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CIECHANóW ( listen ) (] "Zichenau" or "Zechenau") is a city in north-central Poland
Poland
with 45,900 inhabitants (2006). It is situated in Masovian Voivodeship
Masovian Voivodeship
(since 1999). It was previously (1975–98) the capital of Ciechanów Voivodeship .

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 World War II
World War II

* 2 Monuments * 3 Education * 4 Notable people

* 5 International relations

* 5.1 Twin towns – Sister cities

* 6 References * 7 External links

HISTORY

The settlement is first mentioned in a 1065 document by Bolesław II the Bold handing the land over to the church. The medieval gord in Ciechanów
Ciechanów
numbered approximately 3,000 armed men, and together with the province of Mazovia , it probably became part of the Polish state in the late 10th century. Castle of the Mazovian Dukes

In 1254, Ciechanów
Ciechanów
is mentioned as the seat of a castellany (Rethiborius Castellanus de Techanow (Racibor, Kasztelan Ciechanowa)). In 1400 Janusz I of Czersk granted Ciechanów
Ciechanów
town privileges . The area eventually become a separate duchy with Casimir I of Warsaw using the title "dominus et heres lub dominus et princeps Ciechanoviensis."

In the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, the defensive gord of Ciechanów
Ciechanów
protected northern Mazovia from raids of Lithuanians, Yotvingians , Old Prussians and later, the Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights
. It is not known when it was granted a town charter. This must have happened before 1475, as a document from that year, issued by Duke Janusz II of Warsaw, states that Ciechanów
Ciechanów
has a Chełmno
Chełmno
town charter.

In the period between the 14th and 16th centuries, Ciechanów prospered with the population reaching 5,000. In the late 14th century, Siemowit III, Duke of Masovia , began construction of a castle, while his son Janusz I of Warsaw invited the Augustinians
Augustinians
, who in the mid-15th century began construction of a church and an abbey. In 1526, together with all Mazovia, Ciechanów
Ciechanów
was annexed by the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
. In the Masovian Voivodeship
Masovian Voivodeship
, Ciechanów
Ciechanów
was the seat of a separate administrative unit, the Land of Ciechanów
Ciechanów
.

The town was handed over to Bona Sforza , as her dowry. Ciechanów prospered until the Swedish invasion of Poland
Poland
(1655-1660), when the town was burned and ransacked.

After the second partition of Poland
Poland
(1793), Ciechanów
Ciechanów
briefly became seat of a newly created voivodeship . In 1795, it was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia
Kingdom of Prussia
, and reduced to the status of a provincial town in Przasnysz county. In 1806, during the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
, Ciechanów
Ciechanów
was ransacked and destroyed. Since 1815, the town belonged to Russian-controlled Congress Poland
Poland
. Its residents actively supported Polish rebellions. In the late 19th century, Ciechanów emerged as a local trade and industry center. In 1864, a brewery was opened, in 1867 it became seat of a county, in 1877 a rail station of the Vistula River Railroad was completed, and in 1882 a sugar refinery was opened. The period of prosperity was short, as during World War I , Ciechanów
Ciechanów
was almost completely destroyed.

In the Second Polish Republic
Second Polish Republic
, Ciechanów
Ciechanów
remained seat of a county in Warsaw Voivodeship . In 1938, its population was 15,000, and the town was a military garrison, home to the 11th Uhlan Regiment of Marshall Edward Smigly-Rydz .

WORLD WAR II

Pułtuska's Hall in Ciechanów
Ciechanów

Ciechanów
Ciechanów
was captured by the Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
on the night of September 3/4, 1939. The town was annexed by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
and was known as Zichenau in German . It was the capital of Regierungsbezirk Zichenau , a new subdivision of the Province of East Prussia . On January 17, 1945, Ciechanów
Ciechanów
was captured by the Red Army
Red Army
, and was restored to Poland
Poland
after the war.

Before World War II
World War II
, it was home to a large Jewish community but during the Nazi occupation, in the winter of 1942, the majority of the Jewish community were transported to the Red Forest (Czerwony Bór, Podlaskie Voivodeship ) north-east of town and murdered by gunfire. During the war many Polish Jews and resistance fighters were executed by the Germans in the castle.

MONUMENTS

* Castle of the Mazovian Dukes from the 14th century, alongside the Łydynia river * Farska Hill – fortified settlement from the 7th century with a Neo-Gothic belfry from the 19th century * St. Joseph's parish church in Ciechanów
Ciechanów
Late Gothic building from the 16th century * Monastery Augustinian Church from the 16th and 18th centuries * City
City
Hall from the 19th century * Parish cemetery which has functioned since 1828 * Hyperboloid water tower, built in 1972

EDUCATION

* Państwowa Wyższa Szkoła Zawodowa * Wyższa Szkoła Biznesu i Zarządzania

NOTABLE PEOPLE

* Dorota Rabczewska (Doda) * Mieczysław Jagielski * Maria Konopnicka * Ludwik Krasiński * Zygmunt Krasiński
Zygmunt Krasiński
* Ignacy Mościcki * Roza Robota
Roza Robota
* Zbigniew Siemiątkowski * Aleksander Świętochowski * Stefan Żeromski
Stefan Żeromski
* Kasia Struss

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Poland
Poland

TWIN TOWNS – SISTER CITIES

Ciechanów
Ciechanów
is twinned with:

* Meudon , France