belarus

full member

1994

 Kazakhstan

full member

1994

 Kyrgyzstan

full member

1994

 Russia

full member

1994

 Tajikistan

full member

1994

 Afghanistan

non-member observer state

2013

 Serbia

non-member observer state

2013

Former member states of the Collective Security Treaty Organization:

Country

Membership

Year of entry

Year of withdrawal

 Azerbaijan

former member state

1994

1999

 Georgia

former member state

1994

1999

 Uzbekistan

former member state

1994 (first time) 2006 (second time)

1999 (first time) 2012 (second time)

Potential future members[edit] In May 2007 the CSTO secretary-general Nikolai Bordyuzha
Nikolai Bordyuzha
suggested Iran
Iran
could join the CSTO saying, "The CSTO is an open organization. If Iran
Iran
applies in accordance with our charter, we will consider the application." If Iran
Iran
joined it would be the first state outside the former Soviet Union
Soviet Union
to become a member of the organization. The Republic of Serbia
Serbia
and the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
have been accorded observer status in the CSTO.[8]

History[edit] Euler diagram
Euler diagram
showing the relationships among various supranational organisations in the territory of the former Soviet Unionv • d • e The CSTO grew out of the framework of the Commonwealth of Independent States, and first began as the CIS Collective Security Treaty (CST) which was signed on 15 May 1992, by Armenia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russian Federation, Tajikistan
Tajikistan
and Uzbekistan, in the city of Tashkent. Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
signed the treaty on 24 September 1993, Georgia on 9 December 1993 and Belarus
Belarus
on 31 December 1993. The treaty came into effect on 20 April 1994. The CST was set to last for a 5-year period unless extended. On 2 April 1999, only six members of the CST signed a protocol renewing the treaty for another five-year period – Azerbaijan, Georgia and Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
refused to sign and withdrew from the treaty instead. At the same time Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
joined the GUAM group, established in 1997 by Georgia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, and Moldova, and largely seen as intending to counter Russian influence in the region. Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
later withdrew from GUAM in 2005 and joined the CSTO in 2006 in order to seek closer ties with Russia. On 28 June 2012, Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
suspended its membership in the CSTO.[9]

Policy agenda[edit] Information Technology & Cyber Security[edit] Member nations adopted measures to counter cyber security threats and information technology crimes in a Foreign Ministers Council meeting in Minsk, Belarus.[10] Foreign Minister Abdrakhmanov put forward a proposal to establishing a Cyber Shield system.[10]

Recent developments[edit] During 2005, the CSTO partners conducted some common military exercises. In June 2007, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
assumed the rotating CSTO presidency. In October 2007, the CSTO signed an agreement with the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), in the Tajik capital of Dushanbe, to broaden cooperation on issues such as security, crime, and drug trafficking.[11] On 6 October 2007, CSTO members agreed to a major expansion of the organization that would create a CSTO peacekeeping force that could deploy under a U.N.
U.N.
mandate or without one in its member states. The expansion would also allow all members to purchase Russian weapons at the same price as Russia.[12] On 29 August 2008, Russia
Russia
announced it would seek CSTO recognition of the independence of Abkhazia
Abkhazia
and South Ossetia. Three days earlier, on 26 August, Russia
Russia
recognized the independence of Georgia's breakaway regions of Abkhazia
Abkhazia
and South Ossetia.[13] On 5 September 2008, Armenia
Armenia
assumed the rotating CSTO presidency during a CSTO meeting in Moscow, Russia.[14] On 10 December 2010, the member states approved a declaration establishing a CSTO peacekeeping force and a declaration of the CSTO member states, in addition to signing a package of joint documents.[15] Since 21 December 2011, the Treaty parties can the veto the establishment of new foreign military bases in the member states of the Collective Security Treaty Organization
Collective Security Treaty Organization
(CSTO). Additionally, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
took over the rotating presidency of the CSTO from Belarus.[6] In August 2014, 3,000 soldiers from the members of Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia
Russia
and Tajikistan
Tajikistan
participated in psychological and cyber warfare exercises in Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
under war games managed by CSTO.[16] On March 19, 2015, the CSTO Secretary General Nikolai Bordyuzha offered to send a peacekeeping mission to Donbass, Ukraine. "The CSTO has a peacekeeping capacity. Our peacekeepers continuously undergo corresponding training. If such a decision is taken by the United Nations, we stand ready to provide peacekeeping units.”[17]

Collective Rapid Reaction Force[edit] Main article: Collective Rapid Reaction Force On 4 February 2009, an agreement to create the Collective Rapid Reaction Force (KSOR) (Russian: Коллекти́вные си́лы операти́вного реаги́рования (КСОР)) was reached by five of the seven members, with plans finalized on 14 June. The force is intended to be used to repulse military aggression, conduct anti-terrorist operations, fight transnational crime and drug trafficking, and neutralize the effects of natural disasters. Belarus and Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
initially refrained from signing on to the agreement; Belarus
Belarus
because of a trade dispute with Russia, and Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
due to general concerns. Belarus
Belarus
signed the agreement the following October while Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
has yet to sign it. However a source in the Russian delegation said Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
would not participate in the collective force on a permanent basis but would "delegate" its detachments to take part in operations on an ad hoc basis.[18][19] On 3 August 2009 the foreign ministry of Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
criticized plans by Russia
Russia
to establish a military base in southern Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
for the CSTO rapid reaction force, stating, "The implementation of such projects on complex and unpredictable territory, where the borders of three Central Asian republics directly converge, may give impetus to the strengthening of militarization processes and initiate all kinds of nationalistic confrontations. […] Also, it could lead to the appearance of radical extremist forces that could lead to serious destabilization in this vast region." [20]

Kyrgyz conflict[edit] After Kurmanbek Bakiyev
Kurmanbek Bakiyev
was ousted from office as President of Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
as a result of riots in Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
in April, 2010, he was granted asylum in Belarus. Belarusian President Alexander Lukashenko expressed doubt about the future of the CSTO for failing to prevent Bakiyev's overthrow, stating, "What sort of organization is this one, if there is bloodshed in one of our member states and an anticonstitutional coup d'etat takes place, and this body keeps silent?" [21] Lukashenko had previously accused Russia
Russia
of punishing Belarus
Belarus
with economic sanctions after Lukashenko's refusal to recognize the independence of Abkhazia
Abkhazia
and South Ossetia, stating "Economy serves as the basis for our common security. But if Belarus’s closest CSTO ally is trying....to destroy this basis and de facto put the Belarusians on their knees, how can one talk about consolidating collective security in the CSTO space?" [22] After refusing to attend a CSTO summit in 2009, Lukashenko said, "Why should my men fight in Kazakhstan? Mothers would ask me why I sent their sons to fight so far from Belarus. For what? For a unified energy market? That is not what lives depend on. No!"[23] During a trip to Ukraine
Ukraine
to extend Russia's lease of the Crimean port Sevastopol
Sevastopol
in return for discounted natural gas supplies, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
was asked about whether Belarus
Belarus
could expect a similar deal and responded, "Real partnership is one thing and a declaration of intentions is another; reaching agreement on working seriously, meeting each other halfway, helping each other is one thing and making decisions about granting permanent residence to people who have lost their job is another." The Belarusian President defended himself against this criticism by citing former Russian President Vladimir Putin's invitation of Askar Akayev
Askar Akayev
to Russia
Russia
after he was ousted as President of Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
during the 2005 Tulip Revolution.[24] The following month, President Medvedev ordered the CEO of Russia's natural gas monopoly Gazprom
Gazprom
to cut gas supplies to Belarus.[25] Subsequently the Russian television channel NTV, run by Gazprom, aired a documentary film which compared Lukashenko to Bakiyev.[26] Then the Russian President's foreign policy adviser Sergei Prikhodko threatened to publish the transcript of a CSTO meeting where Lukashenko said that his administration would recognize Abkhazian and South Ossetian independence.[27] In June 2010, ethnic clashes broke out between ethnic Kyrgyz and Uzbeks
Uzbeks
in southern Kyrgyzstan, leading interim Kyrgyz President Roza Otunbayeva to request the assistance of Russian troops to quell the disturbances. Kurmanbek Bakiyev
Kurmanbek Bakiyev
denied charges that his supporters were behind the ethnic conflict and called on the CSTO to intervene.[28] Askar Akayev
Askar Akayev
also called for the CSTO to send troops saying, "Our priority task right now should be to extinguish this flame of enmity. It is very likely that we will need CSTO peacekeepers to do that." [29] Russian President Dmitry Medvedev said that "only in the case of a foreign intrusion and an attempt to externally seize power can we state that there is an attack against the CSTO," and that, "all the problems of Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
have internal roots," while CSTO Secretary General Nikolai Bordyuzha
Nikolai Bordyuzha
called the violence "purely a domestic affair." [30] Later however Bordyuzha admitted that the CSTO response may have been inadequate and claimed that "foreign mercenaries" provoked the Kyrgyz violence against ethnic Uzbek minorities.[31] On 21 July 2010, interim Kyrgyz President Roza Otunbayeva
Roza Otunbayeva
called for the introduction of CSTO police units to southern Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
saying, "I think it’s important to introduce CSTO police forces there, since we’re unable to guarantee people’s rights on our own," but added "I’m not seeking the CSTO’s embrace and I don’t feel like bringing them here to stay but the bloodletting there will continue otherwise." [32] Only weeks later the deputy chairman of Otubayeva's interim Kyrgyz government complained that their appeals for help from the CSTO had been ignored.[33] The CSTO was unable to agree on providing military assistance to Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
at a meeting in Yerevan, Armenia, which was attended by Roza Otunbayeva
Roza Otunbayeva
as well as Alexander Lukashenko.[34]

See also[edit]

Russia
Russia
portal Soviet Union
Soviet Union
portal Soviet Armed Forces Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States
(CIS) Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations Eurasian Economic Community
Eurasian Economic Community
(EURASEC) Eurasian Economic Union
Eurasian Economic Union
(EAEU) GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development
GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development
(GUAM) Military alliance North Atlantic Treaty Organization
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
(NATO) Post-Soviet states Shanghai Cooperation Organization
Shanghai Cooperation Organization
(SCO) Southeast Asia Treaty Organization
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization
(SEATO) Warsaw Pact References[edit]

^ ed, Alexei G. Arbatov ..., (1999). Russia
Russia
and the West : the 21st century security environment. Armonk, NY [u.a.]: Sharpe. p. 62. ISBN 978-0765604323. Retrieved 25 February 2015..mw-parser-output cite.citation font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'" .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95% .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em

^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 27 February 2014. Retrieved 2014-12-24.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)

^ Obydenkova, Anastassia (23 November 2010). "Comparative regionalism: Eurasian cooperation and European integration. The case for neofunctionalism?" (PDF). Journal of Eurasian Studies. 2 (2): 91. doi:10.1016/j.euras.2011.03.001.

^ Sputnik (22 July 2008). "Former Soviet states boost defense capability in joint drills".

^ J. Berkshire Miller, The Diplomat. " Russia
Russia
Launches War Games". The Diplomat.

^ a b Vladimir Radyuhin. "CSTO tightens foreign base norms". The Hindu.

^ http://www.itar-tass.com/en/c154/569688.html/

^ "Парламентские делегации Республики Сербия и Исламской Республики Афганистан получили статус наблюдателей при Парламентской Ассамблее ОДКБ". odkb-csto.org.

^ " Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
Suspends Its Membership in CSTO". The Gazette of Central Asia. 29 June 2012. Retrieved 29 June 2012.

^ a b "CSTO foreign ministers adopt measures to curb IT crime during Minsk meeting". The Astana Times.

^ Daily Times – Leading News Resource of Pakistan

^ "Gendarme of Eurasia
Eurasia
– Kommersant Moscow". Archived from the original on 1 February 2014.

^ "Kremlin announces that South Ossetia
South Ossetia
will join 'one united Russian state".

^ "CSTO Security Councils Secretaries meet in Yerevan". PanARMENIAN.Net.

^ "Meeting of the Collective Security Treaty Organisation". President of Russia.

^ " Armenia
Armenia
to participate in Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
CSTO drills". Archived from the original on 14 August 2014. Retrieved 13 August 2014.

^ "Bordyuzha: CSTO ready to deploy its peacekeepers to resolve conflict in Ukraine". Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 21 March 2015.

^ Sputnik (4 February 2009). "CSTO's rapid-reaction force to equal NATO's – Medvedev".

^ With Russian Prodding, CSTO Begins Taking Shape Archived 24 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
Retrieved on 24 November 2009

^ Tashkent
Tashkent
Throws Temper Tantrum over New Russian Base in Kyrgyzstan Archived 16 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine, EurasiaNet, 3 August 2009

^ Belarus
Belarus
leader raps Russia, may snub security summit, Reuters, 25 April 2010.

^ Belarus- Russia
Russia
rift widens, Minsk snubs Moscow
Moscow
meet, Reuters, 14 June 2009.

^ Lukashenko Plays Coy With Kremlin, Moscow
Moscow
Times, 28 August 2009.

^ Lukashenka dismisses Moscow’s criticism over Bakiyev, Belaplan, 25 April 2010.

^ Russia
Russia
Cuts Gas Supplies to Belarus, VOANews, 21 June 2010.

^ Russia
Russia
and Belarus: It takes one to know one, Economist, 22 July 2010.

^ Tensions flare between Kremlin, Belarus
Belarus
strongman, Agence France-Presse, 14 August 2010.

^ Moscow-led bloc may try to quell Kyrgyz clashes, Reuters, 14 June 2010.

^ Cases of cash paid for Kyrgyz unrest – former president Archived 19 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Russia
Russia
Today, 17 June 2010.

^ Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
tests Russia's regional commitments, GlobalPost, 15 June 2010.

^ CSTO Chief Says Foreign Mercenaries Provoked Race Riots In Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
Archived 6 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Eurasia Review, 1 July 2010.

^ Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
takes decision on deploying CIS police force in South[permanent dead link], Itar-Tass, 21 July 2010.

^ Kyrgyz Official Criticizes Foreign Partners, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, 11 August 2010.

^ Russian-led bloc undecided on aid for Kyrgyzstan, Reuters, 20 August 2010.

External links[edit] CSTO Official Site ‹See Tfd›(in Russian) CSTO Official Site ‹See Tfd›(in English) Official Site of the Parliamentary Assembly of the CSTO ‹See Tfd›(in Russian) The Charter of the CSTO

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