In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological
origin. Cognates are often inherited from a shared parent
language, but they may also involve borrowings from some other
language. For example, the English words dish and desk and the German
word Tisch ("table") are cognates because they all come from Latin
discus, which relates to their flat surfaces. Cognates may have
evolved similar, different or even opposite meanings, but in most
cases there are some similar sounds or letters in the words, in some
cases appearing to be dissimilar. Some words sound similar, but don't
come from the same root; these are called false cognates.
The word cognate derives from the
1 Characteristics 2 Across languages 3 Within the same language 4 False cognates 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links
Cognates do not need to have the same meaning, which may have changed
as the languages developed separately. For example English starve and
Dutch sterven or German sterben ("to die") all derive from the same
Examples of cognates in
Within the same language Cognates within a single language, or doublets, may have meanings that are slightly or even totally different. For example, English ward and guard (<PIE *wer-, "to perceive, watch out for") are cognates, as are shirt (garment on top) and skirt (garment on bottom) (<PIE *sker-, "to cut"). In some cases, including this one, one cognate ("skirt") has an ultimate source in another language related to English, but the other one ("shirt") is native. That happened with many loanwords, such as skirt in this example, which was borrowed from Old Norse during the Danelaw. Sometimes both doublets come from other languages, often the same one but at different times. For example, the word chief (meaning the leader of any group) comes from the Middle French chef ("head"), and its modern pronunciation preserves the Middle French consonant sound; the word chef (the leader of the cooks) was borrowed from the same source centuries later, but by then, the consonant had changed to a "sh" sound in French. Such word sets can also be called etymological twins, and they may come in groups of higher numbers, as with, for example, the words wain (native), waggon/wagon (Dutch), and vehicle (Latin) in English. A word may also enter another language, develop a new form or meaning there, and be re-borrowed into the original language; that is called reborrowing. For example, the Greek word κίνημα (kinima, "movement") became French cinéma (compare American English movie) and then later returned to Greece as σινεμά (sinema, "the art of film", "movie theater"). In Greek, κίνημα (kinima, "movement") and σινεμά (sinema, "filmmaking, cinema") are now doublets. A less obvious English-language doublet pair is grammar and glamour.
Main article: False cognates
False cognates are words that people commonly believe are related
(have a common origin), but that linguistic examination reveals are
unrelated. For example, on the basis of superficial similarities, the
^ Crystal, David, ed. (2011). "cognate". A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics (6th ed.). Blackwell Publishing. p. 104. ISBN 978-1-4443-5675-5. OCLC 899159900. Retrieved 16 March 2016..mw-parser-output cite.citation font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'" .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95% .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em
^ "cognate", The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language,
4th ed.: "
^ Compare also Greek ἀμέλγω amelgō "to milk".
^ Wehr, Hans (1994) . J. Milton Cowan (ed.). Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic. Urbana, Illinois: Spoken Language Services, Inc. ISBN 0-87950-003-4.
^ Harper, Douglas. "skirt (n.)". Online
^ In fact, σινεμά stands beside a Greek neologism based on the original form of the same root, κινηματογράφος (kinimatoγráfos), with the same two meanings as cinéma/σινεμά. (The film or movie itself is the unrelated ταινία (tainia).)
^ Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben
^ Ringe, Don. "A quick introduction to language change" (PDF). Univ.
Rubén Morán (2011), '
Look up cognate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Cognates.org Spa