Ciechanów [t͡ɕeˈxanuf] ( listen) (German: Zichenau) is a
city in north-central
Poland with 45,900 inhabitants (2006). It is
Masovian Voivodeship (since 1999). It was previously
(1975–98) the capital of
1.1 World War II
4 Notable people
5 International relations
5.1 Twin towns – Sister cities
7 External links
The settlement is first mentioned in a 1065 document by Bolesław II
the Bold handing the land over to the church. The medieval gord in
Ciechanów numbered approximately 3,000 armed men, and together
with the province of Mazovia, it probably became part of the Polish
state in the late 10th century.
Castle of the Mazovian Dukes
Ciechanów is mentioned as the seat of a castellany
(Rethiborius Castellanus de Techanow (Racibor, Kasztelan Ciechanowa)).
In 1400 Janusz I of Czersk granted
Ciechanów town privileges. The
area eventually become a separate duchy with Casimir I of Warsaw using
the title "dominus et heres lub dominus et princeps Ciechanoviensis."
In the Middle Ages, the defensive gord of
Mazovia from raids of Lithuanians, Yotvingians, Old Prussians
and later, the Teutonic Knights. It is not known when it was granted a
town charter. This must have happened before 1475, as a document from
that year, issued by Duke Janusz II of Warsaw, states that Ciechanów
Chełmno town charter.
In the period between the 14th and 16th centuries, Ciechanów
prospered with the population reaching 5,000. In the late 14th
century, Siemowit III, Duke of Masovia, began construction of a
castle, while his son
Janusz I of Warsaw
Janusz I of Warsaw invited the Augustinians, who
in the mid-15th century began construction of a church and an abbey.
In 1526, together with all Mazovia,
Ciechanów was annexed by the
Kingdom of Poland. In the Masovian Voivodeship,
Ciechanów was the
seat of a separate administrative unit, the Land of Ciechanów.
The town was handed over to Bona Sforza, as her dowry. Ciechanów
prospered until the Swedish invasion of
Poland (1655-1660), when the
town was burned and ransacked.
After the second partition of
Ciechanów briefly became
seat of a newly created voivodeship. In 1795, it was annexed by the
Kingdom of Prussia, and reduced to the status of a provincial town in
Przasnysz county. In 1806, during the Napoleonic Wars,
ransacked and destroyed. Since 1815, the town belonged to
Russian-controlled Congress Poland. Its residents actively supported
Polish rebellions. In the late 19th century,
Ciechanów emerged as a
local trade and industry center. In 1864, a brewery was opened, in
1867 it became seat of a county, in 1877 a rail station of the Vistula
River Railroad was completed, and in 1882 a sugar refinery was opened.
The period of prosperity was short, as during World War I, Ciechanów
was almost completely destroyed.
In the Second Polish Republic,
Ciechanów remained seat of a county in
Warsaw Voivodeship. In 1938, its population was 15,000, and the town
was a military garrison, home to the 11th Uhlan Regiment of Marshall
World War II
Pułtuska's Hall in Ciechanów
Ciechanów was captured by the
Wehrmacht on the night of September
3/4, 1939. The town was annexed by
Nazi Germany and was known as
Zichenau in German. It was the capital of Regierungsbezirk Zichenau, a
new subdivision of the Province of East Prussia. On January 17, 1945,
Ciechanów was captured by the Red Army, and was restored to Poland
after the war.
Before World War II, it was home to a large Jewish community but
during the Nazi occupation, in the winter of 1942, the majority of the
Jewish community were transported to the Red Forest (Czerwony Bór,
Podlaskie Voivodeship) north-east of town and murdered by gunfire.
During the war many Polish Jews and resistance fighters were executed
by the Germans in the castle.
Castle of the Mazovian Dukes from the 14th century, alongside the
Farska Hill – fortified settlement from the 7th century with a
Neo-Gothic belfry from the 19th century
St. Joseph's parish church in
Ciechanów – Late Gothic building from
the 16th century
Monastery Augustinian Church from the 16th and 18th centuries
City Hall from the 19th century
Parish cemetery which has functioned since 1828
Hyperboloid water tower, built in 1972
Państwowa Wyższa Szkoła Zawodowa
Wyższa Szkoła Biznesu i Zarządzania
Dorota Rabczewska (Doda)
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Poland
Twin towns – Sister cities
Ciechanów is twinned with:
^ Bogusław Gierlach, Zapiski Ciechanowskie, vol. II p. 9-12, MOBN
Ciechanów 1977; and Studia nad archeologią średniowiecznego
Mazowsza, Warsaw 1975, p. 24)
^ W. Górczyk, Ciechanów- Lokacja i Geneza herbu, In Tempore,
Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika,s.3. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived
from the original (PDF) on January 23, 2012. Retrieved May 12,
^ D.P. (February 13, 2007). "Międzynarodowy Dzień Ofiar Holokaustu:
Zagłada ciechanowskich Żydów". Historia. Tygodnik Ciechanowski.
Retrieved June 15, 2013.
^ a b c d e "
Ciechanów Twin towns". Urząd Miasta Ciechanów.
Archived from the original on July 29, 2013. Retrieved July 29,
^ "Ville de
Meudon – Villes jumelles". Ville de Meudon. Archived
from the original on May 7, 2013. Retrieved September 11, 2016.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ciechanów.
Ciechanów – zarys dziejów do XV w., Kultura i
Historia, Uniwersytet Marii Curie Skłodowskiej w lublinie,19/2011,
Architecture of Ciechanow (only in Polish)
Czas Ciechanowa (Local weekly magazine, local press)
Jewish Community in
Ciechanów on Virtual Shtetl
Ciechanów city forum
Ciechanow website www.ciechanowonline.pl - all you need to know about
Ciechanow, including a contemporary gallery of the city
Site dedicated to preserving the memory of Ciechanów's Jewish
community, including an English translation of the memorial book
Website of Ciechanow
City www.eciechanow.pl –
City news, history of
Ciechanow, information where you can eat, sleep and dance
Castle of the Dukes of
Museum of the Mazovian Nobility (en)
Coordinates: 52°53′N 20°37′E / 52.883°N 20.617°E /
Ciechanów (urban gmina)
Gmina Opinogóra Górna
Seat (not part of the gmina)