Cinderella (Italian: Cenerentola, French: Cendrillon, German:
Aschenputtel), or The Little Glass Slipper, is a folk tale embodying a
myth-element of unjust oppression and triumphant reward. Thousands of
variants are known throughout the world. The title character is
a young woman living in unfortunate circumstances, that are suddenly
changed to remarkable fortune. The story of Rhodopis, recounted by the
Strabo in around 7 BC, about a Greek slave girl who
marries the king of Egypt, is usually considered as the earliest known
variant of the "Cinderella" story. The first literary
European version of the story was published in
Italy by Giambattista
Basile in his
Pentamerone in 1634; the most popular version was
Charles Perrault in Histoires ou contes du temps passé
in 1697, and later by the
Brothers Grimm in their folk tale
Grimms' Fairy Tales
Grimms' Fairy Tales in 1812.
Although the story's title and main character's name change in
different languages, in English-language folklore "Cinderella" is the
archetypal name. The word "Cinderella" has, by analogy, come to mean
one whose attributes were unrecognized, or one who unexpectedly
achieves recognition or success after a period of obscurity and
neglect. The still-popular story of "Cinderella" continues to
influence popular culture internationally, lending plot elements,
allusions, and tropes to a wide variety of media. The
Aarne-Thompson-Uther system classifies
Cinderella as Tale Type 510A,
1 Ancient versions
1.1 European versions
1.1.2 Le Fresne
1.2 Asian versions
1.2.1 Ye Xian
1.2.2 One Thousand and One Nights
1.2.3 Tam and Cam
2 Literary versions
2.1 Cenerentola, by Basile
2.2 Cendrillon, by Perrault
2.3 Aschenputtel, by the Brothers Grimm
3 Plot variations and alternative tellings
5.1 Films and television
7 See also
9 External links
Pair of ancient leather sandals from Egypt
Main article: Rhodopis
The oldest known version of the
Cinderella story is the ancient Greek
story of Rhodopis, a Greek courtesan living in the colony of
Naucratis in Egypt, whose name means "Rosy-Cheeks". The story is first
recorded by the Greek geographer
Strabo in his Geographica (book 17,
33), probably written around 7 BC or thereabouts::27
They tell the fabulous story that, when she was bathing, an eagle
snatched one of her sandals from her maid and carried it to Memphis;
and while the king was administering justice in the open air, the
eagle, when it arrived above his head, flung the sandal into his lap;
and the king, stirred both by the beautiful shape of the sandal and by
the strangeness of the occurrence, sent men in all directions into the
country in quest of the woman who wore the sandal; and when she was
found in the city of Naucratis, she was brought up to Memphis, became
the wife of the king ...
The same story is also later reported by the Roman orator Aelian (ca.
175–ca. 235) in his Miscellaneous History, which was written
entirely in Greek. Aelian's story closely resembles the story told by
Strabo, but adds that the name of the pharaoh in question was
Psammetichus. Aelian's account indicates that the story of Rhodopis
remained popular throughout antiquity.
Herodotus, some five centuries before Strabo, records a popular legend
about a possibly-related courtesan named
Rhodopis in his
Histories,:27 claiming that
Rhodopis came from Thrace, and was the
slave of Iadmon of Samos, and a fellow-slave of the story-teller Aesop
and that she was taken to Egypt in the time of
Pharaoh Amasis, and
freed there for a large sum by Charaxus of Mytilene, brother of Sappho
the lyric poet.:27-28
Illustration of Marie de France, the author of Le Fresne, from a
medieval illuminated manuscript
The twelfth-century AD lai of Le Fresne ("The Ash-Tree Girl"), retold
by Marie de France, is a variant of the "Cinderella" story:41 in
which a wealthy noblewoman abandons her infant daughter at the base of
an ash tree outside a nunnery with a ring and brocade as tokens of her
identity,:41 because she is one of twin sisters:41 the mother
fears that she will be accused of infidelity:41 (according to
popular belief, twins were evidence of two different fathers). The
infant is discovered by the porter, who names her Fresne, meaning "Ash
Tree",:41 and she is raised by the nuns.:41 After she has
attained maturity, a young nobleman sees her and becomes her
lover.:41 The nobleman, however, is forced to marry a woman of
noble birth.:41 Fresne accepts that she will never marry her
beloved,:41 but waits in the wedding chamber as a handmaiden.:41
She covers the bed with her own brocade,:41 but, unbeknownst to
her, her beloved's bride is actually her twin sister,:41 and her
mother recognizes the brocade as the same one she had given to the
daughter she had abandoned so many years before.:41 Fresne's true
parentage is revealed:41 and, as a result of her noble birth, she
is allowed to marry her beloved,:41 while her twin sister is
married to a different nobleman.:41
The story of
Ye Xian reflected the admiration for small feet in
Foot binding later became a common practice to prevent
feet from growing.
A version of the story, Ye Xian, appeared in Miscellaneous Morsels
from Youyang by
Duan Chengshi around 860. In this version, the
protagonist is Ye Xian, a hardworking and lovely girl, who befriends a
fish, which is the reincarnation of her deceased mother. Her
stepmother and sister kill the fish, but
Ye Xian saves the bones,
which are magic, and they help her dress appropriately for the New
Year Festival. Her stepfamily recognizes her at the festival,
causing her to flee and accidentally lose her slipper. Afterwards,
the king finds her slipper and falls in love with her (eventually
rescuing her from her cruel stepmother). Variants of the story are
also found in many ethnic groups in China.
One Thousand and One Nights
Several different variants of the story appear in the medieval One
Thousand and One Nights, also known as the Arabian Nights, including
"The Second Shaykh's Story", "The Eldest Lady's Tale" and "Abdallah
ibn Fadil and His Brothers", all dealing with the theme of a younger
sibling harassed by two jealous elders. In some of these, the siblings
are female, while in others, they are male. One of the tales, "Judar
and His Brethren", departs from the happy endings of previous variants
and reworks the plot to give it a tragic ending instead, with the
younger brother being poisoned by his elder brothers.
Tam and Cam
The Story of Tam and Cam, from Vietnam, is similar to the Chinese
version. The heroine Tấm also has a fish which is killed by the
stepmother and the half-sister, and its bones also give her
The first written European version of the story was published in
Napoli (Naples), Italy, by Giambattista Basile, in his Pentamerone
(1634). The story itself was based in the Kingdom of Naples, at that
time the most important political and cultural center of Southern
Italy and among the most influential capitals in Europe, and written
in the Neapolitan dialect. It was later retold, along with other
Basile tales, by
Charles Perrault in Histoires ou contes du temps
passé (1697), and by the
Brothers Grimm in their folk tale
Grimms' Fairy Tales
Grimms' Fairy Tales (1812).
The name "Cenerentola" comes from the Italian word "cenere" (ash,
cinder). It has to do with the fact that servants and scullions were
usually soiled with ash at that time, because of their cleaning work
and also because they had to live in cold basements so they usually
tried to get warm by sitting close to the fireplace.
Cenerentola, by Basile
Giambattista Basile, an Italian soldier and government official,
assembled a set of oral folk tales into a written collection titled Lo
cunto de li cunti (The Story of Stories), or Pentamerone. It included
the tale of Cenerentola, which features a wicked stepmother and evil
stepsisters, magical transformations, a missing slipper, and a hunt by
a monarch for the owner of the slipper. It was published posthumously
A prince has a daughter, Zezolla (tonnie) (the
Cinderella figure), who
is tended by a beloved governess. The governess, with Zezolla's help,
persuades the prince to marry her. The governess then brings forward
six daughters of her own, who abuse Zezolla (tonnie), and send her
into the kitchen to work as a servant. The prince goes to the island
of Sinia, meets a fairy who gives presents to his daughter, and brings
back for her: a golden spade, a golden bucket, a silken napkin, and a
date seedling. The girl cultivates the tree, and when the king hosts a
ball, Zezolla appears dressed richly by a fairy living in the date
tree. The king falls in love with her, but Zezolla runs away before he
can find out who she is. Twice Zezolla escapes the king and his
servants. The third time, the king's servant captures one of her
slippers. The king invites all of the maidens in the land to a ball
with a shoe-test, identifies Zezolla (tonnie) after the shoe jumps
from his hand to her foot, and eventually marries her.
Cendrillon, by Perrault
Oliver Herford illustrated
Cinderella with the Fairy Godmother,
inspired by Perrault's version.
Charles Robinson illustrated
Cinderella in the kitchen (1900), from
"Tales of Passed Times" with stories by Charles Perrault.
Writing blank entitled
Cinderella or The little glass slipper,
One of the most popular versions of
Cinderella was written in French
Charles Perrault in 1697, under the name Cendrillon. The popularity
of his tale was due to his additions to the story, including the
pumpkin, the fairy-godmother and the introduction of "glass"
A wealthy widower marries a proud and haughty woman as his second
wife. She has two daughters, who are equally vain and selfish. The
gentleman has a beautiful young daughter, a girl of unparalleled
kindness and sweet temper. The man's daughter is forced into
servitude, where she is made to work day and night doing menial
chores. After the girl's chores are done for the day, she curls up
near the fireplace in an effort to stay warm. She often arises covered
in cinders, giving rise to the mocking nickname "Cinderella" by her
Cinderella bears the abuse patiently and does not tell
her father, who would have scolded her.
One day, the Prince invites all the young ladies in the land to a
royal ball, planning to choose a wife. The two stepsisters gleefully
plan their wardrobes for the ball, and taunt
Cinderella by telling her
that maids are not invited to the ball.
As the sisters depart to the ball,
Cinderella cries in despair. Her
Fairy Godmother magically appears and immediately begins to transform
Cinderella from house servant to the young lady she was by birth, all
in the effort to get
Cinderella to the ball. She turns a pumpkin into
a golden carriage, mice into horses, a rat into a coachman, and
lizards into footmen. She then turns Cinderella's rags into a
beautiful jeweled gown, complete with a delicate pair of glass
slippers. The Godmother tells her to enjoy the ball, but warns her
that she must return before midnight, when the spells will be broken.
At the ball, the entire court is entranced by Cinderella, especially
the Prince. At this first ball,
Cinderella remembers to leave before
midnight. Back home,
Cinderella graciously thanks her Godmother. She
then greets the stepsisters, who had not recognized her earlier, and
talk of nothing but the beautiful girl at the ball.
Another ball is held the next evening, and
Cinderella again attends
with her Godmother's help. The Prince has become even more infatuated,
Cinderella in turn becomes so enchanted by him she loses track of
time and leaves only at the final stroke of midnight, losing one of
her glass slippers on the steps of the palace in her haste. The Prince
chases her, but outside the palace, the guards see only a simple
country girl leave. The Prince pockets the slipper and vows to find
and marry the girl to whom it belongs. Meanwhile,
Cinderella keeps the
other slipper, which does not disappear when the spell is broken.
The Prince tries the slipper on all the women in the kingdom. When the
Prince arrives at Cinderella's home, the stepsisters try in vain to
win him over.
Cinderella asks if she may try, but the stepsisters
taunt her. Naturally, the slipper fits perfectly, and Cinderella
produces the other slipper for good measure. Cinderella's stepfamily
pleads for forgiveness, and
Cinderella had hoped
her step-family would love her always.
Cinderella married the Prince as her stepsisters are married to two
handsome gentlemen of the royal court.
The first moral of the story is that beauty is a treasure, but
graciousness is priceless. Without it, nothing is possible; with it,
one can do anything.
However, the second moral of the story mitigates the first one and
reveals the criticism that Perrault is aiming at: That "without doubt
it is a great advantage to have intelligence, courage, good breeding,
and common sense. These, and similar talents come only from heaven,
and it is good to have them. However, even these may fail to bring you
success, without the blessing of a godfather or a godmother."
Aschenputtel, by the Brothers Grimm
Alexander Zick illustrated
Cinderella with the doves, inspired by the
Another well-known version was recorded by the German brothers Jacob
Wilhelm Grimm in the 19th century. The tale is called
"Aschenputtel" ("Cinderella" in English translations). This version is
much more intense than that of Perrault and Disney, in that
Cinderella's father did not die and the stepsisters mutilate their
feet to fit in the golden slipper. There is no fairy godmother, but
rather help comes from a wishing tree that the heroine planted on her
mother's grave. The stepsisters suffer a terrible punishment for their
A plague infests a village, and a wealthy gentleman's wife lies on her
deathbed. She calls for her only daughter, and tells her to remain
good and kind, as God would protect her. She then dies and is buried.
The child visits her mother's grave every day to grieve and a year
goes by. The gentleman marries another woman with two older daughters
from a previous marriage. They have beautiful faces and fair skin, but
their hearts are cruel and wicked. The stepsisters steal the girl's
fine clothes and jewels and force her to wear rags. They banish her
into the kitchen, and give her the nickname "Aschenputtel"
("Ashfool"). She is forced to do all kinds of hard work from dawn to
dusk. The cruel sisters will do nothing but mock her and make her
chores harder by creating messes. However, despite all of it, the girl
remains good and kind, and will always go to her mother's grave to cry
and pray to God that she will see her circumstances improve.
One day the gentleman visits a fair, promising his stepdaughters gifts
of luxury. The eldest asks for beautiful dresses, while the younger
for pearls and diamonds. His own daughter merely begs for the first
twig to knock his hat off on the way. The gentleman goes on his way,
and acquires presents for his stepdaughters. While passing a forest he
gets a hazel twig, and gives it to his daughter. She plants the twig
over her mother's grave, waters it with her tears and over the years,
it grows into a glowing hazel tree. The girl prays under it three
times a day, and a white bird always comes to her. She will tell her
wishes to the bird, and every time the bird will throw down to her
what she has wished for.
The king decides to ordain a festival that will last for three days
and invites all the beautiful maidens in the land to attend so that
the prince can select one of them for his bride. The two sisters are
also invited, but when Aschenputtel begs them to allow her to go with
them into the celebration, the stepmother refuses because she has no
decent dress nor shoes to wear. When the girl insists, the woman
throws a dish of lentils into the ashes for her to pick up,
guaranteeing her permission to attend the festival, if she can clean
up the lentils in two hours. When the girl accomplishes the task in
less than an hour with the help of a flock of white doves that came
when she sings a certain chant, the stepmother only redoubles the task
and throws down even a greater quantity of lentils. When Aschenputtel
is able to accomplish it in a greater speed, not wanting to spoil her
daughters' chances, the stepmother hastens away with her husband and
daughters to the celebration and leaves the crying stepdaughter
The girl retreats to the graveyard and asks to be clothed in silver
and gold. The white bird drops a gold and silver gown and silk shoes.
She goes to the feast. The prince dances with her all the time, and
when sunset comes she asks to leave. The prince escorts her home, but
she eludes him and jumps inside the pigeon coop. The father has come
home ahead of time and the prince asks him to chop the pigeon coop
down, but Aschenputtel has already escaped. The next day, the girl
appears in grander apparel. The prince falls in love with her and
dances with her for the whole day, and when sunset comes, the prince
tries to accompany her home again. However, she climbs a pear tree to
escape him. The Prince calls her father who chops down the tree,
wondering if it could be Aschenputtel, but Aschenputtel has
disappeared. The third day, she appears dressed in the grandest with
slippers of gold. Now the prince is determined to keep her, and has
the entire stairway smeared with pitch. Aschenputtel loses track of
time, and when she runs away one of her golden slippers sticks on that
pitch. The prince proclaims that he will marry the maiden whose foot
fits the golden slipper.
The next morning, the prince goes to Aschenputtel's house and tries
the slipper on the eldest stepsister. The sister was advised by her
mother to cut off her toes in order to fit the slipper. While riding
with the stepsister, the two doves from Heaven tell the Prince that
blood drips from her foot. Appalled by her treachery, he goes back
again and tries the slipper on the other stepsister. She cuts off part
of her heel in order to get her foot in the slipper, and again the
prince is fooled. While riding with her to the king's castle, the
doves alert him again about the blood on her foot. He comes back to
inquire about another girl. The gentleman tells him that they keep a
kitchen-maid in the house – omitting to mention that she is his
own daughter – and the prince asks him to let her try on the
slipper. Aschenputtel appears after washing herself, and when she puts
on the slipper, the prince recognizes her as the stranger with whom he
has danced at the ball.
In the end, during Aschenputtel's wedding, as she walks down the aisle
with her stepsisters as her bridesmaids, (they had hoped to worm their
way into her favour), the doves fly down and strike the two
stepsisters' eyes, one in the left and the other in the right. When
the wedding comes to an end, and Aschenputtel and her prince march out
of the church, the doves fly again, striking the remaining eyes of the
two evil sisters blind, a punishment they had to endure for the rest
of their lives.
Aschenputtel's relationship with her father in this version is
ambiguous; Perrault's version states that the absent father is
dominated by his second wife, explaining why he does not prevent the
abuse of his daughter. However, the father in this tale plays an
active role in several scenes, and it is not explained why he
tolerates the mistreatment of his child. He also describes
Aschenputtel as his "first wife's child" and not his own.
Plot variations and alternative tellings
Cinderella by Edward Burne-Jones, 1863, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
Villains: In some versions, her father plays an active role in the
humiliation of his daughter; in others, he is secondary to his new
wife, Cinderella's stepmother; in some versions, especially the
popular Disney film, Cinderella's father has died and Cinderella's
mother has died also.
Although many variants of
Cinderella feature the wicked stepmother,
the defining trait of type 510A is a female persecutor: in Fair, Brown
and Trembling and Finette Cendron, the stepmother does not appear at
all, and it is the older sisters who confine her to the kitchen. In
other fairy tales featuring the ball, she was driven from home by the
persecutions of her father, usually because he wished to marry her. Of
this type (510B) are Cap O' Rushes, Catskin, All-Kinds-of-Fur, and
Allerleirauh, and she slaves in the kitchen because she found a job
there. In Katie Woodencloak, the stepmother drives her from home,
and she likewise finds such a job.
In La Cenerentola,
Gioachino Rossini inverted the sex roles:
Cenerentola is oppressed by her stepfather. (This makes the opera
Aarne-Thompson type 510B.) He also made the economic basis for such
hostility unusually clear, in that Don Magnifico wishes to make his
own daughters' dowries larger, to attract a grander match, which is
impossible if he must provide a third dowry. Folklorists often
interpret the hostility between the stepmother and stepdaughter as
just such a competition for resources, but seldom does the tale make
Ball, Ballgown, and Curfew: The number of balls varies, sometimes one,
sometimes two, and sometimes three. The fairy godmother is Perrault's
own addition to the tale. The person who aided Cinderella
(Aschenputtel) in the Grimms's version is her dead mother.
Aschenputtel requests her aid by praying at her grave, on which a tree
is growing. Helpful doves roosting in the tree shake down the clothing
she needs for the ball. This motif is found in other variants of the
tale as well, such as The Cinder Maid, collected by Joseph Jacobs, and
the Finnish The Wonderful Birch. Playwright
James Lapine incorporated
this motif into the
Cinderella plotline of the musical Into the Woods.
Cenerentola combined them; the Cinderella
figure, Zezolla, asks her father to commend her to the Dove of Fairies
and ask her to send her something, and she receives a tree that will
provide her clothing. Other variants have her helped by talking
animals, as in Katie Woodencloak, Rushen Coatie, Bawang Putih Bawang
Merah, The Story of Tam and Cam, or The Sharp Grey Sheep—these
animals often having some connection with her dead mother; in The
Golden Slipper, a fish aids her after she puts it in water. In "The
Anklet", it's a magical alabaster pot the girl purchased with her own
money that brings her the gowns and the anklets she wears to the ball.
Gioachino Rossini, having agreed to do an opera based on
he could omit all magical elements, wrote La Cenerentola, in which she
was aided by Alidoro, a philosopher and formerly the Prince's tutor.
The midnight curfew is also absent in many versions;
the ball to get home before her stepmother and stepsisters, or she is
simply tired. In the Grimms' version, Aschenputtel slips away when she
is tired, hiding on her father's estate in a tree, and then the pigeon
coop, to elude her pursuers; her father tries to catch her by chopping
them down, but she escapes.
Furthermore, the gathering need not be a ball; several variants on
Cinderella, such as
Katie Woodencloak and
The Golden Slipper have her
In the three-ball version,
Cinderella keeps a close watch on the time
the first two nights and is able to leave without difficulty. However,
on the third (or only) night, she loses track of the time and must
flee the castle before her disguise vanishes. In her haste, she loses
a glass slipper which the prince finds—or else the prince has
carefully had her exit tarred, so as to catch her, and the slipper is
caught in it.
The identifying item: The glass slipper is unique to Charles
Perrault's version and its derivatives; in other versions of the tale
it may be made of other materials (in the version recorded by the
Brothers Grimm, German: Aschenbroedel and Aschenputtel, for instance,
it is gold) and in still other tellings, it is not a slipper but an
anklet, a ring, or a bracelet that gives the prince the key to
Cinderella's identity. In Rossini's opera "La Cenerentola"
("Cinderella"), the slipper is replaced by twin bracelets to prove her
identity. In the Finnish variant
The Wonderful Birch the prince uses
tar to gain something every ball, and so has a ring, a circlet, and a
pair of slippers. Interpreters unaware of the value attached to glass
in 17th century France and perhaps troubled by sartorial
impracticalities, have suggested that Perrault's "glass slipper"
(pantoufle de verre) had been a "squirrel fur slipper" (pantoufle de
vair) in some unidentified earlier version of the tale, and that
Perrault or one of his sources confused the words; however, most
scholars believe the glass slipper was a deliberate piece of poetic
invention on Perrault's part. The 1950 Disney adaptation takes
advantage of the slipper being made of glass to add a twist whereby
the slipper is shattered just before
Cinderella has the chance to try
it on, leaving her with only the matching slipper with which to prove
Another interpretation of verre/vair (glass/fur) suggested a sexual
element—the Prince was 'trying on' the 'fur slipper' (vagina) of the
maidens in the kingdom, as a 'Droit du seigneur' right of sexual
possession of his subjects. The disguised Cinderella's 'fur slipper'
was of unique appeal to the Prince who sought her thereafter through
sexual congress (a variety of sources including Joan Gould).
The translation of the story into cultures with different standards of
beauty has left the significance of Cinderella's shoe size unclear,
and resulted in the implausibility of Cinderella's feet being of a
unique size for no particular reason. Humorous retellings of the story
sometimes use the twist of having the shoes turn out to also fit
somebody completely unsuitable, such as an amorous old crone. In Terry
Pratchett's Witches Abroad, the witches accuse another witch of
manipulating the events because it was a common shoe size, and she
could only ensure that the right woman put it on if she already knew
where she was and went straight to her. In "When the Clock Strikes"
(from Red As Blood),
Tanith Lee had the sorcerous shoe alter shape
whenever a woman tried to put it on, so it would not fit.
Cinderella tries on the slipper
The Revelation: Cinderella's stepmother and stepsisters (in some
versions just the stepsisters and, in some other versions, a
stepfather and stepsisters) conspire to win the prince's hand for one
of them. In the German telling, the first stepsister fits into the
slipper by cutting off a toe, but the doves in the hazel tree alert
the prince to the blood dripping from the slipper, and he returns the
false bride to her mother. The second stepsister fits into the slipper
by cutting off her heel, but the same doves give her away.
In many variants of the tale, the prince is told that
not possibly be the one, as she is too dirty and ragged. Often, this
is said by the stepmother or stepsisters. In the Grimms' version, both
the stepmother and the father urge it. The prince nevertheless
insists on her trying.
Cinderella arrives and proves her identity by
fitting into the slipper or other item (in some cases she has kept the
The Conclusion: In the German version of the story, the evil
stepsisters are punished for their deception by having their eyes
pecked out by birds. In other versions, they are forgiven, and made
ladies-in-waiting with marriages to lesser lords.
In The Thousand Nights and A Night, in a tale called "The Anklet",
the stepsisters make a comeback by using twelve magical hairpins to
turn the bride into a dove on her wedding night. In The Wonderful
Birch, the stepmother, a witch, manages to substitute her daughter for
the true bride after she has given birth. Such tales continue the
fairy tale into what is in effect a second episode.
In an episode of Jim Henson's The Storyteller, writer Anthony
Minghella merged the old folk tale
Donkeyskin (also written by
Cinderella to tell the tale of Sapsorrow, a girl both
cursed and blessed by destiny.
Many popular new works based on the story feature one step-sister who
is not as cruel to
Cinderella as the other. Examples are the film Ever
Cinderella 3 and the Broadway revival.
Cendrillon in French. Detail from Gustave Doré's
illustration for Cendrillon
Folklorists have long studied variants on this tale across
cultures. In 1893, Marian Roalfe Cox, commissioned by the Folklore
Society of Britain, produced Cinderella: Three Hundred and Forty-Five
Variants of Cinderella,
Catskin and, Cap o'Rushes, Abstracted and
Tabulated with a Discussion of Medieval Analogues and Notes.
Further morphology studies have continued on this seminal work.
The Aarne–Thompson-Uther system classifies
Cinderella as type 510A,
"Persecuted Heroine". Others of this type include The Sharp Grey
Sheep; The Golden Slipper; The Story of Tam and Cam; Rushen Coatie;
The Wonderful Birch; Fair, Brown and Trembling; and Katie
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Massenet's opera Cendrillon
Pantomime at the Adelphi
Films and television
Over the decades, hundreds of films have been made that are either
direct adaptations from
Cinderella or have plots loosely based on the
Three Wishes for
Cinderella (Tři oříšky pro Popelku) (1973), a
Czechoslovakian/East German fairy tale film starring Libuše
Cinderella and Pavel Trávníček as Prince. A
cult film in several European countries.
Aschenputtel (1989), a television adaptation based on the Grimm
If The Shoe Fits (1990), a modern
Cinderella in Paris.
Aschenputtel (or Aschenbrödel)
ຊັງດຣີຢົງ or ຊັງດີຢົງ
Askepott (originally the name of Askeladden)
Oskepott (originally the name of Oskeladden)
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^ a b Zipes, Jack (2001). The Great Fairy Tale Tradition: From
Straparola and Basile to the Brothers Grimm. W. W. Norton & Co.
p. 444. ISBN 978-0-393-97636-6.
^ a b Dundes, Alan. Cinderella, a Casebook. Madison, Wis: University
of Wisconsin Press, 1988.
^ a b Roger Lancelyn Green: Tales of Ancient Egypt, Penguin UK, 2011,
ISBN 978-0-14-133822-4, chapter The Land of Egypt
^ a b Bottigheimer, Ruth. (2008). "Before Contes du temps passe
(1697): Charles Perrault's Griselidis, Souhaits and Peau". The
Romantic Review, Volume 99, Number 3. pp. 175–89
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Anderson, Graham (2000).
Fairytale in the Ancient World. New York City, New York and London,
England: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-23702-4.
^ Hansen, William (2017). The Book of Greek & Roman Folktales,
Legends & Myths. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University
Press. pp. 86–87. ISBN 9780691170152.
^ Strabo: "The Geography", book 17, 33
^ Aelian: "Various History", book 13, chapter 33
^ Herodot, "The Histories", book 2, chapters 134-135
^ "Multiple Births in Legend and Folklore". www.pitt.edu. Retrieved
^ See Yan Ma, Shirley (2009). "Yexian: The Chinese Cinderella".
Footbinding: A Jungian Engagement with Chinese Culture and Psychology.
New York City, New York and London, England: Routledge.
pp. 75–94. ISBN 978-0-415-48506-7.
^ a b c d e f g h i Beauchamp, Fay. "Asian Origins of Cinderella: The
Zhuang Storyteller of Guangxi" (PDF). Oral Tradition. 25 (2):
^ Ulrich Marzolph, Richard van Leeuwen, Hassan Wassouf (2004). The
Arabian Nights Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 4.
Cinderella Tale from Vietnam: the Story of Tam and Cam".
www.furorteutonicus.eu. Retrieved 2017-09-10.
^ Basile, Giambattista (1911). Stories from Pentamerone, London:
Macmillan & Co., translated by John Edward Taylor. Chapter 6. See
also "Il Pentamerone: Cenerentola"
^ A modern edition of the original French text by Perrault is found in
Charles Perrault, Contes, ed. Marc Soriano (Paris: Flammarion, 1989),
^ The annotated classic fairy tales. Tatar, Maria, 1945- (1st ed ed.).
New York: Norton. 2002. ISBN 0393051633.
OCLC 49894271. CS1 maint: Extra text (link)
^ a b "Perrault: Cinderella; or, The Little Glass Slipper". Pitt.edu.
2003-10-08. Retrieved 2014-06-17.
^ Aschenputtel, included in Household Stories by the Brothers Grimm,
translated by Lucy Crane, at Project Gutenberg
^ Heidi Anne Heiner, "Tales Similar to Donkeyskin"
^ Marina Warner, From the Beast to the Blonde: On Fairy Tales And
Their Tellers, p 213-4 ISBN 0-374-15901-7
^ Jane Yolen, p 23, Touch Magic ISBN 0-87483-591-7
^ Maria Tatar, The Annotated Brothers Grimm, p 116 W. W. Norton &
company, London, New York, 2004 ISBN 0-393-05848-4
^ Maria Tatar, p 28, The Annotated Classic Fairy Tales,
^ Maria Tatar, The Annotated Brothers Grimm, p 126-8 W. W. Norton
& company, London, New York, 2004 ISBN 0-393-05848-4
^ Mardrus, Joseph-Charles; Powys Mathers (June 1987). The book of the
Thousand Nights and One Night. 4. London and New York: Routledge.
pp. 191–194. ISBN 0-415-04543-6.
^ a b c "If The Shoe Fits: Folklorists' criteria for #510"
^ Heidi Anne Heiner, "Tales Similar to Cinderella"
^ "Three wishes for
Cinderella (1973)". Imdb.com.
^ "Aschenputtel". Imdb.com.
^ "If the Shoe Fits". Imdb.com.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cinderella.
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article
Project Gutenberg compilation, including original Cendrillon
Photos and illustrations from early
Cinderella stage versions,
including one with
Ellaline Terriss and one with Phyllis Dare
Parallel German-English text of brothers Grimm's version in
Histoires ou contes du temps passé
Histoires ou contes du temps passé (1697)
The Ridiculous Wishes
The Ridiculous Wishes (1695)
Little Red Riding Hood
Little Red Riding Hood (1697)
Sleeping Beauty (1697)
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Puss in Boots (1697)
Diamonds and Toads
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Riquet with the Tuft
Riquet with the Tuft (1697)
The Brothers Grimm
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Mouse in Partnership"
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Cinderella or the Glass Slipper (1912)
A Lowland Cinderella (1921)
A Kiss for Cinderella
A Kiss for Cinderella (1925 film)
Ella Cinders (1926)
The Cookie Carnival (1935)
The Magic Shoes (1935)
First Love (1939)
The Glass Slipper
The Glass Slipper (1955)
Stop! Look! and Laugh
Stop! Look! and Laugh (1960)
More Than a Miracle
More Than a Miracle (1967)
Tři oříšky pro Popelku
Tři oříšky pro Popelku (1973)
The Slipper and the Rose
The Slipper and the Rose (1976)
Cinderella '80 (1984)
Maid to Order
Maid to Order (1987)
If the Shoe Fits (1990)
Ever After (1998)
Ella Enchanted (2004)
Elle: A Modern
Cinderella Tale (2010)
A Cinderella Story
A Cinderella Story series
A Cinderella Story
A Cinderella Story (2004)
Another Cinderella Story
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Once Upon a Song (2011)
If the Shoe Fits (2016)
Cinderella Blues (1931)
Poor Cinderella (1934)
Cinderella Meets Fella
Cinderella Meets Fella (1938)
Swing Shift Cinderella
Swing Shift Cinderella (1945)
Señorella and the Glass Huarache
Señorella and the Glass Huarache (1964)
The Tender Tale of Cinderella Penguin (1981)
The Magic Riddle (1991)
Ever After (2007)
Year of the Fish
Year of the Fish (2008)
Cinderella the Cat (2017)
Princess Cinderella (1941)
Cinderella II: Dreams Come True (2002)
Cinderella III: A Twist in Time (2007)
Hey, Cinderella! (1968)
Cinderella Monogatari (1996)
La Cenicienta (2003)
Bawang Merah Bawang Putih (2004)
Floribella (2005 Brazil)
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Aik Nayee Cinderella
Aik Nayee Cinderella (2012)
Cinderella, or the Little Glass Slipper
Cinderella, or the Little Glass Slipper (1954)
Nine Coaches Waiting
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Witches Abroad (1991)
Ella Enchanted (1997)
I Was a Rat! or The Scarlet Slippers
I Was a Rat! or The Scarlet Slippers (1999)
Just Ella (1999)
Confessions of an Ugly Stepsister
Confessions of an Ugly Stepsister (1999)
Chinese Cinderella (1999)
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Phoenix and Ashes
Phoenix and Ashes (2004)
Princess of Glass (2010)
Cendrillon (1810 Isouard)
La Cenerentola (1817 Rossini)
Cendrillon (1899 Massenet)
Cendrillon (1904 Viardot)
La Cenicienta (1966 Hen)
Cinderella (1893 Fitinhof-Schell)
Aschenbrödel (1900 Strauss-Bayer)
Cinderella (1945 Prokofiev)
Cinderella (1948 Ashton)
Cinderella and the Prince, or The Castle of Heart's Desire (1904)
Stubborn Cinderella (1909)
Mr. Cinders (1929)
The Penny Friend (1966)
The Slipper and the Rose
The Slipper and the Rose (1984)
Soho Cinders (2008)
A Kiss for Cinderella
A Kiss for Cinderella (1916)
Cinderella: From Fabletown with Love
"Spread a Little Happiness" (1929)
"A Dream Is a Wish Your Heart Makes" (1950)
"Hey Cinderella" (1993)
Midnight Cinderella" (1996)
"Stealing Cinderella" (2007)
"CC (CinderellaComplex)" (2008)
A Cinderella Story
A Cinderella Story (2004 soundtrack)
Disney's Princess Favorites
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A Ride for Cinderella
Cinder Ellen up too Late
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Ye Xian (Chinese)
Into the Woods
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Politically Correct Bedtime Stories
Stop! Look! and Laugh
Cinderella Two Goes East
Lying to Be Perfect