The gens Claudia (Classical Latin: [ˈklawdɪa]), sometimes
written Clodia, was one of the most prominent patrician houses at
Rome. The gens traced its origin to the earliest days of the Roman
Republic. The first of the Claudii to obtain the consulship was Appius
Claudius Sabinus Regillensis, in 495 BC, and from that time its
members frequently held the highest offices of the state, both under
the Republic and in imperial times.
Plebeian Claudii are found fairly early in Rome's history. Some may
have been descended from members of the family who had passed over to
the plebeians, while others were probably the descendants of freedmen
of the gens.
In his life of the emperor Tiberius, who was a scion of the Claudii,
Suetonius gives a summary of the gens, and says, "as
time went on it was honoured with twenty-eight consulships, five
dictatorships, seven censorships, six triumphs, and two ovations."
Writing several decades after the fall of the so-called
Suetonius took care to mention both the good
and wicked deeds attributed to members of the family.
The patrician Claudii were noted for their pride and arrogance, and
intense hatred of the commonalty. In his History of Rome, Niebuhr
That house during the course of centuries produced several very
eminent, few great men; hardly a single noble-minded one. In all ages
it distinguished itself alike by a spirit of haughty defiance, by
disdain for the laws, and iron hardness of heart.
During the Republic, no patrician
Claudius adopted a member of another
gens; the emperor
Claudius was the first who broke this custom, by
adopting Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, afterwards the emperor
1 Origin of the gens
3 Branches and cognomina
4.1 Claudii Sabini et Crassi
4.2 Claudii Pulchri
4.3 Claudii Centhones
4.4 Claudii Nerones
4.5 Claudii Marcelli
4.6 Claudii Caninae
4.7 Claudii Aselli
4.8 Claudii Pompeiani
6 See also
9 External links
Origin of the gens
According to legend, the first of the Claudii was a Sabine, by the
name of Attius Clausus, who came to Rome with his retainers in 504 BC,
the sixth year of the Republic.[i] At this time, the fledgling
Republic was engaged in regular warfare with the Sabines, and Clausus
is said to have been the leader of a faction seeking to end the
conflict. When his efforts failed, he defected to the Romans, bringing
with him no fewer than five hundred men able to bear arms, according
Clausus, who exchanged his Sabine name for the
Latin Appius Claudius,
was enrolled among the patricians, and given a seat in the Senate,
quickly becoming one of its most influential members.[ii] His
descendants were granted a burial site at the foot of the Capitoline
Hill, and his followers allotted land on the far side of the Anio,
where they formed the core of what became the "Old Claudian"
Claudius is said to have referred to these traditions in a
speech made before the senate, in which he argued in favor of
Gauls to that body. "My ancestors, the most ancient of whom
was made at once a citizen and a noble of Rome, encourage me to govern
by the same policy of transferring to this city all conspicuous merit,
wherever found." By imperial times, the influence of the Claudii
was so great that the poet
Virgil flattered them by a deliberate
anachronism. In his Aeneid, he makes Attius Clausus a contemporary of
Aeneas, to whose side he rallies with a host of quirites, or
The nomen Claudius, originally Clausus, is usually said to be derived
Latin adjective claudus, meaning "lame". As a cognomen,
Claudus is occasionally found in other gentes. However, since there is
no tradition that any of the early Claudii were lame, the nomen might
refer to some ancestor of Attius Clausus. It could also have been
metaphorical, or ironic, and the possibility remains that this
derivation is erroneous. The metathesis of Clausus into Claudius, and
its common by-form, Clodius, involves the alternation of 'o' and 'au',
which seems to have been common in words of Sabine origin. The
alternation of 's' and 'd' occurs in words borrowed from Greek: Latin
rosa from Greek rhodos; but in this instance clausus or *closus is a
Sabine word becoming clod- in Latin. The name could have come from
Greek settlers in Latium, but there is no evidence in favor of this
The early Claudii favored the praenomina Appius, Gaius, and Publius.
These names were used by the patrician Claudii throughout their
Tiberius was used by the family of the Claudii Nerones, while
Marcus, although used occasionally by the earliest patrician Claudii,
was favored by the plebeian branches of the family. According to
Suetonius, the gens avoided the praenomen Lucius because two early
members with this name had brought dishonor upon the family, one
having been convicted of highway robbery, and the other of
murder. However, the name was used by at least one branch of the
Claudii in the final century of the Republic, including one who, as
Rex Sacrorum, was certainly patrician. To these names, the plebeian
Claudii added Quintus and Sextus.
The praenomen Appius is often said to have been unique to the Claudii,
and nothing more than a Latinization of the Sabine Attius. But in fact
there are other figures in Roman history named "Appius", and in later
times the name was used by plebeian families such as the Junii and the
Annii. Thus, it seems more accurate to say that the Claudii were the
only patrician family at Rome known to have used Appius. As for its
Sabine equivalent, Attius has been the subject of much discussion by
philologists. The form Attus is mentioned by Valerius Maximus, who
connected it with the bucolic Greek name Atys. Braasch translated it
as Väterchen, "little father," and connected it with a series of
childhood parental names: "atta, tata, acca," and the like, becoming
such names as Tatius (also Sabine) and Atilius.
During the late Republic and early Empire, the Claudii Nerones, who
gave rise to the Imperial family, adopted the praenomen Decimus,
seldom used by any patrician family. Subsequently they began to
exchange traditional praenomina for names that first entered the
family as cognomina, such as Nero, Drusus, and Germanicus.
Branches and cognomina
The patrician Claudii bore various surnames, including Caecus, Caudex,
Centho, Crassus, Nero, Pulcher, Regillensis, and Sabinus. The latter
two, though applicable to all of the gens, were seldom used when there
was a more definite cognomen. A few of the patrician Claudii are
mentioned without any surname. The surnames of the plebeian Claudii
were Asellus, Canina, Centumalus, Cicero, Flamen, Glaber, and
The earliest Claudii bore the surname Sabinus, a common surname
usually referring to a Sabine, or someone of Sabine descent, which
according to all tradition, the Claudii were.[iv] This cognomen was
first adopted by Appius Claudius, the founder of the gens, and was
retained by his descendants, until it was replaced by Crassus.
Regillensis or Inregillensis, a surname of the earliest Claudii, is
said to be derived from the town of Regillum, a Sabine settlement,
Claudius lived with his family and retainers before
coming to Rome. Its exact location is unknown, but it must have been
in the vicinity of Lake Regillus, where one of the most important
battles in the early history of the
Roman Republic was fought. The
same cognomen was borne by a family of the Postumii, although in this
instance the surname is supposed to have been derived from the Battle
of Lake Regillus, in which the victorious Roman general was the
dictator Aulus Postumius Albus.
Crassus, sometimes given as the diminutive Crassinus, was a common
surname usually translated as "thick, solid," or "dull". This
cognomen succeeded that of Sabinus as the surname of the main family
of the Claudia gens. It was borne by members of the family from the
fifth to the third century BC. The other main families of the
patrician Claudii were descended from Appius
Claudius Caecus, a member
of this stirps; his sons bore the surnames Crassus, Pulcher, Cento or
Centho, and Nero. However, this generation saw the last of the Claudii
Pulcher, the surname of the next major branch of the Claudia gens,
means beautiful, although it may be that the cognomen was given
ironically. The Claudii Pulchri were an extensive family, which
supplied the Republic with several consuls, and survived into imperial
Claudius, Fourth Roman Emperor
The other main branch of the patrician Claudii bore the surname Nero,
originally a Sabine praenomen described as meaning, fortis ac
strenuus, which roughly translated is "strong and sturdy." It may be
the same as the Umbrian praenomen Nerius. This family was
distinguished throughout the latter Republic, and gave rise to several
of the early emperors, including Tiberius, Claudius, and Nero. An
oddity of the names by which these emperors are known today is that
several of their ancestors bore the name
Claudius Nero; of
three emperors belonging to the same family, one is known by a
praenomen, one by a nomen, and one by a cognomen.
The most illustrious family of the plebeian Claudii bore the surname
Marcellus, which is a diminutive of the praenomen Marcus. They gained
everlasting fame from the exploits of Marcus
Claudius Marcellus, one
of Rome's finest generals, and a towering figure of the Second Punic
War, who was five times consul, and won the spolia opima, defeating
and killing the Gallic king, Viridomarus, in single combat.
Most of those who used the spelling
Clodius were descended from
plebeian members of the gens, but one family by this name was a cadet
branch of the patrician Claudii Pulchri, which voluntarily went over
to the plebeians, and used the spelling
Clodius to differentiate
themselves from their patrician relatives.
Caecus, the surname of one of the Claudii Crassi, refers to the
condition of his blindness, which is well-attested, although it
appears that he did not become blind until his old age. According to
one legend, he was struck blind by the gods during his censorship,
after inducing the ancient family of the Potitii to teach the sacred
Hercules to the public slaves. The Potitii themselves were
said to have perished as a result of this sacrilege. However, it
should be noted that
Claudius was relatively young at the time of his
censorship in 312 BC, and was elected consul sixteen years later, in
Caecus' brother, who shared the same praenomen, was distinguished by
the cognomen Caudex, literally meaning a "treetrunk", although
metaphorically it was an insult, meaning a "dolt." According to
Seneca, he obtained the surname from his attention to naval
This list includes abbreviated praenomina. For an explanation of this
practice, see filiation.
Clodius for members of the gens who used the alternate
spelling of the name primarily or solely.
Claudii Sabini et Crassi
Marcus Clausus, the father of Appius Claudius.
Claudius M. f. Sabinus Regillensis, consul in 495 BC. Born
Attius Clausus, a Sabine; brought his family and retainers to Rome in
504 BC, and was admitted to the patriciate.
Claudius Ap. f. M. n. Sabinus Regillensis, consul in 471 BC, he
was sent against the
Aequi and Volsci, but his own soldiers revolted,
and were punished with decimation. He fiercely opposed the agrarian
law first brought forward by Spurius Cassius Viscellinus, and was
brought to trial, but took his own life.
Claudius Ap. f. M. n. Sabinus Regillensis, consul in 460 BC, the
year that Appius Herdonius seized the Capitol. He was a staunch
opponent of various laws and reforms favoring the plebeians.
Claudius Ap. f. Ap. n. Crassus, consul in 451 BC, he became
head of the college of decemvirs, holding office until 449, when he
was imprisoned for his actions as decemvir, and either killed himself
or was put to death.[v]
Claudius Ap. f. Ap. n. Crassus, conslar tribune in 424 BC, said
Livy to have been violently opposed to the plebeians and their
Claudius Ap. f. Ap. n. Crassus, the younger son of the
Claudius Ap. f. Ap. n. Crassus, consular tribune in 403 BC,
during the siege of Veii. He proposed a law allowing one of the
tribunes of the plebs to halt the proceedings of the others.
Claudius P. f. Ap. n. Crassus, opposed the Licinian Rogations,
opening the consulship to the plebeians. In 362 BC, he was appointed
dictator to conduct the war against the Hernici. Consul in 349, he
died at the commencement of his year of office.
Claudius Ap. f. Ap. n. Crassus, nominated dictator in 337 BC,
but immediately resigned after the augurs pronounced the appointment
invalid. His magister equitum was Gaius
Claudius C. f. Ap. n. Caecus, censor in 312 BC, and consul in
307 and 296; he was once dictator, but the year is unknown. Caecus is
also the earliest known Roman writer of prose and verse.
Claudius C. f. Ap. n. Caudex, consul in 264 BC, at the
beginning of the First Punic War; landing in Sicily, he defeated Hiero
and the Carthaginians, and raised the siege of Messana.
Claudius Ap. f. C. n. Crassus Rufus, the eldest son of Appius
Claudius Caecus, he was consul in 268 BC, and the last of the Claudii
known to have borne the surname Crassus.
Claudia, the name of five daughters of Appius Claudius
Claudius Ap. f. C. n. Pulcher, consul in 249 BC; ignoring the
auguries, he attacked the Carthaginian fleet at Drepana, and was
entirely defeated. Recalled to Rome, he nominated Marcus Claudius
Glicia, the son of a freedman, as dictator. He was subsequently
impeached and fined.
Claudius P. f. Ap. n. Pulcher, consul in 212 BC, during the
Second Punic War; with his colleague laid siege to Capua. His command
was prolonged after his year of office, and he was mortally wounded in
battle with Hannibal.
Quinta Claudia P. f. Ap. n., freed a grounded ship bringing the image
Cybele to Rome.
Claudia P. f. Ap. n., married
Pacuvius Calavius of Capua.
Claudius Ap. f. P. n. Pulcher, consul in 185 BC.
Claudius Ap. f. P. n. Pulcher, consul in 184 BC.
Claudius Ap. f. P. n. Pulcher, consul in 177 BC, received Istria
as his province; he was censor in 169.
Claudius Ap. f. Ap. n. Pulcher, consul in 143 BC, and censor in
136. He defeated the Salassi, but was refused a triumph by the senate,
and triumphed at his own expense.
Claudius C. f. Ap. n. Pulcher, consul in 130 BC, reported to the
senate about the disturbances excited by Gaius Papirius Carbo.
Claudius C. f. C. n. Pulcher, probably the elder son of Gaius
Claudius Pulcher, consul in 130 BC.
Claudius C. f. C. n. Pulcher, probably the younger son of Gaius
Claudius Pulcher, consul in 130 BC.
Claudius Ap. f. Ap. n. Pulcher, son of the consul of 143 BC, in
107 he participated in the discussions respecting the agrarian law of
Claudia Ap. f. Ap. n., daughter Appius
Claudius Pulcher, consul in 143
BC, was a Vestal Virgin, and accompanied her father during his
Claudia Ap. f. Ap. n., another daughter of Appius
consul in 143 BC, married
Claudia Ap. f. Ap. n., a third daughter of Appius
consul in 143 BC, married Quintus Marcius Philippus, and was the
mother of Quintus and Lucius Marcius Philippus; the latter was consul
in 91 BC.
Claudius Ap. f. C. n. Pulcher, consul in 92 BC.
Claudius (Ap. f. C. n.) Pulcher, military tribune in 87 BC, is
probably to be identified with the interrex of 77 BC.
Claudius C. f. C. n. Pulcher, consul in 79 BC.
Claudius Ap. f. Ap. n. Pulcher, praetor in 89 BC.
Claudius Ap. f. Ap. n. Pulcher, praetor in 73 BC, was defeated
Spartacus at Mount Vesuvius.
Claudia Ap. f. Ap. n., sister of the praetors of 89 and 73 BC, married
Quintus Marcius Philippus.
Claudius Ap. f. Ap. n. Pulcher, consul in 54 BC, and censor in
Claudius Ap. f. Ap. n. Pulcher, praetor in 56 BC.
Claudius Ap. f. Ap. n. Pulcher, contrived to become tribune of
the plebs; he was adopted by a plebeian, and affected the nomen
Clodius, obtaining the tribunician power in 58 BC.
Claudius C. f. Ap. n. Pulcher, adopted by his uncle, Appius,
whose praenomen he assumed. He and his brother prosecuted Titus Annius
Milo in 51 BC. He is probably the same Appius
Claudius Pulcher who was
consul in 38 BC, but that may have been his brother.
Claudius C. f. Ap. n. Pulcher, joined his brother in
prosecuting Milo; he was later impeached for extortion by the
Clodius P. f. Ap. n. Pulcher, son of the tribune Clodius; he
was a child at the time of his father's death. His life was spent in
gluttony and debauchery, and he died young.
Claudius Pulcher, adopted by Marcus
Livius Drusus, becoming
Livius Drusus Claudianus, supporter of Brutus and Cassius
against Octavian and Mark Antony, father of Empress
Claudius P. f. P. n. Pulcher, grandson of the tribune Clodius,
was triumvir monetalis circa 11 BC.
Claudius Ap. f. C. n. Centho, the third son of Appius Claudius
Caecus, he was consul in 240 BC, and dictator in 213.
Claudius (C. f. Ap. n.) Centho, probably the father of the
brothers Gaius and Appius.
Claudius (C. f. C. n.) Centho, served under the consul Publius
Sulpicius Galba in 200 BC, during the war with Philip. He successfully
raised the siege of Athens, compelling Philip to take the
Claudius (C. f. C. n.) Centho, praetor in 175 BC, received
Hispania Citerior as his province; he defeated the Celtiberi, and
received an ovation.
Claudius Ap. f. C. n. Nero, the fourth son of Appius Claudius
Claudius Ti. f. (Ap. n.) Nero, father of the consul of 207
Claudius Ti. f. (Ap. n.) Nero, father of the consul of 202 BC.
Claudius Ti. f. Ti. n. Nero, consul in 207 BC; with his
colleague, triumphed over Hasdrubal at the Battle of the Metaurus. He
was censor in 204.
Claudius P. f. Ti. n. Nero, consul in 202 BC, had Africa as
his province; but his fleet was delayed by storms, and he was forced
to winter in Sardinia until the expiration of his year of office.
Claudius Nero, praetor in 195 BC, obtained
Hispania Ulterior as
his province; in 189 he was one of ten envoys sent into Asia, in order
to settle affairs.
Claudius (Ti. f. Ti. n.) Nero, praetor in 181 BC, obtained the
province of Sicily.
Claudius Nero, praetor in 178 and 167 BC.
Claudius Nero, served under
Pompey during the war against the
pirates, in 67 BC; he is probably the same man as Drusus
who recommended that the conspirators of
Catiline be held until the
plot was suppressed, and the facts were known.
Claudius Nero, father of the emperor Tiberius, praetor circa
42 BC; he subsequently joined the consul Lucius Antonius during the
Claudius Ti. f. Nero, later adopted to the
Julii Caesares as
Tiberius Julius C. f. Caesar Augustus, better known as the emperor
Claudius Ti. f. Drusus, afterwards
consul in 9 BC; father of the emperor Claudius.
Claudius D. f. Ti. n. Nero, better known as Germanicus;
nephew of Tiberius; consul in AD 12, he triumphed over the Pannonians
Claudia D. f. Ti. n.
Livia Julia (Livilla), niece of Tiberius; married
first, Gaius Caesar; second, Drusus, son of Tiberius.
Claudius D. f. Ti. n. Drusus (Claudius), fourth emperor of
Rome; nephew of Tiberius.
Claudius Ti. f. Ti. n. Drusus (Drusus the Younger), son of the
emperor Tiberius, was consul in AD 15 and 21; he was subsequently
Livilla at the bidding of Sejanus.
Nero Julius (Ti. f.) D. n. Caesar Germaniucs, son of Germanicus.
Drusus Julius (Ti. f.) D. n. Caesar
Germanicus (Drusus Caesar), son of
Germanicus, imprisoned and put to death by
Tiberius in AD 33.
Gaius Julius (Ti. f.) D. n. Caesar Germanicus, son of Germanicus,
better known as the emperor Caligula.
Claudius Ti. f. D. n. Drusus, son of the emperor Claudius;
he died in childhood, in AD 20.
Claudia (Ti. f. D. n.) Antonia, daughter of the emperor
Aelia Paetina; married first, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, a descendant of
the elder Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus; second, her cousin Faustus Cornelius
Sulla Felix. She and
Sulla were executed by Nero's order in AD 66.
Claudia (Ti. f. D. n.) Octavia, daughter of the emperor
Valeria Messalina; full-sister of Britannicus; married her
step-brother, the emperor Nero; divorced; later banished and
supposedly murdered by Nero's orders in 62.
Claudius Ti. f. D. n. Germanicus, better known as
Britannicus; son of the emperor Claudius, he was poisoned by his
Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus, better known as the emperor
Nero, who reigned from AD 54 to 68; he was born Lucius Domitius
Ahenobarbus to Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus and Agrippina the Younger,
but was adopted by the emperor
Claudius in AD 50.
Claudia Ner. f. Cn. n. Augusta, an infant daughter of the emperor Nero
and Poppaea Sabina. She died in infancy in AD 63.
Claudius (Marcellus), grandfather of Marcus
the consul of 331 BC.
Claudius C. f. (Marcellus), the father of Marcus Claudius
Claudius C. f. C. n. Marcellus, consul in 331 BC; he was
appointed dictator in order to hold the elections in 327, but was
prevented from doing so by the augurs, who apparently objected to a
Claudius (M. f. C. n) Marcellus, consul in 287 BC.
Claudius M. f. (M. n.) Marcellus, father of the consul of 222
Claudius M. f. M. n. Marcellus, consul in 222, 215, 214, 210,
and 208 BC, the great hero of the Second Punic War.
Claudius Marcellus, plebeian aedile in 216 BC.
Claudius M. f. M. n. Marcellus, consul in 196 BC, triumphed
Boii and Ligures.
Claudius M. f. M. n. Marcellus, consul in 183 BC.
Claudius Marcellus, praetor in 188 or 185 BC; one of them was
consul in 183, but they were two distinct individuals.
Claudius Marcellus, tribune of the plebs in 171 BC.
Claudius M. f. M. n. Marcellus, consul in 166, 155, and 152 BC;
triumphed over the Alpine
Gauls and the Ligures.
Claudius M. f. M. n. Marcellus, son of the consul of 166
Claudius Marcellus, praetor in 137 BC, was killed by lightning
during his year of office.
Claudius Marcellus, a lieutenant of Lucius
Julius Caesar during
the Social War; he held the fortress of Aesernia in
Samnium for some
time, but was ultimately compelled to surrender. He was a rival of the
orator Lucius Licinius Crassus.
Claudius M. f. M. n. Marcellus, curule aedile in 91 BC.
Claudius M. f. M. n. Marcellus, praetor in 80 BC, and afterwards
governor of Sicily; the mildness and justice of his administration was
contrasted with that of his predecessor, and subsequently that of
Claudius M. f. Marcellus Aeserninus, a young man who appeared
as a witness at the trial of Verres, in 70 BC.
Claudius M. f. Marcellus, the brother of Marcellus Aeserninus, he was
adopted by one of the Cornelii Lentuli, and became Publius Cornelius
Lentulus Marcellinus. He fought under Pompeius during the war against
the pirates, in 67 BC, and was an orator of considerable merit. For
his descendants, see Cornelia (gens).
Claudius Marcellus, one of the conspirators with
Catiline in 63
BC. On the discovery of the plot, he attempted to instigate an
insurrection amongst the Paeligni, but was defeated by the praetor,
Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus, and put to death.
Claudius M. f. Marcellus, son of the conspirator, also took part
in Catiline's conspiracy, and attempted to instigate a slave revolt at
Capua, but was driven out by Publius Sestius, and took refuge in
Bruttium, where he was put to death.
Claudius Marcellus, consul in 51 BC, and a respected orator; he
joined Pompeius during the Civil War, but was subsequently pardoned by
Claudius C. f. M. n. Marcellus, consul in 50 BC; he supported
Pompeius, investing him with the command against Caesar during the
Civil War; but he remained at Rome and obtained Caesar's pardon for
himself and his cousin, Marcus.
Claudius M. f. M. n. Marcellus, consul in 49 BC; he was a
partisan of Pompeius, and probably died in the Civil War. He is
frequently confused with his cousin, who was consul in the preceding
Claudius M. f. (M. n.) Marcellus Aeserninus, quaestor in
Hispania in 48 BC, he was sent by
Gaius Cassius Longinus
Gaius Cassius Longinus to put down a
revolt at Corduba, but joined the revolt and went over to Caesar,
placing his legions under the command of Marcus Aemilius Lepidus.
Claudius C. f. C. n. Marcellus, nephew of
Augustus and stepson
of Marcus Antonius; he was adopted by his uncle and married to his
cousin, Julia. He was curule aedile in 23 BC. but died that autumn.
Claudius M. f. M. n. Marcellus Aeserninus, consul in 22 BC,
possibly the same as the Marcellus who served under Lepidus during the
Claudius M. f. M. n. Marcellus Aeserninus, the son of
Aeserninus, consul in 22 BC, was trained as an orator by his
grandfather, Gaius Asinius Pollio.
Claudius Canina, grandfather of Gaius
Claudius Canina, the
consul of 285 BC.
Claudius C. f. Canina, the father of Gaius
Claudius M. f. C. n. Canina, consul in 285 and 273 BC.
Claudius Asellus, a military tribune under Gaius Claudius
Nero, the consul in 207 BC, during the Second Punic War; the following
year he was praetor, and obtained Sardinia as his province. He was
tribune of the plebs in 204.
Claudius Asellus, an eques who was deprived of his horse and
reduced to the condition of an aerarian by the censor Scipio
Aemilianus in 142 BC; he was subsequently restored by Scipio's
colleague, Lucius Mummius, and as tribune of the plebs in 140 he
Claudius Pompeianus, consul in AD 173, and probably consul
suffectus in 176; he married Lucilla, the daughter of Marcus
Claudius Quintianus Pompeianus, a young senator, and the son-in-law of
Pompeianus and Lucilla; persuaded by
attempt to kill her brother, the emperor Commodus, he failed and was
put to death.
Commodus Pompeianus, consul in AD 209, perhaps the son
Tiberius Claudius) Pompeianus, consul suffectus in AD 212, perhaps
the son of
Claudius Pompeianus, consul in AD 231.
Claudius Aurelius Quintianus (Pompeianus), triumvir
monetalis circa AD 222, and a candidate for quaestor in 228; he was
praetor in 233, and consul in 235.
Clodius Pompeianus, consul in AD 241, with the emperor Gordianus III.
In 244, he was curator aedium sacrarum.
Claudius Cicero, in 454 BC; he prosecuted Titus Romilius, the
consul of the preceding year, for selling the spoils of the war with
Aequi without the permission of the soldiers.
Claudius Hortator, appointed magister equitum by the dictator
Claudius Crassus in 337 BC.
Claudius C. f. Glicia, the son of a freedman, was nominated
dictator by Publius
Claudius Pulcher, following the Battle of Drepana
in 249 BC. Glicia's appointment was immediately superseded, but
nonetheless recorded in the
Fasti consulares. In 236 he was legate to
the consul Gaius Licinius Varus, but punished for entering into an
unauthorized treaty with the Corsi.
Quintus Claudius, tribune of the plebs in 218 BC; probably the same
person as Quintus
Claudius Flamen, praetor in 208.
Claudius Flamen, praetor in 208 BC, and subsequently
propraetor in the territory of the Sallentini and Tarentum, during the
Second Punic War.
Claudius Ap. f., a senator in 129 BC.
Claudius Centumalus, sued for fraud involving the sale of
property to Publius Calpurnius Lanarius; judgment against
given by Marcus Porcius Cato, the father of Cato Uticensis.
Claudius C. f. Glaber,[vi] praetor in 73 BC, was defeated by
Spartacus. He might have been related to the Claudii Marcelli, as he
belonged to the tribus Arniensis, like Marcus
Claudius Marcellus, the
aedile of 91.
Claudius L. f., a senator in 73 BC, perhaps the father and
predecessor of Lucius Claudius, the Rex Sacrorum.
Claudius (L. f. L. n.),
Rex Sacrorum before 60
Claudius Quadrigarius, a historian of the early first century
BC, he wrote a history of Rome from the sack of Rome by the
390 BC to the death of Sulla.
Sextus Clodius, a Sicilian rhetorician, under whom Marcus Antonius
studied oratory, and who in turn received a large estate in the
Lucius Clodius, praefectus fabrum to Appius
Claudius Pulcher, consul
in 54 BC; he was tribune of the plebs in 43.
Gaius Claudius, probably the descendant of a freedman of the Claudian
house, was one of the suite of Publius
Clodius Pulcher on his last
journey to Aricia.
Clodius M. f., probably the
Clodius sent into Macedonia by
Caesar in 48 BC, and the same as
Clodius Bithynicus, who fought on the
side of Antonius in the Perusine War, and was put to death by order of
Octavian in 40.
Claudius C. f., mentioned by
Cicero in a letter to Brutus; he
attached himself to the party of Marcus Antonius, who had restored his
father. It is uncertain whether he can be identified with either of
two persons of this name who were proscribed by the
Sextus Clodius, the accomplice of Publius
Clodius Pulcher, after whose
death he was exiled; he was restored by Marcus Antonius in 44 BC.
Gaius Claudius, a follower of Marcus Junius Brutus, who ordered him to
Gaius Antonius to death; afterwards he was sent to
command of a squadron, and after his patron's death, he joined Cassius
Claudius Thrasyllus, Greek Egyptian astrologer and friend of
Tiberius, better known as Thrasyllus of Mendes. Granted Roman
citizenship and adopted his patron's name.
Claudius Balbilus, son of Thrasyllus, astrologer to Claudius,
Nero, and Vespasian.
Claudia Capitolina, daughter of Balbilus, married Greek prince Gaius
Julius Archelaus Antiochus Epiphanes.
Claudius Narcissus, freedman and advisor to Claudius,
executed by Agrippina the Younger.
Claudius Felix, a name assigned by some writers to Marcus Antonius
Felix, a freedman of the emperor Claudius, who was later procurator of
Claudius Severus, leader of the
Helvetii in AD 69.
Claudius Civilis, also known as Gaius Julius Civilis, a leader of the
Batavi, who led the Batavian revolt in AD 69.
Claudius Labeo, a leader of the Batavi, and rival of Civilis, who
defeated him during the Batavian revolt.
Claudius Capito, an orator, and a contemporary of the younger Pliny
Claudius Sacerdos, consul suffectus in AD 100.
Claudius Severus, consul suffectus in AD 112.
Lucius Catilius Severus Julianus
Claudius Reginus, consul in AD 120.
Claudius Squilla Gallicanus, consul in AD 127.
Claudius Ptolemaeus, a Greek mathematician and astronomer of the
Claudius Atticus Herodes, a celebrated rhetorician; consul in
Claudius Severus, consul in AD 146.
Claudius Maximus, a stoic philosopher during the age of the Antonines.
Claudius Saturninus, a jurist during the reigns of
Antoninus Pius and
Marcus Aurelius, and the author of Liber Singularis de Poenis
Claudius Apollinaris, bishop of
Phrygia from AD 170; an
early Christian apologist, he wrote to the emperor Marcus Aurelius. He
also wrote against the Jews and Gentiles, as well as various doctrines
considered heretical by the early
Claudius Severus, consul in AD 173.
Tiberius Claudius, consul in AD 185.
Claudius Galenus, a name assigned to the physician Galen.
Claudius Lateranus, a lieutenant of the emperor Septimius
Severus during his expedition against the Arabians and Parthians in AD
195. He was consul in 197.
Claudius Tryphoninus, a jurist during the reign of Septimius
Claudius Severus, consul in AD 200.
Claudius Aelianus, a scholar, rhetorician, and antiquarian of the
early third century.
Claudius Julianus, consul in AD 224.
Claudius Severus, consul in AD 235.
Pupienus Maximus, emperor in AD 238.
Claudius Gothicus, emperor from AD 268 to 270.
Claudius Tacitus, emperor from AD 275 to 276.
Marcus Aurelius Aristobulus, consul in AD 285.
Claudius Eusthenius, secretary to the emperor Diocletian, he wrote
lives of Diocletian, Maximian, Galerius, and Constantius.
Claudius Mamertinus, the author of two panegyrics in honor of the
emperor Maximian; the surname Mamertinus is uncertain.
Claudius Constantinus Caesar (Constantine II), emperor from AD
337 to 340.
Claudius Julianus, emperor from AD 361 to 363.
Claudius Mamertinus, consul in AD 362.
Claudius Petronius Probus, consul in AD 371.
Claudius Antonius, consul in AD 382.
Claudius Claudianus, the last of the
Latin classic poets, who
flourished during the reigns of Theodosius, Arcadius, and Honorius.
Claudius Constantinus Augustus, or Constantine III, a usurper.
Claudius Julius Eclesius Dynamius, consul in AD 488.
Claudius Didymus, a Greek grammarian, who wrote about the mistakes of
Thucydides relating to analogy, a separate work about analogy among
the Romans, and an epitome of the works of Heracleon.
Claudius Julius or Ioläus, a Greek writer of unknown date, who wrote
a work on Phoenicia, and apparently another on the Peloponnesus. He
was probably a freedman.
^ Various sources give several variations of his original praenomen
and nomen, including Attius Clausus, Atta Claudius, and Titus
^ An alternative tradition, mentioned by Suetonius, asserted that the
Claudii came to Rome with the Sabine king Titus Tatius, during the
reign of Romulus, the founder and first King of Rome.
^ "Lo! Clausus of old Sabine blood, who leads a mighty host, himself a
host in might! From whom the
Claudian tribe and clan to-day, since
Rome was with the Sabine shared, spreads wide through Latium....
^ Presumably, the Claudii were proud of their Sabine heritage, and
used this surname to assert their ethnic identity.
^ The Capitoline
Fasti assign him the filiation Ap. f. M. n.,
apparently making him identical with the consul of 471, but this may
be a mistake, as the weight of tradition is against it, and the Fasti
are thought to contain numerous errors and later emendations.
Frontinus call him Clodius, while
Appian mixes his name
with another praetor, calling him Varinius Glaber.
^ Taylor conjectures that he was the son of the homonymous senator of
73, whom she also thinks he was Rex Sacrorum. She suggests that they
both belonged to a minor stirps of the patrician Claudii, who filled
religious offices that few others sought, since their holders could
not hold any other magistracy.
List of Roman gentes
List of Roman consuls
^ a b c d e f Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology,
vol. I, p. 762 ("Claudia Gens").
^ Suetonius, "The Life of Tiberius", 1–3.
^ Niebuhr, History of Rome, vol. I, p. 599.
^ Suetonius, "The Life of Claudius", 39.
^ Tacitus, Annales, xii.
^ a b c d Livy, ii. 16
^ a b c d e f g Suetonius, "The Life of Tiberius", 1.
^ a b c Dionysius, v. 40.
^ Tacitus, Annales, xi. 24.
^ a b Aeneid, book vii, lines 706, 707.
^ Dictionnaire étymologique latin, p. 44.
^ Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue latine, p. 126.
^ a b c Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, pp.
^ Braasch, pp. 7-8.
^ Farney, p. 88.
^ Livy, xxx. 45.
^ Niebuhr, History of Rome, vol. i, p. 556.
Latin and English Dictionary, "Crassus".
Latin and English Dictionary, "Pulcher".
^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. II, p.
927 ("Marcellus", no. 2).
^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. I, p.
771 ("Claudius", no. 40).
^ Livy, ix. 29.
^ Seneca the Younger, De Brevitate Vitae, 13.
^ Livy, ii. 56-61.
^ Dionysius, ix. 43-45, 48-54.
^ Niebuhr, History of Rome, vol. ii, pp. 186, 219-228.
^ Livy, iii. 15-21, 35, 40, 58; iv. 6.
^ Dionysius, x. 9, 12-17, 30, 32; xi. 7-11, 49, 55, 56.
^ Livy, iii. 33, 35-58.
^ Dionysius, x. 54–xi. 46.
^ a b c d e f
Fasti Capitolini, AE 1900, 83; 1904, 114; AE 1927, 101;
1940, 59, 60.
^ Livy, iv. 35, 36.
^ Livy, vi. 40.
^ Livy, v. 1-6, 20.
^ Niebuhr, History of Rome, vol. ii, p. 439, note 965.
^ Livy, vi. 40-42; vii. 6 ff, 24, 25.
^ a b Livy, viii. 15.
^ Velleius Paterculus, i. 14.
^ Valerius Maximus, viii. 1. § 4.
^ Suetonius, "The Life of Tiberius", 2.
^ Aulus Gellius, x. 6.
^ Livy, xxix. 14.
^ Ovid, Fasti, iv. 305 ff.
^ Cicero, De Haruspicum Responsis, 13.
^ Valerius Maximus, i. 8. § 11.
^ Pliny the Elder, vii. 35.
^ Livy, xxiii. 2.
^ Cicero, De Legibus, iii. 19.
^ Cicero, Pro Scauro, ii. 32, De Oratore, ii. 60, 70.
^ Cicero, Pro Caelio, 14.
^ Valerius Maximus, v. 4. § 6.
^ Plutarch, "The Life of
Tiberius Gracchus," 4.
^ Appian, Bellum Civile, i. 68.
^ Sallust, Historiae, fragment 1.
^ Cicero, De Domo Sua, 32.
^ Asconius Pedianus, In Ciceronis Pro Milone, p. 36.
^ Cicero, Epistulae ad Atticum, xiv. 13. A.
^ Valerius Maximus, iii. 5. § 3.
^ Cicero, Tusculanae Quaestiones, i. 1, Brutus, 18.
^ Livy, xx. 34, xxv. 2.
^ Livy, xxxi. 14, 22 ff
^ Zonaras, Epitome Historiarum, ix. 15.
^ Livy, xl. 59; xli. 22, 31, 33; xlii. 25; xliii. 11, 12.
^ Suetonius, "The Life of Tiberius," 3.
^ Gellius, xiii. 22.
^ Livy, xxix. 11; xxx. 26, 39.
^ Livy, xxxiii. 43; xxxvii. 55.
^ Livy, xl. 18.
^ Livy, xli. 5, 8, 18; xlii. 19; xlv. 16.
^ Florus, iii. 6.
^ Appian, Bella Mithridatica, 95, Bellum Civile, ii. 5.
^ Sallust, Bellum Catilinae, 50.
^ Livy, viii. 18, 24.
^ Plutarch, "The Life of Marcellus," 1.
^ Livy, xxiii. 30.
^ Livy, xxxix. 23, 44, 45, 54-56; xliv. 18.
^ Livy, xxxviii. 35, 42.
^ Livy, xlii. 32.
^ Drumann, Geschichte Roms, vol. ii, p. 393.
^ Obsequens, 83.
^ Cicero, De Oratore, i. 13.
^ Pseudo-Asconius, In Ciceronis in Verrem, p. 206.
^ Cicero, In Verrem, ii. 3, 21, iii. 16, 91, iv. 40, 42, ff.,
Divinatio in Caecilium, 4, De Divinatione, ii. 35, De Legibus, ii. 13,
Epistulae ad Familiares, xv. 8, Pro Sulla, 6
^ Cicero, In Verrem, iv. 42. Several editions give Marcellus'
praenomen as Gaius.
^ Cicero, In Catilinam, i. 8.
^ a b Orosius, vi. 6.
^ Cicero, Pro Sestio, 4.
^ Suetonius, "The Life of Octavian", 43.
^ Seneca the Elder, lib. iv. praef.
^ Tacitus, Annales, iii. 11.
Fasti Siculi, 354.
^ Livy, xxvii. 41; xxviii. 10; xxix. 11.
^ Appian, Bellum Hannibalicum, 37.
^ Cicero, De Oratore, ii. 64, 66.
^ Gellius, ii. 20, iii. 4.
^ Valerius Maximus, vi. 3. § 8.
^ Cassius Dio, lxxi. 3, 20, lxxiii. 3.
^ Herodian, i. 8. § 6.
^ Julius Capitolinus, "The Life of Marcus Aurelius", 20.
^ Vulcatius Gallicanus, "The Life of Avidius Cassius", 11.
^ Aelius Lampridius, "The Life of Commodus".
^ a b c d e Mennen, pp. 95–97.
^ Cassius Dio, lxxii. 4.
^ Herodian, i. 8.
^ Aelius Lampridius, The Life of Commodus, 4.
^ Ammianus Marcellinus, xxix. 4.
^ Livy, iii. 31.
^ Suetonius, "The Life of Tiberius," 2.
^ Livy, Epitome, xix.
^ Cassius Dio, fragment 45.
^ Zonaras, viii. p. 400. B.
^ Valerius Maximus, vi. 3. § 3. Some sources identify the legate of
236 BC as Marcus
Claudius Clineas. His fate is uncertain; he is said
to have been delivered up to the Corsi, who returned him unharmed.
According to various authorities he was then imprisoned, banished, or
put to death.
^ Livy, xxi. 63.
^ Sherk, "Senatus Consultum De Agro Pergameno", p. 368.
^ Cicero, De Officiis, ii. 16.
^ Valerius Maximus, viii. 2. § 1.
^ SIG, 747.
^ Plutarch, Crassus, 9.
^ Frontinus, Strategemata, i. 5, 21.
^ Appian, Bellum Civile, i. 116.
^ Broughton, vol. II, pp. 109, 115 (note 1).
^ SIG, 747.
^ Broughton, vol. II, p. 115.
^ Cicero, De Haruspicum Responsis, 12.
^ Cicero, De Domo Sua, 127.
^ Broughton, vol. II, p. 187.
^ Taylor, Voting Districts of the Roman Republic, p. 203.
^ Brennan, Praetorship in the Roman Republic, p. 899 (note 91).
^ Cicero, Epistulae ad Atticum, iv. 15, Philippicae, ii. 4, 17, iii.
^ Cassius Dio, xlv. 30, xlvi. 8.
^ Suetonius, De Claris Rhetoribus, 5.
^ Cicero, Epistulae ad Familiares, iii. 4-6, 8.
^ Pseudo-Cicero, Epistulae ad Brutum, i. 1.
^ Cicero, Pro Milone, 17.
^ Asconius Pedianus, In Ciceronis Pro Milone, p. 33, ed. Orelli.
^ Caesar, De Bello Civili, iii. 57.
^ Appian, Bellum Civile, v. 49.
^ Eckhel, Doctrina Numorum Veterum, vol. v, p. 172.
^ Jean Foy-Vaillant, "Antonius", Nos. 14, 15, "Claudius", Nos.
^ Cicero, Epistulae ad Familiares, xi. 22.
^ Appian, Bellum Civile, iv. 44, 55.
^ Cassius Dio, xlvii. 24.
^ Plutarch, "The Life of Antonius," 22, "The Life of Brutus," 28.
^ Appian, Bellum Civile, v. 2.
^ Tacitus, Historiae, i. 68.
^ Tacitus, Historiae, iv. 18, 56, 66, 70.
^ Pliny the Younger, Epistulae, vi. 13.
Fasti Ostienses, CIL XIV, 244.
^ Aelius Spartianus, "The Life of Septimius Severus", 1.
^ Codex Justinianus, 6. tit. 26. s. 1.
^ Digesta, 17. tit. 1. s. 6. § 7; 20. tit. 3. s. 1. § 2; 50. tit.
19. s. 16; 50. tit. 7. s. 4.
^ Eusebius, Historia Ecclesiastica, iv. 27, v. 19.
^ Jerome, De Viris Illustribus, 26, Epistulae, 84.
^ Nicephorus, Historia Ecclesiastica, iv. 11.
^ Photius, Bibliotheca, 14.
^ Theodoret, Haereticarum Fabularum, iii. 2.
^ Chronicon Paschale.
^ Cassius Dio, lxxv. 2.
^ Aurelius Victor, Epitome de Caesaribus, 20.
^ Digesta, 23. tit. 3. s. 78. § 4, 27. tit. 1. s. 44, 48. tit. 19. s.
39, 49. tit. 14. s. 50.
^ Codex Theodosianus, 1. tit. 9. s. 1.
^ Codex Justinianus, 8. tit. 45. s. 1, et alibi.
^ Flavius Vopiscus, The Life of Carinus, 18.
^ Suda, s. v. Διδυμος.
^ Stephanus of Byzantium, Ethnica, s. vv. Ακη, Ιουδαια,
Δωρος, Λαμπη, Γαδειρα.
^ Πελοποννγσιακα, Schol. ad. Nicand. Ther., 521.
Marcus Tullius Cicero, Brutus, De Divinatione, De Domo Sua, De
Haruspicum Responsis, De Legibus, De Officiis, De Oratore, Divinatio
in Quintum Caecilium, Epistulae ad Atticum, Epistulae ad Brutum,
Epistulae ad Familiares, In Catilinam, In Verrem, Philippicae, Pro
Caelio, Pro Milone, Pro Scauro, Pro Sestio, Pro Sulla, Tusculanae
Gaius Sallustius Crispus (Sallust), Historiae (The Histories), Bellum
Catilinae (The Conspiracy of Catiline).
Gaius Julius Caesar,
Commentarii de Bello Civili
Commentarii de Bello Civili (Commentaries on the
Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Romaike Archaiologia (Roman Antiquities).
Livius (Livy), History of Rome.
Publius Vergilius Maro (Virgil), Aeneid.
Publius Ovidius Naso (Ovid), Fasti.
Valerius Maximus, Factorum ac Dictorum Memorabilium (Memorable Facts
Marcus Velleius Paterculus, Compendium of Roman History.
Quintus Asconius Pedianus, Commentarius in Oratio Ciceronis Pro Milone
(Commentary on Cicero's Oration Pro Milone).
Pseudo-Asconius, Commentarius in Oratorio Ciceronis in Verrem
(Commentary on Cicero's In Verrem), ed. Orelli.
Lucius Annaeus Seneca (Seneca the Elder), Controversiae (Epitome).
Lucius Annaeus Seneca (Seneca the Younger), De Brevitate Vitae (On the
Brevity of Life).
Gaius Plinius Secundus (Pliny the Elder), Naturalis Historia (Natural
Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus (Pliny the Younger), Epistulae
Sextus Julius Frontinus,
Publius Cornelius Tacitus, Annales, Historiae.
Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus (Plutarch), Lives of the Noble Greeks and
Suetonius Tranquillus, De Vita Caesarum (Lives of the Caesars,
or The Twelve Caesars), De Claris Rhetoribus (On the Eminent Orators).
Lucius Annaeus Florus, Epitome de T. Livio Bellorum Omnium Annorum DCC
(Epitome of Livy: All the Wars of Seven Hundred Years).
Appianus Alexandrinus (Appian), Bella Mithridatica (The Mithridatic
Wars), Bellum Civile (The Civil War), Bellum Hannibalicum (The War
Aulus Gellius, Noctes Atticae (Attic Nights).
Cassius Dio Cocceianus (Cassius Dio), Roman History.
Herodianus, Tes Meta Marcon Basileas Istoria (History of the Empire
from the Death of Marcus Aurelius).
Eusebius of Caesarea, Historia Ecclesiastica.
Aelius Lampridius, Aelius Spartianus, Julius Capitolinus, Trebellius
Pollio, Vulcatius Gallicanus, & Flavius Vopiscus, Historia Augusta
Julius Obsequens, Liber de Prodigiis (The Book of Prodigies).
Aurelius Victor (attributed), Epitome de Caesaribus.
Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae.
Paulus Orosius, Historiarum Adversum Paganos (History against the
Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus (St. Jerome), De Viris Illustribus (On
the Illustrious Men), Epistulae.
Digesta, or Pandectae (The Digest).
Theodoret, Haereticarum Fabularum Compendium (Compendium of Heretical
Corpus Juris Civilis, or Codex Justinianus (The Body of Civil Law, or
the Code of Justinian).
Stephanus of Byzantium, Ethnica.
Joannes Zonaras, Epitome Historiarum (Epitome of History).
Nicephorus Callistus Xanthopulus, Historia Ecclesiastica.
Joseph Hilarius Eckhel, Doctrina Numorum Veterum (The Study of Ancient
Jean Foy-Vaillant, Numismata Imperatorum Romanorum Praestantiora a
Julio Caesare ad Postumus (Outstanding Imperial Coins from Caesar to
Postumus), Giovanni Battista Bernabò & Giuseppe Lazzarini, Rome
Barthold Georg Niebuhr, The History of Rome, Julius Charles Hare and
Connop Thirlwall, trans., John Smith, Cambridge (1828).
Wilhelm Drumann, Geschichte Roms in seinem Übergang von der
republikanischen zur monarchischen Verfassung, oder: Pompeius, Caesar,
Cicero und ihre Zeitgenossen, Königsberg (1834–1844).
"Claudia Gens" and "Claudius", in the Dictionary of Greek and Roman
Biography and Mythology, William Smith, ed., Little, Brown and
Company, Boston (1849).
Wilhelm Dittenberger, Sylloge Inscriptionum Graecarum (Collection of
Greek Inscriptions, abbreviated SIG), Leipzig (1883).
Michel Bréal and Anatole Bailly, Dictionnaire étymologique latin,
Librarie Hachette, Paris (1885).
Karl Braasch, "Lateinische Personennamen, nach ihrer Bedeutung
zusammen gestellt", in Jahresbericht des Königlich Stifts-Gymnasiums
in Zeitz, C. Brendel, Zeitz (1892).
Antoine Meillet, Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue latine,
histoire des mots, Klinsieck, Paris (1959).
Lily Ross Taylor, The Voting Districts of the Roman Republic,
University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor (1960).
D.P. Simpson, Cassell's
Latin and English Dictionary, Macmillan
Publishing Company, New York (1963).
Robert K. Sherk, "The Text of the Senatus Consultum De Agro
Pergameno", in Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies, vol. 7, pp.
T. Corey Brennan, The Praetorship in the Roman Republic, Oxford
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Gary D. Farney, Ethnic Identity and Aristocratic Competition in
Republican Rome, Cambridge University Press (2007).
Inge Mennen, Power and Status in the Roman Empire, AD 193–284,
Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden (2011).
Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article
This article incorporates text from a publication now in
the public domain: Smith, William, ed. (1870). "article name
needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Myth