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Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus (Greek: Σιναϊτικός Κώδικας, Hebrew: קודקס סינאיטיקוס‎; Shelfmarks and references: London, Brit. Libr., Additional Manuscripts 43725; Gregory-Aland nº א [Aleph] or 01, [Soden δ 2]) or "Sinai Bible" is one of the four great uncial codices, an ancient, handwritten copy of the Greek Bible. The codex is a celebrated historical treasure.[1] The codex is an Alexandrian text-type
Alexandrian text-type
manuscript written in the 4th century in uncial letters on parchment. Scholarship considers the Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus to be one of the best Greek texts of the New Testament,[2] along with the Codex
Codex
Vaticanus. Until the discovery by Constantin von Tischendorf
Constantin von Tischendorf
of the Sinaiticus text, the Codex
Codex
Vaticanus was unrivaled.[3] The Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus came to the attention of scholars in the 19th century at Saint Catherine's Monastery
Saint Catherine's Monastery
in the Sinai Peninsula, with further material discovered in the 20th and 21st centuries. Although parts of the codex are scattered across four libraries around the world, most of the manuscript is today vested in the British Library in London, where it is on public display.[4][5] Since its discovery, study of the Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus has proven to be useful to scholars for critical studies of biblical text. While large portions of the Old Testament
Old Testament
are missing, it is assumed that the codex originally contained the whole of both Testaments.[6] About half of the Greek Old Testament
Old Testament
(or Septuagint) survived, along with a complete New Testament, the entire Deuterocanonical books, the Epistle of Barnabas
Epistle of Barnabas
and portions of The Shepherd of Hermas.[2]

Contents

1 Description 2 The text of the codex

2.1 Contents 2.2 Interpolations 2.3 Unique and other textual variants 2.4 Witness of some readings of "majority" 2.5 Orthodox reading 2.6 Text-type and relationship to other manuscripts

3 History of the codex

3.1 Early history of codex

3.1.1 Provenance 3.1.2 Date of the codex 3.1.3 Scribes and correctors

3.2 Discovery 3.3 Simonides 3.4 Later story of the codex

4 Present location 5 Impact on biblical scholarship 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 Further reading

9.1 Text of the codex 9.2 Introductions to the textual criticism of NT 9.3 Other works

10 External links

10.1 Facsimiles of Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus 10.2 Articles

Description[edit]

Luke 11:2 in Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus

The codex consists of parchment, originally in double sheets, which may have measured about 40 by 70 cm. The whole codex consists, with a few exceptions, of quires of eight leaves, a format popular throughout the Middle Ages.[7] Each line of the text has some twelve to fourteen Greek uncial letters, arranged in four columns (48 lines per column) with carefully chosen line breaks and slightly ragged right edges.[8] When opened, the eight columns thus presented to the reader have much the same appearance as the succession of columns in a papyrus roll.[9] The poetical books of the Old Testament
Old Testament
are written stichometrically, in only two columns per page. The codex has almost 4,000,000 uncial letters.[n 1] The work was written in scriptio continua with neither breathings nor polytonic accents.[10] Occasional points and a few ligatures are used, though nomina sacra with overlines are employed throughout. Some words usually abbreviated in other manuscripts (such as πατηρ and δαυειδ), are in this codex written in both full and abbreviated forms. The following nomina sacra are written in abbreviated forms: ΘΣ ΚΣ ΙΣ ΧΣ ΠΝΑ ΠΝΙΚΟΣ ΥΣ ΑΝΟΣ ΟΥΟΣ ΔΑΔ ΙΛΗΜ ΙΣΡΛ ΜΗΡ ΠΗΡ ΣΩΡ.[11] Almost regularly, a plain iota is replaced by the epsilon-iota diphthong (commonly if imprecisely known as itacism), e.g. ΔΑΥΕΙΔ instead οf ΔΑΥΙΔ, ΠΕΙΛΑΤΟΣ instead of ΠΙΛΑΤΟΣ, ΦΑΡΕΙΣΑΙΟΙ instead of ΦΑΡΙΣΑΙΟΙ, etc.[12] Each rectangular page has the proportions 1.1 to 1, while the block of text has the reciprocal proportions, 0.91 (the same proportions, rotated 90°). If the gutters between the columns were removed, the text block would mirror the page's proportions. Typographer Robert Bringhurst referred to the codex as a "subtle piece of craftsmanship".[13] The folios are made of vellum parchment primarily from calf skins, secondarily from sheep skins.[14] (Tischendorf himself thought that the parchment had been made from antelope skins, but modern microscopic examination has shown otherwise.) Most of the quires or signatures contain four sheets, save two containing five. It is estimated that the hides of about 360 animals were employed for making the folios of this codex. As for the cost of the material, time of scribes and binding, it equals the lifetime wages of one individual at the time.[15] The portion of the codex held by the British Library
British Library
consists of 346½ folios, 694 pages (38.1 cm x 34.5 cm), constituting over half of the original work. Of these folios, 199 belong to the Old Testament, including the apocrypha (deuterocanonical), and 147½ belong to the New Testament, along with two other books, the Epistle of Barnabas and part of The Shepherd of Hermas. The apocryphal books present in the surviving part of the Septuagint
Septuagint
are 2 Esdras, Tobit, Judith, 1 and 4 Maccabees, Wisdom, and Sirach.[15][16] The books of the New Testament
New Testament
are arranged in this order: the four Gospels, the epistles of Paul (Hebrews follows 2 Thess.), the Acts of the Apostles,[n 2] the General Epistles, and the Book of Revelation. The fact that some parts of the codex are preserved in good condition while others are in very poor condition implies they were separated and stored in several places.[17] The text of the codex[edit] Contents[edit] The text of the Old Testament
Old Testament
contains the following passages:[18][19]

Genesis 23:19 – Genesis 24:46 – fragments Leviticus 20:27 – Leviticus 22:30 Numbers 5:26–Numbers 7:20 – fragments 1 Chronicles
1 Chronicles
9:27– 1 Chronicles
1 Chronicles
19:17 Ezra-Nehemiah
Ezra-Nehemiah
(from Esdr. 9:9). Book of Psalms–Wisdom of Sirach Book of Esther Book of Tobit Book of Judith Book of Joel–Book of Malachi Book of Isaiah Book of Jeremiah Book of Lamentations 1 Maccabees–4 Maccabees

John 7:52–8:12 without the pericope 7:53–8:11 in Sinaiticus

The text of the New Testament
New Testament
lacks several passages:[20]

Omitted verses

Gospel of Matthew
Gospel of Matthew
12:47, 16:2b-3, 17:21, 18:11, 23:14 , 24:35; Gospel of Mark
Gospel of Mark
1:33, 7:16, 9:44, 9:46, 10:36, 11:26, 15:28, 16:9–20 (Long ending of the Gospel
Gospel
Mark, referring to the appearance of Jesus to many people following the resurrection) Gospel of Luke
Gospel of Luke
10:32 (Likely omitted due to haplography resulting from homeoteleuton; the verse was added by a later corrector in lower margin.), 17:36 Gospel of John
Gospel of John
5:4, Pericope adulterae (7:53–8:11) (see Image "John 7:53–8:11"), 16:15, 19:20, 20:5b-6, 21:25 Acts of the Apostles
Acts of the Apostles
8:37; 15:34; 24:7; 28:29;[21] Epistle to the Romans
Epistle to the Romans
16:24

Page of the codex with text of Matthew 6:4–32

Omitted phrases

Matthew 5:44 εὐλογεῖτε τοὺς καταρωμένους ὑμᾶς, καλῶς ποιεῖτε τοῖς μισοῦσιν ὑμᾶς (bless those who curse you, do good to those who hate you);[22] Matthew 6:13 – ὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. ἀμήν (For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for ever. Amen.) omitted.[23] Matthew 10:39a – ο ευρων την ψυχην αυτου απολεσει αυτην, και (Ηe who finds his life will lose it, and);[24] Matthew 15:6 – η την μητερα (αυτου) (or (his) mother);[25] Matthew 20:23 και το βαπτισμα ο εγω βαπτιζομαι βαπτισθησεσθε (and be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with)[26] Matthew 23:35 – υιου βαραχιου (son of Barachi'ah) omitted; this omission is supported only by codex 59 (by the first hand), three Evangelistaria (ℓ 6, ℓ 13, and ℓ 185), and Eusebius.[27] Mark 1:1 – υιου θεου "the Son of God" omitted.[28] Mark 10:7 – omitted και προσκολληθησεται προς την γυναικα αυτου (and be joined to his wife), as in codices Codex Vaticanus
Codex Vaticanus
Graecus 1209, Codex
Codex
Athous Lavrensis, 892, ℓ 48, syrs, goth.[29]

Luke 9:55b-56a – καὶ εἶπεν, Οὐκ οἴδατε ποίου πνεύματος ἐστὲ ὑμεῖς; ὁ γὰρ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου οὐκ ἦλθεν ψυχὰς ἀνθρώπων ἀπολέσαι ἀλλὰ σῶσαι (and He said: "You do not know what manner of spirit you are of; for the Son of man came not to destroy men's lives but to save them) omitted as in codices: P45, P75, B, C, L, Θ, Ξ, 33, 700, 892, 1241, syr, copbo;[30] John 4:9 – ου γαρ συνχρωνται Ιουδαιοι Σαμαριταις (Jews have no dealings with Samaritans), it is one of so-called Western non-interpolations; omission is supported by D, a, b, d, e, j, copfay, it was supplemented by the first corrector (before leaving scriptorium);[31]

Some passages were excluded by the correctors:

Additional phrase to John 21:7 on the margin – οι δε ειπον δι οληϲ τηϲ νυκτοϲ εκοπιαϲαμεν και ουδεν ελαβομεν επι δε τω ϲω ρηματι βαλουμεν

Matthew 24:36 – phrase ουδε ο υιος (nor the Son) the first corrector marked as doubtful, but the second corrector (b) removed the mark.[32] Mark 10:40 ητοιμασται υπο του πατρος μου (instead of ητοιμασται) – the first corrector marked "υπο του πατρος μου" as doubtful, but the second corrector removed the mark.[33] In Luke 11:4 ἀλλὰ ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ (but deliver us from evil) included by the original scribe, marked by the first corrector (a) as doubtful, but the third corrector (c) removed the mark.[34] Christ's agony at Gethsemane
Christ's agony at Gethsemane
(Luke 22:43–44) – included by the original scribe, marked by the first corrector as doubtful, but the third corrector (c) removed the mark.[35] Luke 23:34a, "Then said Jesus, Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do" – it was included by the first scribe, marked by the first corrector as doubtful, but a third corrector removed the mark.[36]

These omissions are typical for the Alexandrian text-type.[37] Interpolations[edit] Matthew 8:13 (see Luke 7:10)

It has additional text: καὶ ὑποστρέψας ὁ ἑκατόνταρχος εἰς τὸν οἶκον αὐτοῦ ἐν αὐτῇ τῇ ὦρᾳ εὗρεν τὸν παῖδα ὑγιαίνοντα (and when the centurion returned to the house in that hour, he found the slave well) as well as codices C, (N), Θ, (0250), f1, (33, 1241), g1, syrh.[38]

Matthew 10:12 (see Luke 10:5)

It reads λέγοντες εἰρήνη τῷ οἴκῳ τούτῳ (say peace to be this house) after αυτην. The reading was deleted by the first corrector, but the second corrector restored it. The reading is used by manuscripts: Bezae, Regius, Washingtonianus, Koridethi, manuscripts f 1, 22, 1010 (1424), it, vgcl.[39][40]

Matthew 27:49 (see John 19:34)

In Matthew 27:49 the codex contains added text: ἄλλος δὲ λαβὼν λόγχην ἔνυξεν αὐτοῦ τὴν πλευράν, καὶ ἐξῆλθεν ὕδορ καὶ αἷμα (the other took a spear and pierced His side, and immediately came out water and blood). This reading was derived from John 19:34 and occurs in other manuscripts of the Alexandrian text-type.[41]

Unique and other textual variants[edit]

Page from facsimile edition (1862); 1 Chr 9:27–10:11

Matthew 7:22 – It has additional word πολλα (numerous): "and cast out numerous demons in your name?". It is not supported by any other manuscript.[42] Matthew 8:12 – It has ἐξελεύσονται (will go out) instead of ἐκβληθήσονται (will be thrown). This variant is supported only by one Greek manuscript Uncial
Uncial
0250, and by Codex Bobiensis, syrc, s, p, pal, arm, Diatessaron.[43] Matthew 13:54 – Ordinary reading εις την πατριδα αυτου (to his own country) changed into εις την αντιπατριδα αυτου (to his own Antipatris), and in Acts 8:5 εις την πολιν της Σαμαρειας replaced into εις την πολιν της Καισαριας. These two variants do not exist in any other manuscript, and it seems they were made by a scribe. According to T. C. Skeat they suggest Caesarea
Caesarea
as a place in which the manuscript was made.[44] Matthew 16:12 – It has textual variant της ζυμης των αρτων των Φαρισαιων και Σαδδουκαιων (leaven of bread of the Pharisees and Sadducees) supported only by Codex
Codex
Corbeiensis I and Curetonian Gospels. Luke 1:26 – "Nazareth" is called "a city of Judea". Luke 2:37 – εβδομηκοντα (seventy), all manuscripts have ογδοηκοντα (eighty);[45] John 1:28 – The second corrector made unique textual variant Βηθαραβα. This textual variant has only codex 892, syrh and several other manuscripts.[46] John 1:34 – It reads ὁ ἐκλεκτός (chosen one) together with the manuscripts

P

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5,

P

displaystyle mathfrak P

106, b, e, ff2, syrc, and syrs instead of ordinary word υἱος (son). John 2:3 – Where ordinarily reading "And when they wanted wine", or "And when wine failed", Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus has "And they had no wine, because the wine of the marriage feast was finished" (supported by a and j); John 6:10 – It reads τρισχιλιοι (three thousands) for πεντακισχιλιοι (five thousands); the second corrector changed into πεντακισχιλιοι.[47] Acts 11:20 – It reads εὐαγγελιστας (Evangelists) instead of ἑλληνιστάς (Hellenists);[48] In Acts 14:9, the word "not" inserted before "heard"; in Hebr. 2:4 "harvests" instead of "distributions"; in 1 Peter 5:13 word "Babylon" replaced into "Church".[48] 2 Timothy 4:10 – it reads Γαλλιαν for Γαλατιαν, the reading of the codex is supported by along with Ephraemi Rescriptus, 81, 104, 326, 436.[49] Witness of some readings of "majority"[edit] It is the oldest witness for the phrase μη αποστερησης (do not defraud) in Mark 10:19. This phrase was not included by the manuscripts: Codex Vaticanus
Codex Vaticanus
(added by second corrector), Codex Cyprius, Codex
Codex
Washingtonianus, Codex
Codex
Athous Lavrensis, f1, f13, 28, 700, 1010, 1079, 1242, 1546, 2148, ℓ 10, ℓ 950, ℓ 1642, ℓ 1761, syrs, arm, geo. This is variant of the majority manuscripts.[50] In Mark 13:33 it is the oldest witness of the variant και προσευχεσθε (and pray). Codex
Codex
B and D do not include this passage.[51] In Luke 8:48 it has θυγατερ (daughter) as in the Byzantine manuscripts, instead of the Alexandrian θυγατηρ (daughter), supported by the manuscripts: B K L W Θ.[52] Orthodox reading[edit] In 1 John 5:6 it has textual variant δι' ὕδατος καὶ αἵματος καὶ πνεύματος (through water and blood and spirit) together with the manuscripts: Codex
Codex
Alexandrinus, 104, 424c, 614, 1739c, 2412, 2495, ℓ 598m, syrh, copsa, copbo, Origen.[53][n 3] Bart D. Ehrman
Bart D. Ehrman
says this was a corrupt reading from the orthodox party,[54] although this is widely disputed.[55] Text-type and relationship to other manuscripts[edit] For most of the New Testament, Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus is in general agreement with Codex Vaticanus
Codex Vaticanus
Graecus 1209 and Codex
Codex
Ephraemi Rescriptus, attesting the Alexandrian text-type. A notable example of an agreement between the Sinaiticus and Vaticanus texts is that they both omit the word εικη ('without cause', 'without reason', 'in vain') from Matthew 5:22 "But I say unto you, That whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgement".[n 4]

A portion of the Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus, containing Esther.[56]

In John 1:1–8:38 Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus differs from Vaticanus and all other Alexandrian manuscripts. It is in closer agreement with Codex Bezae in support of the Western text-type. For example, in John 1:4 Sinaiticus and Codex
Codex
Bezae are the only Greek manuscripts with textual variant ἐν αὐτῷ ζωὴ ἐστίν (in him is life) instead of ἐν αὐτῷ ζωὴ ᾓν (in him was life). This variant is supported by Vetus Latina and some Sahidic manuscripts. This portion has a large number of corrections.[57] There are a number of differences between Sinaiticus and Vaticanus; Hoskier enumerated 3036 differences:

Matt–656 Mark–567 Luke–791 John–1022 Total—3036.[58]

A large number of these differences are due to iotacisms and variants in transcribing Hebrew names. These two manuscripts were not written in the same scriptorium. According to Hort Sinaiticus and Vaticanus were derived from a common original much older source, "the date of which cannot be later than the early part of the second century, and may well be yet earlier".[59] Example of differences between Sinaiticus and Vaticanus in Matt 1:18–19:

Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus Codex
Codex
Vaticanus

Του δε ΙΥ ΧΥ η γενεσις ουτως ην μνηστευθισης της μητρος αυτου Μαριας τω Ιωσηφ πριν ην συνελθιν αυτους ευρεθη εν γαστρι εχουσα εκ ΠΝΣ αγιου Ιωσηφ δε ο ανηρ αυτης δικαιος ων και μη θελων αυτην παραδιγματισαι εβουληθη λαθρα απολυσαι αυτην Του δε ΧΥ ΙΥ η γενεσις ουτως ην μνηστευθεισης της μητρος αυτου Μαριας τω Ιωσηφ πριν ην συνελθειν αυτους ευρεθη εν γαστρι εχουσα εκ ΠΝΣ αγιου Ιωσηφ δε ο ανηρ αυτης δικαιος ων και μη θελων αυτην δειγματισαι εβουληθη λαθρα απολυσαι αυτην

B. H. Streeter remarked a great agreement between the codex and Vulgate
Vulgate
of Jerome. According to him, Origen
Origen
brought to Caesarea
Caesarea
the Alexandrian text-type
Alexandrian text-type
that was used in this codex, and used by Jerome.[60] Between the 4th and 12th centuries, seven or more correctors worked on this codex, making it one of the most corrected manuscripts in existence.[61] Tischendorf during his investigation in Petersburg enumerated 14,800 corrections only in the portion which was held in Petersburg (2/3 of the codex).[62] According to David C. Parker the full codex has about 23,000 corrections.[63] In addition to these corrections some letters were marked by dots as doubtful (e.g. ṪḢ). Corrections represent the Byzantine text-type, just like corrections in codices: Bodmer II, Regius (L), Ephraemi (C), and Sangallensis (Δ). They were discovered by E. A. Button.[64] History of the codex[edit] Early history of codex[edit] Provenance[edit] Little is known of the manuscript's early history. According to Hort, it was written in the West, probably in Rome, as suggested by the fact that the chapter division in the Acts common to Sinaiticus and Vaticanus occurs in no other Greek manuscript, but is found in several manuscripts of the Latin Vulgate.[65] Robinson countered this argument, suggesting that this system of chapter divisions was introduced into the Vulgate
Vulgate
by Jerome
Jerome
himself, as a result of his studies at Caesarea.[66] According to Kenyon the forms of the letters are Egyptian and they were found in Egyptian papyri of earlier date.[67] Gardthausen[68] Ropes and Jellicoe thought it was written in Egypt. Harris believed that the manuscript came from the library of Pamphilus at Caesarea, Palestine.[67] Streeter,[60] Skeat, and Milne also believed that it was produced in Caesarea.[44] Date of the codex[edit] The codex was written in the 4th century. It could not have been written before 325 because it contains the Eusebian Canons, which is a terminus post quem. "The terminus ante quem is less certain, but, according to Milne and Skeat, is not likely to be much later than about 360." [15] According to Tischendorf, Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus was one of the fifty copies of the Bible commissioned from Eusebius
Eusebius
by Roman Emperor
Roman Emperor
Constantine after his conversion to Christianity (De vita Constantini, IV, 37).[69] This hypothesis was supported by Pierre Batiffol,[70] Gregory and Skeat believed that it was already in production when Constantine placed his order, but had to be suspended in order to accommodate different page dimensions.[44] Frederic G. Kenyon
Frederic G. Kenyon
argued: "There is not the least sign of either of them ever having been at Constantinople. The fact that Sinaiticus was collated with the manuscript of Pamphilus so late as the sixth century seems to show that it was not originally written at Caesarea".[71] Scribes and correctors[edit] Tischendorf believed that four separate scribes (whom he named A, B, C and D) copied the work and that five correctors (whom he designated a, b, c, d and e) amended portions. He posited that one of the correctors was contemporaneous with the original scribes, and that the others worked in the 6th and 7th centuries. It is now agreed, after Milne and Skeat's reinvestigation, that Tischendorf was wrong—scribe C never existed.[72] According to Tischendorf, scribe C wrote the poetic books of the Old Testament. These are written in a different format from the rest of the manuscript – they appear in two columns (the rest of books is in four columns), written stichometrically. Tischendorf probably interpreted the different formatting as indicating the existence of another scribe.[73] The three remaining scribes are still identified by the letters that Tischendorf gave them: A, B, and D.[73] Correctors were more, at least seven (a, b, c, ca, cb, cc, e).[2] Modern analysis identifies at least three scribes:

Scribe A wrote most of the historical and poetical books of the Old Testament, almost the whole of the New Testament, and the Epistle of Barnabas Scribe B was responsible for the Prophets and for the Shepherd of Hermas Scribe D wrote the whole of Tobit and Judith, the first half of 4 Maccabees, the first two-thirds of the Psalms, and the first five verses of Revelation

Scribe B was a poor speller, and scribe A was not very much better; the best scribe was D.[74] Metzger states: "scribe A had made some unusually serious mistakes".[62] Scribes A and B more often used nomina sacra in contracted forms (ΠΝΕΥΜΑ contracted in all occurrences, ΚΥΡΙΟΣ contracted except in 2 occurrences), scribe D more often used forms uncontracted.[75] D distinguished between sacral and nonsacral using of ΚΥΡΙΟΣ.[76] His errors are the substitution of ΕΙ for Ι, and Ι for ΕΙ in medial positions, both equally common. Otherwise substitution of Ι for initial ΕΙ is unknown, and final ΕΙ is only replaced in word ΙΣΧΥΕΙ, confusing of Ε and ΑΙ is very rare.[74] In the Book of Psalms
Book of Psalms
this scribe has 35 times ΔΑΥΕΙΔ instead of ΔΑΥΙΔ, while scribe A normally uses an abbreviated form ΔΑΔ.[77] Scribe A's was a "worse type of phonetic error". Confusion of Ε and ΑΙ occurs in all contexts.[74] Milne and Skeat characterised scribe B as "careless and illiterate".[78] The work of the original scribe is designated by the siglum א*.[2]

In the 6th or 7th century the codex may have been housed at Caesarea

A paleographical study at the British Museum
British Museum
in 1938 found that the text had undergone several corrections. The first corrections were done by several scribes before the manuscript left the scriptorium.[62] Readings which they introduced are designated by the siglum אa.[79] Milne and Skeat have observed that the superscription to 1 Maccabees
1 Maccabees
was made by scribe D, while the text was written by scribe A.[80] Scribe D corrects his own work and that of scribe A, but scribe A limits himself to correcting his own work.[81] In the 6th or 7th century, many alterations were made (אb) – according to a colophon at the end of the book of Esdras and Esther the source of these alterations was "a very ancient manuscript that had been corrected by the hand of the holy martyr Pamphylus" (martyred in 309). If this is so, material beginning with 1 Samuel
1 Samuel
to the end of Esther is Origen's copy of the Hexapla. From this colophon, the correction is concluded to have been made in Caesarea
Caesarea
Maritima in the 6th or 7th centuries.[82] The pervasive iotacism, especially of the ει diphthong, remains uncorrected.[83] Discovery[edit] The Codex
Codex
may have been seen in 1761 by the Italian traveller, Vitaliano Donati, when he visited the Saint Catherine's Monastery
Saint Catherine's Monastery
at Sinai in Egypt. His diary was published in 1879, in which was written:

In questo monastero ritrovai una quantità grandissima di codici membranacei... ve ne sono alcuni che mi sembravano anteriori al settimo secolo, ed in ispecie una Bibbia in membrane bellissime, assai grandi, sottili, e quadre, scritta in carattere rotondo e belissimo; conservano poi in chiesa un Evangelistario greco in caractere d'oro rotondo, che dovrebbe pur essere assai antico.[84]

In this monastery I found a great number of parchment codices ... there are some which seemed to be written before the seventh century, and especially a Bible (made) of beautiful vellum, very large, thin and square parchments, written in round and very beautiful letters; moreover there are also in the church a Greek Evangelistarium in gold and round letters, it should be very old.

The "Bible on beautiful vellum" may be the Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus, and the gold evangelistarium is likely Lectionary 300 on the Gregory-Aland list.[85]

Tischendorf in 1870

German Biblical scholar Constantin von Tischendorf
Constantin von Tischendorf
wrote about his visit to the monastery in Reise in den Orient in 1846 (translated as Travels in the East in 1847), without mentioning the manuscript. Later, in 1860, in his writings about the Sinaiticus discovery, Tischendorf wrote a narrative about the monastery and the manuscript that spanned from 1844 to 1859. He wrote that in 1844, during his first visit to the Saint Catherine's Monastery, he saw some leaves of parchment in a waste-basket. They were "rubbish which was to be destroyed by burning it in the ovens of the monastery",[86] although this is firmly denied by the Monastery. After examination he realized that they were part of the Septuagint, written in an early Greek uncial script. He retrieved from the basket 129 leaves in Greek which he identified as coming from a manuscript of the Septuagint. He asked if he might keep them, but at this point the attitude of the monks changed. They realized how valuable these old leaves were, and Tischendorf was permitted to take only one-third of the whole, i.e. 43 leaves. These leaves contained portions of 1 Chronicles, Jeremiah, Nehemiah, and Esther. After his return they were deposited in the Leipzig University
Leipzig University
Library, where they remain. In 1846 Tischendorf published their contents, naming them the ' Codex
Codex
Friderico-Augustanus' (in honor of Frederick Augustus and keeping secret the source of the leaves).[87] Other portions of the same codex remained in the monastery, containing all of Isaiah and 1 and 4 Maccabees.[88] In 1845, Archimandrite
Archimandrite
Porphyrius Uspensky
Porphyrius Uspensky
(1804–1885), at that time head of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem and subsequently Bishop of Chigirin, visited the monastery and the codex was shown to him, together with leaves which Tischendorf had not seen.[n 5] In 1846, Captain C. K. MacDonald visited Mount Sinai, saw the codex, and bought two codices (495 and 496) from the monastery.[89]

The codex was presented to Alexander II of Russia

In 1853, Tischendorf revisited the Saint Catherine's Monastery
Saint Catherine's Monastery
to get the remaining 86 folios, but without success. Returning in 1859, this time under the patronage of Tsar
Tsar
Alexander II of Russia, he was shown the Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus. He would later claim to have found it discarded in a rubbish bin. (This story may have been a fabrication, or the manuscripts in question may have been unrelated to Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus: Rev. J. Silvester Davies in 1863 quoted "a monk of Sinai who... stated that according to the librarian of the monastery the whole of Codex Sinaiticus had been in the library for many years and was marked in the ancient catalogues... Is it likely... that a manuscript known in the library catalogue would have been jettisoned in the rubbish basket." Indeed, it has been noted that the leaves were in "suspiciously good condition" for something found in the trash.[n 6]) Tischendorf had been sent to search for manuscripts by Russia's Tsar Alexander II, who was convinced there were still manuscripts to be found at the Sinai monastery.[90] The text of this part of the codex was published by Tischendorf in 1862:

Konstantin von Tischendorf: Bibliorum codex Sinaiticus Petropolitanus. Giesecke & Devrient, Leipzig 1862.

It was reprinted in four volumes in 1869:

Konstantin von Tischendorf, G. Olms (Hrsg.): Bibliorum codex Sinaiticus Petropolitanus. 1. Prolegomena. G. Olms, Hildesheim 1869 (Repr.). Konstantin von Tischendorf, G. Olms (Hrsg.): Bibliorum codex Sinaiticus Petropolitanus. 2. Veteris Testamenti pars prior. G. Olms, Hildesheim 1869 (Repr.). Konstantin von Tischendorf, G. Olms (Hrsg.): Bibliorum codex Sinaiticus Petropolitanus. 3. Veteris Testamenti pars posterior. G. Olms, Hildesheim 1869 (Repr.). Konstantin von Tischendorf, G. Olms (Hrsg.): Bibliorum codex Sinaiticus Petropolitanus. 4. Novum Testamentum cum Barnaba et Pastore. G. Olms, Hildesheim 1869 (Repr.).

The complete publication of the codex was made by Kirsopp Lake
Kirsopp Lake
in 1911 (New Testament), and in 1922 (Old Testament). It was the full-sized black and white facsimile of the manuscript, "made from negatives taken from St. Petersburg by my wife and myself in the summer of 1908".[91] The story of how Tischendorf found the manuscript, which contained most of the Old Testament
Old Testament
and all of the New Testament, has all the interest of a romance. Tischendorf reached the monastery on 31 January; but his inquiries appeared to be fruitless. On 4 February, he had resolved to return home without having gained his object:

Lithography of Saint Catherine's Monastery
Saint Catherine's Monastery
based on sketches made by Uspensky in 1857.

On the afternoon of this day I was taking a walk with the steward of the convent in the neighbourhood, and as we returned, towards sunset, he begged me to take some refreshment with him in his cell. Scarcely had he entered the room, when, resuming our former subject of conversation, he said: "And I, too, have read a Septuagint" – i.e. a copy of the Greek translation made by the Seventy. And so saying, he took down from the corner of the room a bulky kind of volume, wrapped up in a red cloth, and laid it before me. I unrolled the cover, and discovered, to my great surprise, not only those very fragments which, fifteen years before, I had taken out of the basket, but also other parts of the Old Testament, the New Testament
New Testament
complete, and, in addition, the Epistle of Barnabas
Epistle of Barnabas
and a part of the Shepherd of Hermas.[92]

Saint Catherine's Monastery; lithograph from the album of Uspensky

After some negotiations, he obtained possession of this precious fragment. James Bentley gives an account of how this came about, prefacing it with the comment, "Tischendorf therefore now embarked on the remarkable piece of duplicity which was to occupy him for the next decade, which involved the careful suppression of facts and the systematic denigration of the monks of Mount Sinai."[93] He conveyed it to Tsar
Tsar
Alexander II, who appreciated its importance and had it published as nearly as possible in facsimile, so as to exhibit correctly the ancient handwriting. In 1869 the Tsar
Tsar
sent the monastery 7,000 rubles and the monastery of Mount Tabor
Mount Tabor
2,000 rubles by way of compensation.[94][95] The document in Russian formalising this was published in 2007 in Russia
Russia
and has since been translated.[96] Regarding Tischendorf's role in the transfer to Saint Petersburg, there are several views. The codex is currently regarded by the monastery as having been stolen. This view is hotly contested by several scholars in Europe. Kirsopp Lake
Kirsopp Lake
wrote:

Those who have had much to do with Oriental monks will understand how improbable it is that the terms of the arrangement, whatever it was, were ever known to any except of the leaders.[97]

In a more neutral spirit, New Testament
New Testament
scholar Bruce Metzger
Bruce Metzger
writes:

Certain aspects of the negotiations leading to the transfer of the codex to the Tsar's possession are open to an interpretation that reflects adversely on Tischendorf's candour and good faith with the monks at Saint Catherine's Monastery. For a recent account intended to exculpate him of blame, see Erhard Lauch's article 'Nichts gegen Tischendorf' in Bekenntnis zur Kirche: Festgabe für Ernst Sommerlath zum 70. Geburtstag (Berlin, c. 1961); for an account that includes a hitherto unknown receipt given by Tischendorf to the authorities at the monastery promising to return the manuscript from Saint Petersburg 'to the Holy Confraternity of Sinai at its earliest request'.[98][99]

View of Saint Catherine's Monastery

Simonides[edit] On 13 September 1862 Constantine Simonides, skilled in calligraphy and with a controversial background with manuscripts, made the claim in print in The Guardian
The Guardian
that he had written the codex himself as a young man in 1839 in the Panteleimonos monastery at Athos.[100][101] Constantin von Tischendorf, who worked with numerous Bible manuscripts, was known as somewhat flamboyant, and had ambitiously sought money from several royal families for his ventures, who had indeed funded his trips. Simonides, whose name may be a synonym mocking Tischendorf, had a somewhat obscure history, as he claimed he was at Mt. Athos in the years preceding Tischendorf's contact, making the claim at least plausible. Simonides also claimed his father had died and the invitation to Mt. Athos came from his uncle, a monk there, but subsequent letters to his father were found among his possessions at his death. While the word 'forgery' has been bandied about among scholars regarding the claims on the Sinaiticus by Tischendorf, perhaps a more accurate rendering would be recollation and 'adjusted' restoration as Simonides, an expert on hieroglyphics which are represented throughout the Sinaiticus. Simonides claimed the false nature of the document in The Guardian
The Guardian
in an exchange of letters among scholars and others, at the time. Henry Bradshaw, a British librarian known to both men, defended the Tischendorf find of the Sinaiticus, casting aside the accusations of Simonides. Since Bradshaw was a social 'hub' among many diverse scholars of the day, his aiding of Tischendorf was given much weight. Simonides died shortly after, and the issue lay dormant for many years.[102] Tischendorf answered in Allgemeine Zeitung (December), that only in the New Testament
New Testament
there are many differences between it and all other manuscripts. Henry Bradshaw, a scholar, contributed to exposing the frauds of Constantine Simonides, and exposed the absurdity of his claims in a letter to The Guardian
The Guardian
(26 January 1863). Bradshaw showed that the Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus brought by Tischendorf from the Greek monastery of Mount Sinai was not a modern forgery or written by Simonides. Simonides' "claim was flawed from the beginning".[103] The controversy seems to regard the misplaced use of the word 'fraud' or 'forgery' since it may have been a repaired text, a copy of the Septuagint
Septuagint
based upon Origen's Hexapla, a text which has been rejected for centuries because of its lineage from Eusebius
Eusebius
who introduced Arian doctrine into the courts of Constantine I and II. Not every scholar and Church minister was delighted about the codex. Burgon, a supporter of the Textus Receptus, suggested that Codex Sinaiticus, as well as codices Vaticanus and Codex
Codex
Bezae, were the most corrupt documents extant. Each of these three codices "clearly exhibits a fabricated text – is the result of arbitrary and reckless recension."[104] The two most weighty of these three codices, א
א
and B, he likens to the "two false witnesses" of Matthew.[105][106] Later story of the codex[edit] In the early 20th century Vladimir Beneshevich (1874–1938) discovered parts of three more leaves of the codex in the bindings of other manuscripts in the library of Mount Sinai. Beneshevich went on three occasions to the monastery (1907, 1908, 1911) but does not tell when or from which book he recovered. These leaves were also acquired for St. Petersburg, where they remain to the present day.[107][108]

A two-thirds portion of the codex was held in the National Library of Russia
Russia
from 1859 until 1933

For many decades, the Codex
Codex
was preserved in the Russian National Library. In 1933, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
sold the codex to the British Museum (after 1973 British Library) for £100,000 raised by public subscription (worth £6.5 million in 2018).[109] After coming to Britain it was examined by Skeat and Milne using an ultra-violet lamp.[110] In May 1975, during restoration work, the monks of Saint Catherine's Monastery discovered a room beneath the St. George Chapel which contained many parchment fragments. Kurt Aland
Kurt Aland
and his team from the Institute for New Testament
New Testament
Textual Research were the first scholars who exclusively were invited to analyse, examine and photograph these new fragments of the New Testament
New Testament
in 1982.[111] Among these fragments were twelve complete leaves from the Sinaiticus, 11 leaves of the Pentateuch
Pentateuch
and 1 leaf of the Shepherd of Hermas.[17] Together with these leaves 67 Greek Manuscripts of New Testament
New Testament
have been found (uncials 0278 – 0296 and some minuscules).[112] In June 2005, a team of experts from the UK, Europe, Egypt, Russia
Russia
and USA undertook a joint project to produce a new digital edition of the manuscript (involving all four holding libraries), and a series of other studies was announced.[113][114][115] This will include the use of hyperspectral imaging to photograph the manuscripts to look for hidden information such as erased or faded text.[116] This is to be done in cooperation with the British Library.[117] More than one quarter of the manuscript was made publicly available at The Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus Website on 24 July 2008. On 6 July 2009, 800 more pages of the manuscript were made available, showing over half of the entire text,[118] although the entire text was intended to be shown by that date.[119] The complete document is now available online in digital form and available for scholarly study. The online version has a fully transcribed set of digital pages, including amendments to the text, and two images of each page, with both standard lighting and raked lighting to highlight the texture of the parchment.[120] Prior to 1 September 2009, the University of the Arts London PhD student, Nikolas Sarris, discovered the previously unseen fragment of the Codex
Codex
in the library of Saint Catherine's Monastery. It contains the text of Book of Joshua 1:10.[121][122] Present location[edit]

The British Library

The codex is now split into four unequal portions: 347 leaves in the British Library
British Library
in London (199 of the Old Testament, 148 of the New Testament), 12 leaves and 14 fragments in the Saint Catherine's Monastery, 43 leaves in the Leipzig University
Leipzig University
Library, and fragments of 3 leaves in the Russian National Library
Russian National Library
in Saint Petersburg.[2] Saint Catherine's Monastery
Saint Catherine's Monastery
still maintains the importance of a letter, handwritten in 1844 with an original signature of Tischendorf confirming that he borrowed those leaves.[123] However, recently published documents, including a deed of gift dated 11 September 1868 and signed by Archbishop Kallistratos and the monks of the monastery, indicate that the manuscript was acquired entirely legitimately.[124] This deed, which agrees with a report by Kurt Aland
Kurt Aland
on the matter, has now been published. Unfortunately this development is not widely known in the English-speaking world, as only German- and Russian-language media reported on it in 2009. Doubts as to the legality of the gift arose because when Tischendorf originally removed the manuscript from Saint Catherine's Monastery
Saint Catherine's Monastery
in September 1859, the monastery was without an archbishop, so that even though the intention to present the manuscript to the Tsar
Tsar
had been expressed, no legal gift could be made at the time. Resolution of the matter was delayed through the turbulent reign of Archbishop Cyril (consecrated 7 December 1859, deposed 24 August 1866), and the situation only formalised after the restoration of peace.[124] Skeat in his article "The Last Chapter in the History of the Codex Sinaiticus" concluded in this way:

This is not the place to pass judgements, but perhaps I may say that, as it seems to me, both the monks and Tischendorf deserve our deepest gratitude, Tischendorf for having alerted the monks to the importance of the manuscript, and the monks for having undertaken the daunting task of searching through the vast mass of material with such spectacular results, and then doing everything in their power to safeguard the manuscript against further loss. If we accept the statement of Uspensky, that he saw the codex in 1845, the monks must have worked very hard to complete their search and bind up the results in so short a period.[125]

Impact on biblical scholarship[edit] Along with Codex
Codex
Vaticanus, the Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus is considered one of the most valuable manuscripts for establishing the original text (textual criticism) of the Greek New Testament, as well as the Septuagint. It is the only uncial manuscript with the complete text of the New Testament, and the only ancient manuscript of the New Testament written in four columns per page which has survived to the present day.[2] With only 300 years separating the Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus and the proposed lifetime of Jesus, it is considered by some to be more accurate than most New Testament
New Testament
copies in preserving readings where almost all manuscripts are assumed by them to be in error.[9] For the Gospels, Sinaiticus is considered among some people as the second most reliable witness of the text (after Vaticanus); in the Acts of the Apostles, its text is equal to that of Vaticanus; in the Epistles, Sinaiticus is assumed to be the most reliable witness of the text. In the Book of Revelation, however, its text is corrupted and is considered of poor quality, and inferior to the texts of Codex Alexandrinus, Papyrus 47, and even some minuscule manuscripts in this place (for example, Minuscule 2053, 2062).[15] See also[edit]

Bible portal

Biblical manuscript List of New Testament
New Testament
uncials Differences between codices Sinaiticus and Vaticanus Fifty Bibles of Constantine Syriac Sinaiticus

Notes[edit]

^ It was estimated by Tischendorf and used by Scrivener in his Introduction to the Sinaitic Codex
Codex
(1867) as an argument against authorship of Simonides (‘‘Christianity’’, p. 1889.) ^ Also in Minuscule 69, Minuscule 336, and several other manuscripts Pauline epistles
Pauline epistles
precede Acts. ^ For another variants of this verse see: Textual variants in the First Epistle of John. ^ The same variant present manuscripts: P67, 2174, in manuscripts of Vulgate, and in manuscripts of Ethiopic version. ^ Uspienski described: «Первая рукопись, содержащая Ветхий Завет неполный и весь Новый Завет с посланием ап. Варнавы и книгой Ермы, писана на тончайшем белом пергаменте. (...) Буквы в ней совершенно похожи на церковно-славянские. Постановка их прямая и сплошная. Над словами нет придыханий и ударений, а речения не отделяются никакими знаками правописания кроме точек. Весь священный текст писан в четыре и два столбца стихомерным образом и так слитно, как будто одно длинное речение тянется от точки до точки.» (Порфирий (Успенский), Первое путешествие в Синайский монастырь в 1845 году, Petersburg 1856, с. 226.) ^ Davies' words are from a letter published in The Guardian
The Guardian
on 27 May 1863, as quoted by Elliott, J.K. (1982) in Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus and the Simonides Affair, Thessaloniki: Patriarchal Institute for Patristic Studies, p. 16; Elliott in turn is quoted by Michael D. Peterson in his essay "Tischendorf and the Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus: the Saga Continues", in The Church and the Library, ed. Papademetriou and Sopko Boston: Somerset Hall Press (2005), p. 77. See also notes 2 and 3, p. 90, in Papademetriou.

References[edit]

^ Sinai: The Site & the History by Mursi Saad El Din, Ayman Taher, Luciano Romano 1998 ISBN 0-8147-2203-2 page 101 ^ a b c d e f Aland, Kurt; Barbara Aland
Barbara Aland
(1995). The Text of the New Testament: An Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism, trans. Erroll F. Rhodes. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 107. ISBN 978-0-8028-4098-1.  ^ Scrivener, Frederick Henry Ambrose (1875). Six Lectures on the Text of the New Testament
New Testament
and the Ancient Manuscripts. Cambridge. p. 26. ISBN 978-1-4097-0826-1.  ^ Aland, Kurt; Aland, Barbara (1995). The Text of the New Testament: An Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism. Erroll F. Rhodes (trans.). Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. pp. 107–108. ISBN 978-0-8028-4098-1.  ^ "Liste Handschriften". Münster: Institute for New Testament
New Testament
Textual Research. Retrieved 16 March 2013.  ^ "Sacred Texts: Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus". www.bl.uk. Retrieved 2017-01-27.  ^ T. C. Skeat, Early Christian book-production, in: Peter R. Ackroyd & Geoffrey William Hugo Lampe (eds.) The Cambridge history of the Bible (Cambridge 1975), pp. 77–78. ^ Lake, Kirsopp (1911). Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus Petropolitanus: The New Testament, the Epistle of Barnabas
Epistle of Barnabas
and the Shepherd of Hermas. Oxford: Clarendon Press. p. XVI.  ^ a b Kenyon, Frederic (1939). "7". Our Bible and the Ancient Manuscripts (4 ed.). London. p. 191. Retrieved 5 July 2010.  ^ Scrivener, F. H. A. (1864). A Full Collation of the Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus with the Received Text of the New Testament. Cambridge: Deighton, Bell, and Co. p. XIII.  ^ Jongkind, Dirk (2007), pp. 22–50. Scribal Habits of Codex Sinaiticus, Gorgias Press LLC, pp. 67–68. ^ Jongkind, Dirk (2007). Scribal Habits of Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus, Gorgias Press LLC, p. 74 ff, 93–94. ^ Bringhurst, Robert (2004). The Elements of Typographic Style (version 3.0), pp. 174–75. Vancouver: Hartley & Marks. ISBN 0-88179-205-5. ^ Morehead, Gavin " Parchment
Parchment
Assessment of the Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus", http://codexsinaiticus.org/en/project/conservation_parchment.aspx, Retrieved 11 December 2011 ^ a b c d Metzger, Bruce M., (1991). Manuscripts of the Greek Bible: An Introduction to Palaeography, Oxford: Oxford
Oxford
University Press, p. 76. ^ "The Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus Website". Codex-sinaiticus.net. Retrieved 4 February 2010.  ^ a b Skeat, Theodore Cressy (2000). "The Last Chapter in the History of the Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus". Novum Testamentum. BRILL. XLII, 4 (4): 313–315. doi:10.1163/156853600506708.  ^ Würthwein, Ernst (1988). Der Text des Alten Testaments (2nd ed.). Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft. p. 85. ISBN 3-438-06006-X.  ^ Swete, Henry Barclay (1902). An Introduction to the Old Testament
Old Testament
in Greek. Cambridge: Macmillan and Co. pp. 129–130.  ^ Bruce M. Metzger
Bruce M. Metzger
(2001). A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft. United Bible Societies.  ^ Bruce M. Metzger, A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament (Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft: Stuttgart 2001), pp. 315, 388, 434, 444. ^ The Greek New Testament, ed. K. Aland, A. Black, C. M. Martini, B. M. Metzger, and A. Wikgren, in cooperation with INTF, United Bible Societies, 3rd edition, (Stuttgart 1983), p. 16 [UBS3] ^ The Greek New Testament, ed. K. Aland, A. Black, C. M. Martini, B. M. Metzger, and A. Wikgren, in cooperation with INTF, United Bible Societies, 3rd edition, (United Bible Societies, Stuttgart 1983), p. 18. ^ Nestle-Aland, Novum Testamentum Graece, 26th edition, p. 26 ^ Nestle-Aland, Novum Testamentum Graece, 26th edition, p. 41 ^ Nestle-Aland, Novum Testamentum Graece, 26th edition, p. 56 ^ Scrivener, Frederick Henry Ambrose; Edward Miller (1894). A Plain Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament. 1 (4 ed.). London: George Bell & Sons. p. 342.  ^ The Greek New Testament, ed. K. Aland, A. Black, C. M. Martini, B. M. Metzger, and A. Wikgren, in cooperation with INTF, United Bible Societies, 3rd edition, (United Bible Societies, Stuttgart 1983), p. 118. ^ The Greek New Testament, ed. K. Aland, A. Black, C. M. Martini, B. M. Metzger, and A. Wikgren, in cooperation with INTF, United Bible Societies, 3rd edition, (United Bible Societies, Stuttgart 1983), p. 164. ^ Nestle-Aland, Novum Testamentum Graece, 26th edition, p. 190 ^ NA26, p. 256; The Greek New Testament, ed. K. Aland, A. Black, C. M. Martini, B. M. Metzger, and A. Wikgren, in cooperation with INTF, United Bible Societies, 3rd edition, (Stuttgart 1983), p. 333 ^ The Greek New Testament, ed. K. Aland, A. Black, C. M. Martini, B. M. Metzger, and A. Wikgren, in cooperation with INTF, United Bible Societies, 3rd edition, (Stuttgart 1983), p. 95. ^ The Greek New Testament, ed. K. Aland, A. Black, C. M. Martini, B. M. Metzger, and A. Wikgren, in cooperation with INTF, United Bible Societies, 3rd edition, (Stuttgart 1983), p. 168. ^ The Greek New Testament, ed. K. Aland, A. Black, C. M. Martini, B. M. Metzger, and A. Wikgren, in cooperation with INTF, United Bible Societies, 3rd edition, (Stuttgart 1983), p. 256. ^ The Greek New Testament, ed. K. Aland, A. Black, C. M. Martini, B. M. Metzger, and A. Wikgren, in cooperation with INTF, United Bible Societies, 3rd edition, (Stuttgart 1983), p. 305. ^ Nestle-Aland, Novum Testamentum Graece
Novum Testamentum Graece
26th edition, Stuttgart 1991, p. 239. ^ The Greek New Testament, ed. K. Aland, A. Black, C. M. Martini, B. M. Metzger, and A. Wikgren, in cooperation with INTF, United Bible Societies, 3rd edition, (Stuttgart 1983), p. 311 [UBS3] ^ Nestle-Aland, Novum Testamentum Graece, 26th edition, p. 18 ^ Nestle-Aland, Novum Testamentum Graece, 26th edition, p. 24 ^ Editio octava critica maior, p. 49 ^ Bruce M. Metzger
Bruce M. Metzger
(2001). A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament, Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, Stuttgart: United Bible Societies, p. 59 ^ Nestle-Aland, Novum Testamentum Graece, 26th edition, p. 17. ^ The Greek New Testament, ed. K. Aland, A. Black, C. M. Martini, B. M. Metzger, and A. Wikgren, in cooperation with INTF, United Bible Societies, 3rd edition, (Stuttgart 1983), p. 26 ^ a b c Skeat, T. C. (1999). "The Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus, The Codex Vaticanus and Constantine". Journal of Theological Studies. 50 (2): 583–625. doi:10.1093/jts/50.2.583.  ^ Nestle-Aland, Novum Testamentum Graece, 26th edition, p. 158. ^ "BibleTranslation.ws" (PDF). Retrieved 4 February 2010.  ^ Nestle-Aland, Novum Testamentum Graece, 26th edition, p. 264 ^ a b Scrivener, Frederick Henry Ambrose (1875). Six Lectures on the Text of the New Testament
New Testament
and the Ancient Manuscripts which contain it. London: Deighton, Bell & Co. p. 47.  ^ UBS3, p. 737. ^ The Greek New Testament, ed. K. Aland, A. Black, C. M. Martini, B. M. Metzger, and A. Wikgren, in cooperation with INTF, United Bible Societies, 3rd edition, (Stuttgart 1983), p. 165. ^ Nestle-Aland, Novum Testamentum Graece, 26th edition, p. 136. ^ Nestle-Aland, Novum Testamentum Graece, 26th edition, p. 184. ^ The Greek New Testament, ed. K. Aland, A. Black, C. M. Martini, B. M. Metzger, and A. Wikgren, in cooperation with INTF, United Bible Societies, 3rd edition, (Stuttgart 1983), p. 823. ^ Bart D. Ehrman, The Orthodox Corruption of Scripture, Oxford University Press, Oxford
Oxford
1993, p. 60. ^ See, for instance, Tommy Wasserman, "Misquoting Manuscripts? The Orthodox Corruption of Scripture Revisited," in The Making of Christianity: Conflicts, Contacts, and Constructions: Essays in Honor of Bengt Holmberg. Zetterholm, M., and S. Byrskog, eds., Eisenbrauns, 2012, pp.325–350. ^ 2:3–8 ^ Fee, G. D. (1968–9). Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus in the Gospel
Gospel
of John, NTS 15, pp. 22–44. ^ Hoskier, H. C. (1914). Codex
Codex
B and Its Allies, a Study and an Indictment, London, p.1. ^ Westcott, B. F. and Hort, F. J. A. (1860). Introduction to the Study of the Gospels, p. 40. ^ a b Streeter, B. H. (1924). The Four Gospels, a Study of Origins treating of the Manuscript Tradition, Sources, Authorship, & Dates, pp. 590–597. ^ Milne, H. J. M. and Skeat, T.C. (1938). Scribes and Correctors of Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus. London: Trustees of the British Museum. ^ a b c Metzger, Bruce M., (1991). Manuscripts of the Greek Bible: An Introduction to Palaeography, Oxford: Oxford
Oxford
University Press, p. 77. ^ Parker D. C., Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus. The Story of the World’s Oldest Bible, London: The British Library, 2010, p. 3. ^ Button, E. A. (1911). An Atlas of Textual Criticism, Cambridge, p. 13. ^ Brook F. Westcott and Fenton J. A. Hort, Introduction to the New Testament in the Original Greek (New York: Harper & Bros., 1882; reprint, Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 1988), pp. 264–267. ^ Robinson, Euthaliana, pp. 42, 101. ^ a b Frederic G. Kenyon, Our Bible and the Ancient Manuscripts, Eyre and Spottiswoode, London, 1896, p. 128. ^ Victor Gardthausen, Griechische paleographie, 2 vol., Leipzig, 1913, pp. 124–125. ^ Price, I. M. (1923). The Ancestry of Our English Bible an Account of Manuscripts, Texts and Versions of the Bible, Sunday School Times Co, p. 146 f. ^ Pierre Batiffol, Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus, in DB. 1, 1883–1886. ^ Frederic G. Kenyon, "Handbook to the Textual Criticism of the New Testament", London2, 1912, p. 83. ^ Milne, H. J. M. and Skeat, T. C., (1938). Scribes and Correctors of the Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus, London: British Museum, pp. 22–50. ^ a b Jongkind, Dirk (2007), pp. 22–50. Scribal Habits of Codex Sinaiticus, Gorgias Press LLC, pp. 12–13. ^ a b c Jongkind, Dirk (2007), Scribal Habits of Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus, Gorgias Press LLC, p. 90. ^ Jongkind, Dirk (2007), Scribal Habits of Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus, Gorgias Press LLC, pp. 77–78. ^ Jongkind, Dirk (2007), Scribal Habits of Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus, Gorgias Press LLC, pp. 80–81. ^ Milne-Skeat. Scribes and Correctors of the Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus, (London: British Museum, 1938), p. 94. ^ Milne-Skeat. Scribes and Correctors of the Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus, (London: British Museum, 1938), pp. 53–55. ^ Metzger, Bruce M.; Ehrman, Bart D. (2005), The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption, and Restoration. New York, Oxford: Oxford
Oxford
University Press, pp. 66–67 ^ Milne, H. J. M. and T. C. Skeat, (1938). Scribes and Correctors of the Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus, London: British Museum, p. 33. ^ Jongkind, Dirk (2007), Scribal Habits of Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus, Gorgias Press LLC, p. 44. ^ Metzger, Bruce M., (1992). The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption and Restoration, (3rd Ed.), Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 46. ^ Gregory, C. R. (1900). Textkritik des Neuen Testaments (in German). 1. Leipzig: J.C. Hinrichs’sche Buchhandlung. p. 19. Retrieved 18 March 2010.  ^ Lumbroso, G. (1879). Atti della R. Accademia dei Lincei, p. 501. ^ Kirsopp Lake, (1911). Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus Petropolitanus: The New Testament, the Epistle of Barnabas
Epistle of Barnabas
and the Shepherd of Hermas, Oxford: Clarendon Press, p. V. ^ Skeat, T. C. (2000). "The Last Chapter in the History of the Codex Sinaiticus". Novum Testamentum. Vol. 42, Fasc. 3, Jul., 2000. p. 313. ^ Constantin von Tischendorf, Monumenta sacra inedita (Leipzig 1855), vol. I, pp. 211 ff. ^ Tischendorf, C. v. (1866). When Were Our Gospels
Gospels
Written? An Argument by Constantine Tischendorf. With a Narrative of the Discovery of the Sinaitic Manuscript, New York: American Tract Society. ^ Gregory, Caspar René (1900). Textkritik des Neuen Testaments. 1. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs’sche Buchhandlung. pp. 195–196.  ^ Parker, D. C. (2010). Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus. The Story of the World’s Oldest Bible. London: The British Library. pp. 140–142. ISBN 978-0-7123-5803-3.  ^ Kirsopp Lake, (1911). Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus Petropolitanus: The New Testament, the Epistle of Barnabas
Epistle of Barnabas
and the Shepherd of Hermas, Oxford: Clarendon Press, Preface. ^ See Constantin von Tischendorf, The Discovery of the Sinaitic Manuscript, Extract from Constantin von Tischendorf, (1866) When Were Our Gospels
Gospels
Written? An Argument by Constantine Tischendorf. With a Narrative of the Discovery of the Sinaitic Manuscript New York: American Tract Society. ^ Bentley, James (1986). Secrets of Mount Sinai. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, p. 95. ^ Kirsopp Lake, (1911). Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus Petropolitanus: The New Testament, the Epistle of Barnabas
Epistle of Barnabas
and the Shepherd of Hermas, Oxford: Clarendon Press, p. VI. ^ Parker, D. C. (2010). Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus. The Story of the World’s Oldest Bible. London: The British Library. pp. 145–146. ISBN 978-0-7123-5803-3.  ^ В архивах МИД РФ нашли документ о правах на Синайский кодекс at the Lenta.ru ^ Lake, Kirsopp, (1911). Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus Petropolitanus: The New Testament, the Epistle of Barnabas
Epistle of Barnabas
and the Shepherd of Hermas, Oxford: Clarendon Press, p. VI. ^ See Ihor Ševčenko, "New Documents on Tischendorf and the Codex Sinaiticus", published in the journal Scriptorium, xviii (1964), pp. 55–80. ^ Metzger, Bruce A. (1992) The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption and Restoration, (3rd Ed.), Oxford
Oxford
University Press, p. 45. ^ J. K. Elliott (1982) in Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus and the Simonides Affair, Thessaloniki: Patriarchal Institute for Patristic Studies, p. 16. ^ Странное объявление Симонидеса о Синайском кодексе и ответ Тишендорфа. ^ Letters of Constantine Simonides, Grolier Library, NY ^ McKitterick, David (1998) A history of Cambridge University Press, Volume 2: Scholarship and Commerce (1698–1872), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-30802-X, page 369. ^ Dean Burgon, Revision Revised, p. 9. ^ 26:60 ^ Dean Burgon, Revised Revision, p. 48. ^ Бенешевич Владимир Николаевич, "Памятники Синая археологические и палеографические", Вып. 2, Sankt Petersburg, 1912; V. N. Beneshevich, "Catalogus Codicum Manuscriptorum Graecorum qui in Monasterio Sanctae Catherinae in Monte Sina Asservantur" St. Petersburg (1911). ^ "Katapi.org.uk". Katapi.org.uk. Retrieved 4 February 2010.  ^ Metzger, Bruce M.; Ehrman, Bart D. (2005). The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption, and Restoration (4th ed.). New York – Oxford: Oxford
Oxford
University Press. p. 64.  ^ T. C. Skeat, A four years work on the Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus: Significant discoveries in reconditioned ms., in: T. C. Skeat and J. K. Elliott, The collected biblical writings of T. C. Skeat, Brill 2004, p. 9. ^ Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, "Die Funde der Mönche vom Sinai" (Engl.: "The findings of the monks from the Sinai"), 05-11-1983, No. 109, page 10 ^ Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus finds 1975 with images ^ World's oldest Bible goes global: Historic international digitisation project announced, British Library: Press Room ^ British Library
British Library
Heads Project in Digitalising the World’s Oldest Bible Christianity Today, 15 March 2005 ^ Schneider, Ulrich Johannes (ed.) (2007). Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus. Geschichte und Erschließung der «Sinai-Bibel». Leipzig: Universitätsbibliothek Leipzig, p. 42. ^ Oldest known Bible to go online. BBC.com. 31 August 2005. Retrieved 8 June 2006. ^ Henschke, E. (2007). "Digitizing the Hand-Written Bible: The Codex Sinaiticus, its History and Modern Presentation", Libri, vol. 57, pp. 45–51. ^ Historical Bible pages put online BBC News ^ "The world's oldest Bible goes online" (Press release). 21 July 2008. Retrieved 24 July 2008.  ^ "ctv news story". Ctv.ca. 6 July 2009. Retrieved 4 February 2010.  ^ Oldest Bible fragment found in Egypt
Egypt
Press TV ^ "Fragment from world's oldest Bible found hidden in Egyptian monastery". The Independent, 2 Sept, 2009. ^ Ο Σιναϊτικός Κώδικας. ^ a b "История приобретения Синайской Библии Россией в свете новых документов из российских архивов", А.В.Захарова, Монфокон: исследования по палеографии, кодикологии и дипломатике, Ι, Москва—С.-Петербург, 2007, 209–266 ^ Skeat, T. C. (2000). "The Last Chapter in the History of the Codex Sinaiticus." Novum Testamentum. Vol. 42, Fasc. 3, Jul., 2000. p. 315.

Further reading[edit] Text of the codex[edit]

Constantin von Tischendorf, Fragmentum Codicis Friderico-Augustani, in: Monumenta sacra inedita (Leipzig 1855), vol. I, pp. 211 ff. Constantin von Tischendorf: Bibliorum codex Sinaiticus Petropolitanus. Giesecke & Devrient, Leipzig 1862. Lake, Kirsopp (1911). Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus Petropolitanus: The New Testament, the Epistle of Barnabas
Epistle of Barnabas
and the Shepherd of Hermas. Oxford: Clarendon Press.  Scrivener, Frederick Henry Ambrose (1867) [1864]. A Full Collation of the Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus with the Received Text of the New Testament
New Testament
(PDF) (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Deighton Bell.  Anderson, H. T. (1918). CODEX SINAITICUS: The New Testament
New Testament
translated from the Sinaitic Manuscript. Cincinnati: The Standard Publishing Company. 

Introductions to the textual criticism of NT[edit]

Gregory, C. R. (1900). Textkritik des Neuen Testaments (in German). 1. Leipzig: J.C. Hinrichs’sche Buchhandlung. Retrieved 18 March 2010.  Metzger, Bruce M. (1991). Manuscripts of the Greek Bible: An Introduction to Palaeography. Oxford: Oxford
Oxford
University Press. pp. 76–79. ISBN 978-0-19-502924-6.  Metzger, Bruce M.; Ehrman, Bart D. (2005). The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption, and Restoration (4th ed.). New York – Oxford: Oxford
Oxford
University Press. pp. 62–67.  Scrivener, Frederick Henry Ambrose; Edward Miller (1894). A Plain Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament. 1 (4 ed.). London: George Bell & Sons. p. 342.  Streeter, Burnett Hillman (1924). The Four Gospels. A Study of Origins the Manuscripts Tradition, Sources, Authorship, & Dates. Oxford: MacMillan and Co Limited. 

Other works[edit]

Anderson, H. T. (1910). The New Testament
New Testament
Translated from the Sinaitic Manuscript Discovered by Constantine Tischendorf at Mt. Sinai. The Standard Publishing Company.  Böttrich, Christfried (2011). Der Jahrhundertfund. Entdeckung und Geschichte des Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus (The Discovery of the Century. Discovery and history of Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus). Leipzig: Evangelische Verlagsanstalt. ISBN 978-3-374-02586-2.  Gardthausen, Victor (1913). Griechische paleographie. 2. Leipzig. pp. 119–134.  Jongkind, Dirk (2007). Scribal Habits of Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus. Gorgias Press LLC.  Kenyon, Frederic G. (1939). Our Bible and the Ancient Manuscripts (4th ed.). London. pp. 121–128.  Peter M. Head (2008). "The Gospel of Mark
Gospel of Mark
in Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus: Textual and Reception-Historical Considerations" (PDF). Journal of Biblical Textual Criticism.  Magerson, P. (1983). " Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus: An Historical Observation". Bib Arch. 46: 54–56.  Milne, H. J. M.; Skeat, T. C. (1963) [1951]. The Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus and the Codex
Codex
Alexandrinus. London.  Milne, H. J. M.; Skeat, T. C. (1938). Scribes and Correctors of the Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus. London: British Museum.  Parker, D. C. (2010). Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus. The Story of the World’s Oldest Bible. London: The British Library. ISBN 978-0-7123-5803-3.  Porter, Stanley E. (2015). Constantine Tischendorf. The Life and Work of a 19th Century Bible Hunter. London: Bloomsbury T&T Clark. ISBN 978-0-5676-5803-6.  Schick, Alexander (2015). Tischendorf und die älteste Bibel der Welt – Die Entdeckung des CODEX SINAITICUS im Katharinenkloster (Tischendorf and the oldest Bible in the world – The discovery of the Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus in St. Catherine's Monastery – Biography cause of the anniversary of the 200th birthday of Tischendorf with many unpublished documents from his estate. These provide insight into previously unknown details of the discoveries and the reasons behind the donation of the manuscript. Recent research on Tischendorf and the Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus and its significance for New Testament
New Testament
Textual Research). Muldenhammer: Jota. ISBN 978-3-935707-83-1.  T. C. Skeat, A four years work on the Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus: Significant discoveries in reconditioned ms., in: T. C. Skeat and J. K. Elliott, The collected biblical writings of T. C. Skeat, Brill 2004, pp. 109–118. Schneider, Ulrich Johannes (ed.) (2007). Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus. Geschichte und Erschließung der "Sinai-Bibel". Leipzig: Universitätsbibliothek Leipzig. ISBN 978-3-934178-72-4. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Tischendorf, Constantin von (1870). Responsa ad Calumnias Romanas. Leipzig: F. A. Brockhaus.  Tischendorf, Constantin von (1871). Die Sinaibibel ihre Entdeckung, Herausgabe, und Erwerbung. Leipzig: Giesecke & Devrient.  Tischendorf, Constantin von (1865). Wann wurden unsere Evangelien verfasst?. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichssche Buchhandlung.  Tischendorf, Constantin von (1866). When Were Our Gospels
Gospels
Written?, An Argument by Constantine Tischendorf. With a Narrative of the Discovery of the Sinaitic Manuscript. New York: American Tract Society. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus.

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Sinaiticus Project BBC video clip, handling the Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus at the British Library

Facsimiles of Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus[edit]

Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus at the Center for the Study of NT Manuscripts (JPG) Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus: A Facsimile (ISBN 9780712349987)

Articles[edit]

Differences between the Sinaiticus and the KJV Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus at the Encyclopedia of Textual Criticism Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus page at bible-researcher.com Earlham College facsimile of Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus Project at the British Library
British Library
website Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus entry for the British Library
British Library
collection A real-life Bible Code: the amazing story of the Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus Joint project managed by ITSEE for digitizing the codex E. Henschke, The Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus, its History and Modern Presentation Who Owns the Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus Biblical Archaeology Review Library The Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus and the Manuscripts of Mt Sinai in the Collections of the National Library of Russia
Russia
The National Library of Russia, 2009 Codex
Codex
Sinaiticus, the world's oldest Bible, goes online The Telegraph

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 183910773 LCCN: n85077572 GND: 4148197-5 SELIBR: 349

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