The term "coalition" is the denotation for a group formed when two or more persons, faction, states, political parties, militaries etc. agree to work together temporarily in a partnership to achieve a common goal. The word coalition connotes a coming together to achieve a goal. Synonyms include alliance, union, partnership, bloc, caucus; federation, league, association, confederation, consortium, syndicate, combine, amalgamation, or merger.
1 Formation 2 Function 3 History
3.1 Government and politics 3.2 International relations 3.3 Economics 3.4 Civil society 3.5 Military 3.6 Mathematics
4 See also 5 References 6 External links
Formation According to A Guide for Political Parties published by National Democratic Institute and The Oslo Center for Peace and Human Rights, there are five steps of coalition-building:
Developing a party strategy: The first step in coalition-building involves developing a party strategy that will lay the ground for successful negotiation. The more effort parties place on this step, the more likely they are to identify strategic partners, negotiate a good deal and avoid some of the common pitfalls associated with coalition-building. Negotiating a coalition: Based on the strategy that each party has prepared, in Step 2 the parties come together to negotiate and hopefully reach agreement on the terms for the coalition. Depending on the context and objectives of the coalition, these negotiations may be completely secret or partially public. While some issues may be agreed on with relative ease, others may be more contentious and require different approaches to reach compromise. Getting started: As negotiation begins to wrap-up, the agreement between political parties needs to be formally sealed. This includes finalizing a written agreement, securing formal approval of the deal from the relevant structures of the coalition’s member parties and announcing the coalition details to the general public. Working in a coalition: As the coalition partners begin working to implement their agreement, they will need to maintain good relations by continuing efforts to increase or sustain trust and communication among the member parties. Each party will also need to strike a balance between respecting its obligations to the coalition and maintaining its individual identity. Drawing lessons learned: Regardless of whether it plans to move forward alone or in another coalition, it is important for each party to review and document lessons learned from each coalition-building experience. This will make it possible to get a clearer picture of the positive and negative impacts of coalition-building on the party and to identify lessons learned that can inform any future coalition-building efforts.
Coalitions manifest in a variety of forms, types, and terms of duration:
Campaign coalitions with high intensity and long-term cooperation Federations, characterized by relatively lower degree of involvement, intensity, and participation, involving cooperation of long duration, but with members’ primary commitment remaining with their own entities Instrumental coalitions, involving low-intensity involvement without a foundation to mediate conflict Event-based coalitions that have a high level of involvement and the potential for future collaboration.
By contrast to alliances, coalitions are what might be termed
‘partnerships of unequals’ since comparative political, economic,
and military might, or more particularly the extent to which a nation
is prepared to commit, dictates who will lead, who is in the inner
circle, and who will have influence. Coalitions generally occur as
an unplanned reply to situations of danger, uncertainty, or
supernatural events they are also nonpermanent integrations directed
at interim objectives. In terms of participation coalitions are, by
their nature, more of a "come as you are, wear what you want, leave
when you want party".
Coalitions branch into two expanding categories: internal coalitions
and external coalitions.
Internal coalitions consist of people who are already in an
organization, such as a workplace. For example, the trade union is
a type of coalition which was formed in order to represent employees'
wages, benefits, and working conditions. Without this unity between
employees, workers were subjugated to harsh working environments and
low pay due to no practical regulations. Often, organizations prefer
to council with members of their respective internal coalitions before
implementing changes at the workplace to ensure support.
In contrast, external coalitions consist of people that are members of
different organizations who collaborate their efforts to achieve an
overall objective. For example, in order to prevent gun violence
and advocate gun control, several groups, unions, and nonprofit
organizations banded to form the
Coalition to Stop Gun Violence.
External coalitions base their confidence in gaining credibility on
inviting unlikely partners who wish to attain the same end goal, but
the reasons to achieve these goals differ.
Government and politics
Coalition government stands as an alternative model to majoritarian
governance, the latter being characterized by winner-take-all
"first-past-the-post" electoral systems that favor clear distinctions
between winners and losers. Not only can coalitions of legislative
groups form governments in parliamentary systems but they can form in
divisions of power as well. The most usual analyses of coalitions in
politics deal with the formation of multiparty cabinets in
parliamentary regimes. In Germany, every administration has been a
multiparty coalition since the conclusion of the Second World War, an
example of a coalition government creation in a parliamentary
government. When different winning coalitions can be formed in a
parliament, the party composition of the government may depend on the
bargaining power of each party and the presence, or not, of a dominant
The Cambridge Dictionary defines coalition as "the joining together of
different political parties or groups for a particular purpose,
usually for a limited time, or a government that is formed in this
The temporary collaboration of two or more separate parties with a set
goal and common purpose can be viewed as a coalition in international
Coalition competitions are represented in international
political dynamics . In international relations, a coalition can
be an ad hoc grouping of nations united for specific purposes.
Although persons and groups form coalitions for many and varied
reasons, the most common purpose is to combat a common threat or to
take advantage of a certain opportunity, resulting in the often
temporary nature of coalitions. The common threat or existence of
opportunity is what gives rise to the coalition and allows it to exist
as all parties involved see the benefit in working together. Such
collaborative processes allow the actors of the coalition to advance
forward towards their overall goal or accomplish the task that the
coalition was formed around. The behavior and dynamics of a
coalitions in international relations are created by commonalties and
differences within the groups joining together. Rationality, group
dynamics, and gender are all contributing factors of coalitional
behaviors in an international security framework.
Economic agents can form coalitions. When a coalition is formed
around economic goals, the reasoning is financial. In economics, when
two opposing sectors such as a buyer and seller, or two sellers, come
together it can be thought of as a coalition, in the denotative sense,
as the two groups come together temporarily to achieve a goal. One
example would be the 1997 deal between
Axelrod's book, The Evolution of Cooperation United front Coalition government List of countries with coalition governments Collaborative leadership Multi-party system Syndicate Alliance Electoral alliance Political alliance
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