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Circle Bakote
Circle Bakote
is a cluster of Union Councils in the eastern part of Abbottabad District
Abbottabad District
in the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan. Circle Bakote
Circle Bakote
is located on the upper and west bank of the Jhelum River at Kohalla Bridge. The region is somewhere between 65 kilometres and 90 kilometres northwest of Islamabad. "Bakote" means the "land of forts". The Kanhar and Jehlum rivers are the two main rivers in Circle Bakote. Famous hill stations in the area are Miran Jani, Mukeshpuri, Thandiani, Pather Gali, Ayubia, Khanas Pur and Nathia Gali.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Ancient History 1.2 Modern History 1.3 Music and arts 1.4 Sikh Era

2 Demography

2.1 Hazara District

3 Administration

3.1 District and Tehsil
Tehsil
Abbottabad 3.2 Political division 3.3 Union Councils

4 The highest and lowest places 5 Tribes of Circle Bakote

5.1 Dhund Abbasi 5.2 Karhral 5.3 Gujjars 5.4 Gakhars
Gakhars
Kayani 5.5 Alvi Awan 5.6 Kathwal 5.7 Bhatti
Bhatti
Rajputs

6 SADAT (Syeds)

6.1 Bokhari Syeds 6.2 Termazi Syeds

7 Others

7.1 Jadoon 7.2 Rakhyal 7.3 Dhanyal 7.4 Dhaneal in Dewal and Murree 7.5 Khokhars

8 Language and Literature

8.1 Urdu Literature 8.2 Esperanto
Esperanto
writers 8.3 Historians

9 Journalists

9.1 Newspapers 9.2 Modern Journalists

10 Religious Heritage 11 Transport History

11.1 Upper Dewal Kohala Road 11.2 Rawalpindi Murree
Murree
Road 11.3 Kashmir
Kashmir
Highway 11.4 Transport After Independence

12 Books on Circle Bakote
Circle Bakote
and Murree
Murree
Hills

12.1 Colonial Era Books 12.2 Modern Books

13 Circle Bakote
Circle Bakote
in 2009 14 Further reading 15 References

History[edit] Ancient History[edit]

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Circle Bakote
Circle Bakote
and surrounding areas have a rich history - going back thousands of years. Historic excavations first began under colonial rule, when researchers such as Sir John Marshal - who as part of the Archaeological Survey of India uncovered many relics in the area, studies continue to this day by scholars such as Asko Parpola
Asko Parpola
and others. Historically this region was part of the Taxila
Taxila
Kingdom of Gandhara, there are many relics in the area dating to the Vedic Age as it was en route to Moshpuri where a Vishnu
Vishnu
temple used to be. After the arrival of Islam, the area became part of Kashmir. Modern History[edit] In 17th century a Dhond Sardar (chief), Lahr Khan, divided his territory by his brothers and finalised the borders from Manwan ni Hel to Lora on the west bank of the river Jhelum to Islamabad, the last edge of last UC Birote
Birote
of Hazara Division
Hazara Division
on East-south. This line was drawn from the river Jhelum to Sulleal (Lower Birote) to Aarhi, now called Hadd at upper Birote, Kanair Kas to Sorjal, Arwarh, Thoba (Barhean), to Lora. The tribes used the jirga system to govern themselves This partition of land was accepted by the Nalwa Singh
Nalwa Singh
administration of Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
and by Major Abbott, the first commissioner of Hazara. In 1800 Maharaja Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
attached this region to the Lahore Darbar, this area was later sold to Maharaja Gulab Singh of Kashmir under the Amritsar Agreement. During British rule, rebellion had broken out - after the failure of this revolt and as a punishment for the war of independence waged by the local Tribes, this area was first annexed to Murree
Murree
in February 1859, and then became a part of the Hazara Region in November 1859, both areas being under the direct rule of Britain. The dominant people in Circle Bakote
Circle Bakote
are the Lehral Dhond Abbasi family, they battled against the Sikh rulers under the command of Pir of Plasi at Balakot
Balakot
in 1830, and also fought against the British in 1857 at Murree. Music and arts[edit] The musical tradition of Circle Bakote
Circle Bakote
was inherited from the earlier Hindu
Hindu
civilisation. Music is a compulsory element of Hinduism, and when Muslim tribes entered here the music was also changed and it changed into a profession rather than a religious tradition, that adopted by special families called Mirasies. These families performed not only at weddings but on seasonal occasions as Grass Cutting ceremony (LAITRY), Roof Building of a House, (PAHCHI) Etc. The other duties of Mirasies were to distribute invitations of weddings in shape of sweets homemade items, they were also used to spy on rival tribes or tribal chief before wedding caravan (Janj). Sikh Era[edit] The mountains of Circle Bakote
Circle Bakote
and Murree
Murree
Hills were under the control of Gakhars
Gakhars
and Dhond Abbasies and Karhrals were their sub-feudal lords for four centuries. The Sikh army personal of Gulab Singh and the Lahore Darbar were very brutal against the Muslim tribes of this area.[citation needed] They looted and gutted their houses, slaughtered them and got rewards of Rs. five Nanakshahi per child head and Rs. 10 for adult ladies or male heads[citation needed]. Demography[edit] The Circle Bakote
Circle Bakote
area was formerly part of the Hazara area, the Government of British India
British India
issued District Gazetteers every year in which details of population demography was published. The Circle Bakote population was not mentioned separately but the overall statistics of District Hazara and Tehsil
Tehsil
Abbottabad
Abbottabad
are available. Hazara District[edit]

1869-70 : Total population was 343,929, (15,733 Dhond Abbasi and 25,231Kareals) 1881 : 383,031 1891 : 483,903 (Including the population of Thoba (Barhean) - this area was transferred to the Punjab Government in 1893.) 1901 : 528,666, current Union Councils Birote
Birote
and Bakot
Bakot
had a total population of 2,290 total and a cultivatable area of 6,024 acres (24.38 km2) - the land revenue collected by local lumberdars (village headmen) was Rs. 1,750/. There were six lumberdars with second class police station in Birote
Birote
and Bakote.

Administration[edit] District and Tehsil
Tehsil
Abbottabad[edit] In 1981 the Hazara area was divided and Abbottabad
Abbottabad
was formed as a district with two tehsils, In 1981, Abbottabad
Abbottabad
district had a population of 977,212 whilst Tehsil
Tehsil
Abbottabad
Abbottabad
(a sub division of the district) - had an area of 1,802-square-mile (4,670 km2) and a population of 667,328 including 51% of Circle Bakote. In 1990 the total population of the district was 1,425,032 including Circle Bakote 43%. Political division[edit] Politically Hazara was a solo constituency of NWFP Legislative Assembly in 1935 to 1951, Hazara was divided into three constituencies. Union Councils[edit]

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Under the new administrative system - there are eight UCs of Circle Bakote. This area had been divided into 13 UCs in 1983 but some of these councils were merged in 2000, Moolia was merged into Bakote, Malkot into Palak
Palak
, Chamyali into Pattan Kalan and Birote
Birote
Kalan and Khurd were united. The Circle Bakote
Circle Bakote
region is composed of the following union councils:

Bakot Birote Boi Dalola Kukmang Nambal Palak Pattan Kalan

The highest and lowest places[edit] The highest place is the peak of Mukeshpuri, while Manwan ni hell is the lowest place in UC Birote
Birote
it is located on three provincial borders,- NWFP, Punjab and Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
on the right bank of the Jhelum river. This place was of historical importance and contains relics as it was a crossing point between Kashmir
Kashmir
and Taxila
Taxila
during the time of the Gandhara
Gandhara
kingdom. Manwan ni hell was the first town of the Kethwal and Satti tribes who settled much of the current Circle Bakote and Murree
Murree
Hills area before the arrival of Karhlal and Dhond Abbasi tribes six centuries ago. Tribes of Circle Bakote[edit] The mountainous area of Circle Bakote
Circle Bakote
and Murree
Murree
Hills contain many tribes. The Dhond Abbasi and Karlal are the largest groups, but other groups are , Satti, Kethwal, Gakhars, Awans, Syeds, Gujjars, Khakha, Bumba, Rajput, Bhati, Rehmanis,khokhars and many others. Before Islam this area was dominated by Hindu
Hindu
Kshatriya
Kshatriya
tribe who worshipped a goddess Kohala Devi in Dewal temple. The Kethwal, believed to be the oldest tribe in the area, came from Iran 2500 years ago fought and expelled the local Dravidians and occupied the area until the invasion of the Dhonds in the mid fifteenth century – the Kethwal embraced Islam in 1090[citation needed]. Dhund Abbasi[edit] Main article: Dhund Abbasi The Dhund Abbasi tribe form a large part of the population in Circle Bakote and Murree
Murree
hills. The Dhund Abbasis are the fourth-largest group overall in the NWFP, and the largest in Hazara Division
Hazara Division
and the seventh in Punjab by population. They have their own language called Dhondi (see also Hindko) - and they have completely revolutionised the culture and civilisation of the area. The Dhond and Dhanyal
Dhanyal
tribe are all Sunni
Sunni
Muslims. The language of the tribes is sometimes called 'Dhondi/Kareali.' They are descendants of Shah Wali Khan whose nickname was Dhond Khan and Mohazam Shah Alia Dhanni Pir. There are two major Dhond Abbasi families living in Banda Jaat. One is headed by Mirdad Khan Abbasi, and the other is headed by Allah Dad Khan Abbasi (Paharlal). Their father Noor Ahmed Abbasi migrated to Abbottabad
Abbottabad
from Banda Khair Ali Khan. However, half of their family members are still based in Banda Khair Ali Khan. Karhral[edit] Main article: Karlal Karhrals family is an old tribe of Circle Bakote
Circle Bakote
and migrated in the mid-fourteenth century when they rebelled against Gakherhs by co-operation of Dhonds Abbasi tribe of Birote. Mojwal family of Basian had taken vacant place of Bakote by force. Karal family was not residing at Birote
Birote
and outside area. A family of Karal tribe was residing at Bakot
Bakot
and still have property and now living at Tajwal, nathia gali, havelian, haripur, rawalpindi, basera, lora, Punjab. Karal family came from Turk. Its original tribe name is karluks. Karlal tribs are found on all places of earth. Gujjars[edit] Main article: Gujjar Goojars or Gurjars are believed to be the oldest tribe of the area, they were one of the tribes of Ancient India that battled against Alexander The Great, (known here as Sikandar-e-Azam), when he launched his invasion of Western India. Gakhars
Gakhars
Kayani[edit] Main article: Gakhars

http://www.kiani.freehosting.net

Gakhars
Gakhars
also known as Kayanis are a prominent tribe of Circle Bakote. They are of Iranian origin and according to Shahnameh
Shahnameh
written by Persian Poet Firdowsi
Firdowsi
in 1000 AD, their ancestors ruled for centuries. They have written and documented history going back to thousands of years BC. Alvi Awan[edit] Main article: Alvi Awan of Birote The Alvi Awan are a well known tribe of Circle Bakote
Circle Bakote
and are scattered throughout the region and form majorities in some areas of Abbottabad, Birote, Thandiani, and Nathia Gali. The tribe of Gondals Alvi Awamn in Birote
Birote
those are known as Naik Mohammedal and Taj Mohammadal. Kathwal[edit] Main article: Kathwal of Birote Bhatti
Bhatti
Rajputs[edit] Main article: Bhatti The Bhati
Bhati
Rajpoot tribe is influential and was known for their bravery as warriors. The new generation of this tribe now works as businessmen or serve in the Pakistan
Pakistan
Air Force. Yaqoob Khan, a British Government contractor during the colonial era was a member of this tribe. Nowadays Mohammed Hafiz is most active political person. He also participated in UC Birote
Birote
election in 2004 as general councillor but not succeeded. SADAT (Syeds)[edit] There are a few houses of seyeds are in Circle Bakote. Majority tribe is Dhond Abbasies as 70 percent domination. The main tribes are Bokharis, Tirmazies and others. Bokhari Syeds[edit] A majority of "Bokhari Syed" are living in UC Birote
Birote
also. They migrated in the middle of the 19th century to Kahu Sharqi, Ali Abad (Pichbhanna) Bhan ( Birote
Birote
Khurd). Famous people are Qari Syed
Syed
Mubasher Shah, Ibrahim Shah etc. Termazi Syeds[edit] An other branch of Sadat is "Tirmizis Syeds" who are decender of Hazart Peer Baba (bunair sheerif). There are only four families of Seyeds, one is Seyed Masoom Ali Shah in Juleaal, second of Termutthean, thirds is Kahoo East and fourth is in Bhan, Birote
Birote
Khurd. All other who claimed as Seyed are fake and have no reality. Others[edit] The other Syeds in Birote
Birote
Kalan is migrated in 1804 from Lora Rahi Syedan (a Shia dominated village of UC Lora) District Abbottabad. The famous Teacher of Circle Bakote
Circle Bakote
Syed
Syed
Fazal Hussain Shah (he deprived of heredity of all his daughters from his property without any religio-social cause but not his six sons. This practice was to continue by his elder son Muzaffer Shah and Shammen Mumtaza also) from this family. His all sons are also famous in Circle Bakote. Syed
Syed
Iqbal Hussain shah Ex-voice principal Government High School Birote. He is first alive poet of circle Bakote he published a book named Chashme-Farda. The second son Syed
Syed
mumtaz Hussain Shah is a notorious fellow was a shummen, joker and talent killers and now retired and an agent of Muzafferabad (AJK) megician.[citation needed] Jadoon[edit] Main article: Jadoon Jadoons of the SalarZai sub-tribe settled in Circle Bakote
Circle Bakote
from Havelian District Haripur during the 1870s and settled in Kahoo Sharqi, Basian and Osia Murree[citation needed]. A few houses remain in Basian today. A famous member of the Jadoon
Jadoon
tribe in Circle Bakote were Molana Abdurehman Jadoon, Qazi Abd-ul-Haq Jadoon, Master Khateeb-u-Rehman, First teacher of Basian Molvi Mehboob-u-Rehaman and 125 year oldest person of Circle Bakote
Circle Bakote
Khalil-u-Rehaman Jadoonb who performed the pilgrimage to Mecca
Mecca
on foot[citation needed]. In Basian many members of the Salar Zai subtribe migrated to Rawalpindi after the 5 October 2005 earthquake tragedy[citation needed]. Rakhyal[edit] Main article: Rakhyal There are another tribe in all union councils of Circle Bakote
Circle Bakote
named Rakheals. Most of them converted and emerged themselves in to Dhond Abbasi tribe by ignorance or demand of time. They basically belonged to Rajpoot Khashterea tribe and came in the mentioned areas in different times in history. They were worriors and guards the people of the area from invader's attacks. They were armed with swords and arrows and lived on the boundaries of villages licenced by Gakherh dynesty during 1000 to 1800 AD. They migrated or emerged themselves in Dhond Abbai tribe during political and cultural disterbanc of Sikh era (1800-1845). Sikhs killed, murdered and slaughtered innocent people of Circle Bakote
Circle Bakote
and Murree
Murree
Hills and won a Rs. 10 (Nanak Shahi) reward from their government in Jamon (Indian held Kashmir). Dhond Abbasi along many others tribes flew to nearby mountain peaks and also changed their Muslim names into Hindu
Hindu
names. That cultural anarchy benefited to Rakheal tribes and they embraced Dhond Abbasi ethnical kingdom. People of area narrated that Naker Kutbal ( Birote
Birote
Khurd) karachi based merchant Imteaz Abbasi son of Hakam Khan is also belonged to Rakheal tribe. Word "RAKHEAL" derived from "RAKHI" and RAKHI means "to guard" or "secure" in Dhondi/Kareali Language. Dhanyal[edit] Main article: Dhanyal Dhaneal are ofsprings of Baba Dhani of Karore, 32 km northeast from Pakistani capital Islamabad. As known history only one man of same tribe came in Kahoo Sharqi was the grand grandfather of teacher Nisar and Hokumdad (nickname Nalkas). They are more than two dozens male members of Dhaneals of Kahoo Sharqi. Important personalaties of the tribes are late Qazi Wajahet, Abdur Rab Nishter (husband of Mrs Farrukh Bibi)etc. Dhaneal in Dewal and Murree[edit] Dhaneal tribe in Osea and Gohrha Gali are in majority and they are teachers since 1872 and founders of first local and historical Vernicular Primary school. They also inhabitant in Pichwal near Kanair Kas. Amjed Ali Qurban is a social personality in Karachi belonged to this tribe. Gorha Gali Dhaneal main family is Raja Feyaz Sewer MPA. Khokhars[edit] Main article: Khokhar Khokhars are well known tribe of circle Bakote.They have written and documented history. They are a subcaste of Awan (kutab shahi Awan).The new generation of this tribe works as businessmen serve in Pakistan Army, Police, Pia and many other Government departments. Haji Ali Zaman is famous and well known politician of this tribe as well as well known personality of circle Bakote (former BD member). Dr Muhammad
Muhammad
Hafeez Khokhar is teaching in a well known H/medical college of Rawalpindi and also completing his Law studies and also working as an editor of annually KOHSAR magazine. Language and Literature[edit] See Article on Dhondi/Kareali language Urdu Literature[edit] During the twentieth century as education spread through this hilly region, Urdu was the medium of learning. The rural culture and civilization was revolutionised and new thoughts and ideas came into being. Many Urdu newspapers and magazines such as Daily Zimidar Lahore, Daily Inqilab Lahore, Wakil Amretser, Muslim Rajpoot Ludhheana, Madina Bajnore stimulated the poetry of the hill people. Much of the poetry is oral and not written down. Esperanto
Esperanto
writers[edit] Muztar Abbasi (1931–2004) was a scholar from the Dhond Abbasi tribe of Murree
Murree
Hills and Circle Bakote. He was a patron of the Esperanto language in Pakistan. He translated the Quran
Quran
and wrote a biography of the Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
in Esperanto. Historians[edit] Many books have been published in Murree
Murree
and Circle Bakote
Circle Bakote
related to local history. The historians wrote only some information but not in depth and not fulfilling the demand of anthropologists and history, containing unauthentic information from Oral histories. There have also been tribal histories books such as "TAREEKH-E-ALVI AWAN" by Muhabbat H Awan, "Tareekh-e-Gakhrhan" by Raja Haider Zaman Keani and "Tarekh-e-Sattian" by Sabir Satti which are detailed research[citation needed]. Journalists[edit] Main article: Journalism in Circle Bakote
Circle Bakote
and Murree

The first journalist of Circle Bakote
Circle Bakote
was "Qazi Hadayetullah" of Union Council Bakot, who for 23 years worked for the Daily Zimidar Lahore (1932–52).

Syed
Syed
Amir Ud Din Sha Kazmi from Tauri Union Council Boi was the First Person to get Declaration copy of "Weekly Pakistan" from British Government from Abbottabad
Abbottabad
Office.

Abd-u-Rezzaq Abbasi Mujahid of Union Council Malkot/ Palak
Palak
who was a correspondent for the Weekly Zamin Delhi (United India) before partition in 1947.

Newspapers[edit]

There are four Daily Newspapers Daily Ousaf Daily Musalman, Daily Azkar and Daily Nawa-i-Hazara published from Islamabad
Islamabad
by the editors of Murree
Murree
Hills and Circle Bakote, named Raja Mehtab Khan of UC Phagwari, Tikka Khan Abbasi (well known Akhbarfrosh leader and ex-federal minister) of UC Jhika Gali, Ilyas Abbasi of Namb Romal and Khurshid Abbasi from Bakote.

Weekly Akhbar-e-Kohsar printed by Saeed Abbasi (now Amir of Jamat Islaami PF-45), Safi-u-Rehaman Abbasi (Osea) with co-ordination of many lawyers of Murree
Murree
and Circle Bakote
Circle Bakote
in 1987 from Karachi. After a short time Weekly Akhbar-e-Kohsar was take over by brothers Fida Husain Abbasi (now editor of Daily Kaenat Karachi) and Sajjad Abbasi (now deputy editor of Daily Ummat Karachi) of Birote
Birote
in 1989. They published this newspaper and competed with weekly Hill Post but stopped publication in 1992 due to the murder of Fida Abbasi's brother in Birote. "Weekly Tarjuman-e-Abbasia" is a house journal of the Dhond Abbasi tribe published under the direction and supervision of Anjuman Ittehad-e-Abbasia Karachi, first published in 1995 by Safi-u-Rehaman Abbasi. The first newsmagazine of Circle Bakote
Circle Bakote
was "Weekly Tarjaman", which was published from Karachi under the editorship of Ghulam Kibreya Abbasi of Kahoo-Sharqi Birote
Birote
in 1970 till 1973. The first paper on Photostat eas published in Rawalpindi named "Hum-waten" Bakote by "Yari Khan Ulfat" in 1984 and second was "Monthly Zanjeer" from Birote
Birote
by a group of students in 1995. In Phagwari
Phagwari
a handwritten newspaper Dara of four pages was published from Karachi in 1979 until 2002 by Aashik Abbasi.

Modern Journalists[edit]

Kaleem Abbasi of Bhan Birote
Birote
Khurd (graphic designer and artist, creative Director / Regional Manager of Orient Mcccan Erickson Advertising Peshawer). Shahid Akram Abbasi, Bureau Chief of Khabrain Group Channel 5 from Gulf & KSA. Aftab Abbasi of Bakote, (Arabic/English news editor of Libya TV in Tripoli). Naeem Abbasi of Bhan Birote
Birote
Khurd, Producer and newseditor of Aaj TV Karachi). Sajid Quresh Abbasi , Qaiser Quraish Abbasi of Abbasiyan Chief Executive "Weekly Ahbar-e-Kohsar" From Karachi. Hannan Ali Abbasi from Bakote is the deputy Editor of the Daily Nawa-i-Hazara, Sabir Hussain Abbasi from Boi Sub Editor Sarhad News, *Naveed Akram Abbasi from Bakote (First Male Journalist from Pakistan
Pakistan
who won Best Urdu Write-up 2006 by International Committee for Red Cross presented By Head Of Delegation ICRC in Pakistan
Pakistan
Mr Pascal Mauchle for The Article Zinda Zammer Afrad Ko Tameer e Nu mai Shamil Kia Jaey. After the earthquake in 2005 he published in Nawa e Waqt), Best Article Writer Award Winner Pakistan
Pakistan
Press Foundation (Presented By Fatima Surrya Bhajiya), Correspondent Daily Nawa e Waqt, Correspondent Pakistan
Pakistan
Press International, he was also the first person elected as first General Secretary of Abbottabad
Abbottabad
Union of Journalist in first week of 2007 from Circle Bakote.

Farhat Jabeen Alvi, is the first female journalist from Circle Bakote and is a reporter for the Daily Jinnah and the Weekly Hill News Rawalpindi in Circle Bakote. Nazar Ahmad Abbasi from Berot Correspondent Daily Ausaf. Iqbal Sagher from Sialkot Union Council Patten sub Editor Daily Muhaseb Abbottabad. A new daily newspaper NAWA-I-HAZARA started her publications from Islamabad
Islamabad
and Abbottabad
Abbottabad
at a time on 14 August 2006 under the editorship of famous journalist M Khurshid Abbasi of Mojwal, sub-tribe of Dhond of UC Bakote & Youngist journalist of Pakistan
Pakistan
Hanan Ali Abbasi is Deputy editor of Nawa-i-Hazara. Khurshid Abbasi is the first journalist in Pakistan
Pakistan
who introduced the Inpage layout of Urdu newspaper using the inpage software for the Daily Khabrain Islamabad
Islamabad
in 1992. He joined Daily Ousaf Islamabad
Islamabad
in 1998 as a senior editor where he appointed him as a bureau chief of Daily Ousaf London in 2002 and he shifted overseas. He worked with the said paper but differences with newspaper administration resulted in resignation. He returned to Pakistan
Pakistan
and then started his project on "Daily Nawa-i-Hazara" Islamabad. After nine months a UK based consulting firm offered him a challenging job, so he travelled to London again, now back in Pakistan
Pakistan
he is publishing the prestigious daily Nawa-i-Hazara from Abbottabad, Islamabad
Islamabad
and soon from Karachi. Molana Mehmood-ur-Rasheed Hadoti is a religious scholar from Hadot Murree. He publishes the Monthly Aab-E-Hayat Lahore and Sifarish Abbasi fortnightly ASHAET-E-ISLAM from Gulahrhagali Murree
Murree
on Islamic subjects. Shafiq Abbasi (Sub-Editor Daily Ousaf ) was from Kundan Namb Murree. Imteaz-ul-Haq the special correspondent of Daily Nawa-i-Waqt is from Murree
Murree
City.

Religious Heritage[edit] In prehistory the people of this area were Hindus, however during the reign of King Ashoka
Ashoka
and the spread of Buddhism, this area became a route for Buddhist scholars who travelled from Taxila
Taxila
Buddhist University to Kashmir
Kashmir
via Lora, Narha, Thoba (Barhian), Nathia Gali, Moshpuri, Birote
Birote
Khurd and Domail Kanair Pull on the River Jhelum.

In the 12th century Islam arrived, when Muslim tribes such as the Dhanyal
Dhanyal
settled in Kashmir
Kashmir
and then crossed the River Jhelum into Circle Bakote. The first tribe of the area who embraced Islam were the Ketwals and the Satties, originally they were Zoroastrians. Famous Muslim saints Syed
Syed
Ali Hamdani and Mohazzam Shah (aka Dhanni Pir) were able to make converts - although the first Mosque in the area was not established until the 17th century.

In the 14 century the Karhal tribe settled the area, followed by the Dhond Abbasi in the 15th century - both fought against the Ketwals and Satties and expelled them from the area. During the wars, many Hindu and Buddhist temples were destroyed.

In 17th century, a Dhond Abbasi feudal Chief Malik Soraj Khan rose to prominence. He was a religious scholar as well as a saint and a Poet of the Dhondi Language. His mother Rehmat Jan was a Satti lady. He built first Mosque in Potha (Aliote, now Alyote) seven km north of Murree
Murree
City.

The people of Circle Bakote
Circle Bakote
and Murree
Murree
Hills were troubled during the early Sikh era and they fought against them in Balakot
Balakot
under the command of Pir of Plasi Seyed Mohammed Ali Shah, a close companion of Mujahid Leaders Syed
Syed
Ahmed Shahid and Shah Ismail Shahid, grandsons of Shah Waliullah Dehlvi, but they did not succeed and were defeated and killed in Balakot.

After this incident Seyed Mohammed Ali Shah moved to Bakot
Bakot
in 1832, built a mosque there and lived there until his death in 1849. He was the first religious saint but his influence was eclipsed after the arrival of Hadhrat Molana Pir Faqir-u-llah Bakoti from Pajja Shrif, Chikar (AJK). Hadhrat Molana Pir Fakir-u-llah Bakoti was a great Sufi saint who had thousands of followers. He was a well known figure of Circle Bakote. He invited people to follow the teachings of Islam. He arrived in Birote
Birote
in 1870 and married into the Naik Mohammedal Alvi Awan of Birote, and a land of 12 kanals were granted to him by the Kamalal sub tribe of the Dhond Abbasi, then he travelled to Bakote because an Ahmadi Qadiani preacher taught in a mosque in Central Bakote. He beat this person and taught the people of Bakote traditional Islam.

Hadhrat Pir Haqiqullah Bakoti - was first member of NWFP legislative assembly (M.L.A) from Circle Bakote. He was second son of Hadhrat Molana Pir Fakir-u-llah Bakoti and father of current Pir Azhar Bakoti. He was a great scholar and religious leader. He had thousands of followers in Circle Bakot, Murree, Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
and all over Pakistan. He was educated in Deoband-India. He was a pupil of Akhoond
Akhoond
of Swat (Molana Abdul Ghafoor of Swat, NWFP, and witnessed the Sikh Afghan War). He organized the Circle Bakote
Circle Bakote
Muslims spiritually and politically by an organization named Anjuman Mujahideen at Bakote.

Another saint who came in Circle Bakote
Circle Bakote
was Gull Baba from Mansehra and died at Ramkote east of Ayubia
Ayubia
in 1943 where his tomb now resides.

Transport History[edit] There have been road links between Punjab and Kashmir
Kashmir
for thousands of years. For some 1500 years these road links have been established via Kohala, Lora, Musearhi ( Murree
Murree
old name) and Khwadder. Kashmiri rulers all depended on the trade link from Punjab to Kashmir. In 1350 the Turks conquered Kashmir
Kashmir
along this route. When the Mughals appointed their governor Yousaf Ridhvi in 1587, they made contacts through Kashmir
Kashmir
Highway via Kohala. Another route between Kabul and Srinager was established when Abdullah Khan Kabuli became ruler of Kashmir
Kashmir
- the route was Kabul, Mansehra to Srinager via Hasan Abdal. In the second decade of 1800, Hazarawals suspended supply lines of the Sikhs as result of the bloody wars they were engaged in. Hari Sing Nalva, a Sikh General tried to open this route by bloodshed and war of Balakot
Balakot
but did not succeed. The only route between Kashmir
Kashmir
and Punjab remained Upper Dewal Kohala, which they developed. Another route was between Kashmir
Kashmir
and Potohar (Land of Gakherhs) along with right bank of River Jhelum from Srinager to Mirpur, AJK. Rawalpindi (formerly Gajnipura) emerged as a socio-political as well as commerce centre of North Punjab in 1802 after the defeat of Gakherhs and the emergence of the Sikh government of the Lahore Darbar. Malka Singh as a new ruler set up Raja Bazar as a major trade centre between Punjab and Kashmir and Kohala as a centre of Raja Bazar. His successor Sardar Jewan Singh occupied all Murree
Murree
Hills and Circle Bakote
Circle Bakote
controlling the properties of local tribes, i.e. Dhond Abbasi, Karhral, Gakherhs and other tribes and transferred them to Hindu
Hindu
merchants by force. At that time these was no bridge in Kohala and travellers crossed the River Jhelum at Knair Pull or Pattan. Knair Pull is the oldest place crosspoint in the region going back. The remains of this points are also can be seen at Domail, 200 feet (61 m) above the New Kohala Bridge, 100 feet (30 m) above Kanair Pull Dak Bangalow and new build road from eastern part of New Kohala Bridge to Bashir Petrolepump. There were three routes in second decade of 1800 from Kabul, Rawalpindi to Kashmir. The first route was Hawailian, Khaira Gali, Malkot. Dewal to Khawadder crossing, second was Haripur, Lora, Danna, Gorha Gali, Kotli Sattean to Patan Dhalkot and third was Rawalpindi, Musearhi, Upper Dewal to Kohala. The resistance movement against the Sikh Authorities built forts (Kote in local language) and checkposts (Kotlies) in Dannah, Dewal, Bakote and Sahlian to maintain law and order. Upper Dewal Kohala Road[edit] The new construction of Upper Dewal Kohala Road started in 1836 on the orders of Gulab Singh, the Maharaja of Kashmir, where Sikhs armed troops patrolled 24 hours and fought local people ruthlessly. After the government of Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
ended in 1845, the notorious Amritsar pact was signed among British rulers and Maharaja Gulab Singh - as a result of this all areas of Circle Bakote
Circle Bakote
were aligned to Kashmir. This event compelled the local tribes to rebel, they destroyed Upper Dewal Kohala Road, delinked all bridges and had taken positions against Sikh troops. They killed more than 100 troops in Kohala [1] and hanged their dead bodies across right and left banks of River Jhelum. The agitation produced fruitful results and all regions of Circle Bakote
Circle Bakote
were reunited with Punjab in same year after a few months. Rawalpindi Murree
Murree
Road[edit] In 1857 local tribe's war of independent failed and British Government started development of Murree
Murree
City and built Rawalpindi Murree
Murree
Road. All bridges including Salgran is a masterpiece of Mistri Noor Alahi of Birote. A new friendship pact was also signed between the Dogra Raj of Kashmir
Kashmir
and British Government of the Punjab in 1870. Kashmir
Kashmir
Highway[edit] In 1873 the construction of the Kashmir
Kashmir
Highway ( Murree
Murree
Srinagar Road) via Kohala started. The contractor was Sardar Hoshnak Singh and the bridge builder was Mistri Noor Alahi of Birote. It was completed via Aliyot, Phagwari, Lower Dewal and Lower Birote
Birote
in 1885 and carts began travelling. In 1871 the first Kohala suspension bridge was built which was destroyed in the 1991 flood. Notable events are:

First highway link established between Rawalpindi and Kashmir
Kashmir
and transport started. Trate, Company Bagh, Gora Gali, Sunny Bank, Kuldanna, Ghikagali, Lower Topa, Aliyote, Phagwarhi and Garheal Camp emerged as populated towns along Kashmir
Kashmir
Highway. Kashmir
Kashmir
Highway completed in 1901. Kohal Bridge washed away three times, 1890, 1902 and 1991, then the bridge was shifted to Domail in Union Council Birote. Parsi investor Dhanji Boy four-wheel chariot service first established to Murree
Murree
in 1904 and then to Srinager next year. Punjab Motor Transport Company established in 1907 and started service with four buses. The first transporter of Circle Bakote
Circle Bakote
was Dewan Singh of Termuthean. The first Muslim transport company had established in 1920 with equal shares of contractor Amin Khan, Mehmood Shah, Ghulam Nabi Shah of Birote
Birote
and many other shareholders from Rawalpindi under the banner of Allied Ghiraghdin Transport Company with two buses en route to Rawalpindi to Srinager. Poet of the East Allama Iqbal first travelled to Kashmir
Kashmir
by Kashmir Highway in 1921. He was passenger of Allied Chiragh Din driven by Molvi Ghazi of Lammian Larhan, Birote. According to Sabir Afaqi, Iqbql wrote 17 poem of his book ARMEGHN-E-HIJAZ and on poem of Jawaid Nama AANSOO-E-AFLAK during this voyage. Rawalpindi Murree
Murree
transport Company started her bus service in 1923 between Rawalpindi and Murree. In 1930 Contractor Amin Khan and Raja Nazer Khan founded a new Rawalpindi Srinager Transport (SRT) Company and got a very handsome response by passengers as second company of Allied Chiragh Din. First SRT bus was Chewerlet no RI 4618 started on 23 July 1930. In 1935 reksha started their services on this road. Raja Serwer Khan of Gora Gali established third transport Company named Murree
Murree
Hills Transport Company in 1943 with eight buses en-route to Kohala Rawalpindi. Between years of 1946–47 Rawalpindi Srinagar transport bus service suspended and eight buses of Allied Chiragh Din were seized by Dogras. New transport system first introduced when British Government built Rawalpindi Murree
Murree
Road in mid of 19th century.

Transport After Independence[edit] After Pakistan
Pakistan
came into being, many transporters came forward and invested millions of rupees in this sector both in Northern Punjab and Azad Kashmir. A half dozens transporters of Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
run their services on Kashmir
Kashmir
Highway but the route was on Rawalpindi to Muzaferabad, Rawalakot, Bagh, Dhirkot, Chinari and Athmuqam. Allied Chiragh Din and Srinagar Road Transport (SRT) Company purchased more used buses and restarted their operation. Murree
Murree
Hills Transport Company monopoly was on Rawalpindi Kohala route which was broke by Pindi Murree
Murree
Transport Company in 1951 and started operation with 32 seater six buses. Mentioned company got route permit of Rawalpindi Lora, Rawalpindi Ayubia
Ayubia
and Rawalpindi Rewat on Kohala Bridal (Now Upper Dewal Kohala) Road. Demand of Upper Dewal Kohala Road construction was echoed in President House in ex-capital Karachi and in 1958 when federal Capital shifted in Islamabad, the importance of Upper Dewal Kohala Road emerged higher and higher as a permanent supply line of Pakistani armed forces in Azad Kashmir. A large landslide damaged Kashmir
Kashmir
Highway near Aliyote in 1960 and road was closed for six months, it was a great concern for GHQ, therefore federal government called an emergency meeting of Corp Commanders in Rawalpindi in last December and recommended construction work of Upper Dewal Kohala Road under supervision of Pak Army. In first phase construction work started on this road in mid of 1961 from Garheal to Rewat. The second phase completed in 1964 from Rewat to Dewal and then suspended. Pakistan
Pakistan
Army faced many hurdles in logistic movement during 1965 war as a single road connection with AJK and the importance of Upper Dewal Kohala Road came more aggressive again as a defence linkage way for Armed Forces. Pak Army restarted road construction in 1966 on Sikh made old route and it was completed in 1969. The first bus service started on this route was Murree
Murree
Hills Transport Company driven by Mohammed Rezaq Khan of Birote. The second Pakwatan Bus servpany Bagh, Gora Gali, Sunny Bank, Kuldanna, Ghikagali, Lower Topa, Aliyote, Phagwarhi and Garheal Camp emerged as populated towns along Kashmir
Kashmir
Highway.

Kohal Br10 services have been operating in morning from Moolia, Kohala, Basian and Birote
Birote
to Rawalpindi and four were from Rawalpindi to Kohala and Molia. These bus operators are:-

Razaq Khan then Nizakat Abbasi operated Murree
Murree
Hills Bus Service from 1963 to 2004. Azad Khan of Basian operated Pir Bakoti Express from 1980 to 2003 and then sold to Hussain Abbasi of Basian and he operated it till 2006. Nisar Abbasi of Birote
Birote
started Abbasi Coach (No RID 8699) in 1987 and ended in 2006 by his son Anwar Abbasi. Imteaz Abbasi started Abbasi Coach (No Rid 1230) in 1990. This was the first bus that first time operated from Rawalpindi to Molia. All heavy passenger transport is now eliminated on Kashmir
Kashmir
Highway and Upper Dawel Kohala Road since 2003, and coaches are running travel business. More than 200 texies are now operating only in UC Birote.

Books on Circle Bakote
Circle Bakote
and Murree
Murree
Hills[edit] Colonial Era Books[edit] The earliest books published on this area were during the British Raj - The first was "MEMORENDUM ON THE NWFP" by Cap. Bonami and published from Calcutta
Calcutta
(now Kolkata), India. Other notable books are:-

Notes on Khaira Gali and Shangla Gali of NWFP by J E N Bide (1927) The origin of the Himalayas Mountain Notes on The elevation of Himalayan Peaks by Archibald Campbell published from Colkata (1848) Remarks on Himalayan Glaciation. - G.F.Cambell published from Kolkata (1877) Indian Frontier Policy, A historical Sketch by Sir John Miller Adye published from London (1897) North West Frontier Province by T Camon Plot (1930) NWFP and Pathan Borderland (A Survey Report) by E W Kastlave (1914) Year on North West Frontier of India by S J Koten from London (1868) Memorandum on the Produce of Himalayas Hills by L Kowan from Lahore (1860) Air Mapping of NW Frontier by D R Crown (1936) The North West Province of India by W Krikk (1897) A General Geographical Accounts of NWFP by M A Durrani (His MA Thesis in London University) in 1939.

Modern Books[edit] Mohammed Ata Raheem of the Pakistan
Pakistan
Science Foundation (also a professor at the Quaid-e-Azam University) compiled a history of Circle Bakote and Murree
Murree
Hills from 1684 to 1947. It was published in 1976. "Zameeni Sitaray" A book by young Journalist from Bakote Sharif "Hanan Ali Abbasi". This book is autobiography of 100 successful personalities from different fields of life in Pakistan. Hanan is youngest author and writer of Circle Bakote
Circle Bakote
and his articles are published in countries leading newspapers. Zameeni Sitaray is available in all famous Books Stalls of Islamabad
Islamabad
and Pakistan.

"AY KOH-E-MURREE" (O Murree
Murree
Hills) written by Brgd. Mohammed Ismail Siddiqi, about the civilisation, culture and tribal history of Murree Hills, Circl Bakote and Galyat. "TAREEKH-E-HAZARA" (new edition) written by Dr. Shair Bahader Khan Panni published from Abbottabad.

Khan Bahadur Raja Abdul Rehman Khan Sahib from Nagri tutial was the first minister in Circle Bakote
Circle Bakote
(1932 to 1944) And his Brother Raja Sardar Khan Sahib (MLA 1946 to 1952) And his Nephew

Sardar Anyat-u-Rehman khan Abbasi Sahib also Parliamentarian of Circle Bakote. established many primary, middle and high schools. Upper Dewal Kohala Road and Ghora Gali Road and electric supply.

Nagina afzal riaz is the first lady candidate from circle Bakote Who applied for pf 45 in the 2008 general election. She is the daughter in law of ex-chairman of UC Birote
Birote
Haji Aazam khan and widow of afzal riaz.His family are called hajial in Bakote.*Transport: Thekedar Amin Abbasi of Birote
Birote
created the first transport company named "Allied Ncgiraghdin" in his grandfather's name. Raja Nazer of Julial, Mehmood Shah and his elder brother Ghulam Nabi Shah (father of Dr. Ilyas Shah) of Birote
Birote
joined him as co-transporters with six buses en route to Rawalpindi to Srinager from 1932 to April 1947.

Education: Vernacular Primary School Bakote is the oldest school, it opened in 1902, the first student was "Sardar Hasan Ali Khan" of Boi, the first teacher was Syed
Syed
Masoom Ali Shah (1882-1963) of Juleal Birote
Birote
who taught in various places to educated people. The first batch of all government running school of Circle Bakote
Circle Bakote
teachers was Masoom Shah students in 1902.

Circle Bakote
Circle Bakote
in 2009[edit] (Under compilation) Further reading[edit]

Tarekh-e- Murree
Murree
by Noor Alahi Abbasi Dastan-e- Murree
Murree
by Prof. Karam Haidri Tarikh-e-Alvi Awan by Mohabbat Husain Awan, Tarikh-e-Gakhrhan by Raja Haider Zaman Keani, Tarikh-e-Hazara by Shair B Panni, Tarikh-e-Frishta by Frishta Kegoher Nama translated by Dr. Mohammed Baqir Ay Koh-e- Murree
Murree
by Brg. Ismail Siddiqi A brief Description Galies Forest Devision By R Ahmed 1936a

Refe

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