The Church of the Holy Sepulchre[b] (Arabic: كَنِيسَةُ
ٱلْقِيَامَة Kanīsatu al-Qiyāmah; Greek: Ναός
της Αναστάσεως Naos tes Anastaseos; Armenian: Սուրբ
Հարության տաճար Surb Harut'yan tač̣ar; Latin: Ecclesia
Sancti Sepulchri;[c] also called the Church of the Resurrection or
Church of the Anastasis by Orthodox Christians) is a church in the
Christian Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem. The church contains,
according to traditions dating back to at least the fourth century,
the two holiest sites in Christianity: the site where Jesus of
Nazareth was crucified, at a place known as "Calvary" or
"Golgotha", and Jesus's empty tomb, where he is said to have been
buried and resurrected. The tomb is enclosed by the 19th-century
shrine, called the
Aedicule (Edicule). The Status Quo, a 150-year-old
understanding between religious communities, applies to the
Within the church proper are the last four (or, by some definitions,
five) Stations of the Via Dolorosa, representing the final episodes of
Jesus' Passion. The church has been a major Christian pilgrimage
destination since its creation in the fourth century, as the
traditional site of the Resurrection of Christ, thus its original
Greek name, Church of the Anastasis.
Today, the wider complex accumulated during the centuries around the
Church of the
Holy Sepulchre also serves as the headquarters of the
Patriarch of Jerusalem, while control of the church
itself is shared between several
Christian denominations and secular
entities in complicated arrangements essentially unchanged for over
160 years, and some for much longer. The main denominations sharing
property over parts of the church are the Greek Orthodox, Armenian
Apostolic and Roman Catholic, and to a lesser degree the Coptic
Orthodox, Syriac Orthodox and Ethiopian Tewahedo. Meanwhile,
Protestants, including Anglicans, have no permanent presence in the
Church. Some Protestants prefer The Garden Tomb, elsewhere in
Jerusalem, as a more evocative site to commemorate Jesus' crucifixion
1.1 Construction (4th century)
1.2 Damage and destruction (614–1009)
1.3 Reconstruction (11th century)
1.4 Crusader period (1099–1244)
1.5 Ottoman and later periods
2.2 Bell tower
Façade and entrance
2.5 Stone of Anointing
2.6 Rotunda and Aedicule
2.9 Chapel of Saint Helena
Franciscan area north of the Aedicule
2.11 Syriac Chapel with Tomb of Joseph of Arimathea
2.12 Armenian monastery south of the Aedicule
3 Status quo
3.1 2018 Tax/Land affair
4 Connection to temple of Venus
7 See also
10 Further reading
11 External links
Main article: History of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre
Construction (4th century)
The second room of the aedicula, purportedly containing the tomb of
A diagram of the Church of the
Holy Sepulchre showing the traditional
Calvary and the Tomb of Jesus
According to Eusebius of Caesarea, the
Hadrian in the
2nd century AD built a temple dedicated to the goddess Venus in order
to bury the cave in which Jesus had been buried. The first
Christian emperor, Constantine the Great, ordered in about 325/326
that the temple be replaced by a church. During the building of the
Church, Constantine's mother, Helena, is believed to have rediscovered
the tomb (although there are some discrepancies among authors).
Socrates Scholasticus (born c. 380), in his Ecclesiastical History,
gives a full description of the discovery.
Traditional site of Golgotha
Constantine's church was built as two connected churches over the two
different holy sites, including a great basilica (the Martyrium
visited by Egeria in the 380s), an enclosed colonnaded atrium (the
Triportico) with the traditional site of
Golgotha in one corner, and a
rotunda, called the Anastasis ("Resurrection" in Greek), which
contained the remains of a rock-cut room that Helena and Macarius
identified as the burial site of Jesus.
According to tradition, Constantine arranged for the rockface to be
removed from around the tomb, without harming it, in order to isolate
the tomb; in the centre of the rotunda is a small building called the
Kouvouklion in Greek or the
Aedicula in Latin,[d] which encloses
this tomb. The remains are completely enveloped by a marble sheath
placed some 500 years before[when?] to protect the ledge from Ottoman
attacks. However, there are several thick window wells extending
through the marble sheath, from the interior to the exterior that are
not marble clad. They appear to reveal an underlying limestone rock,
which may be part of the original living rock of the tomb.
The church was built starting in 325/326, and was consecrated on 13
September 335. From pilgrim reports it seems that the chapel housing
the tomb of Jesus was freestanding at first, and that the Rotunda was
only erected around the chapel in the 380s.
Each year, the
Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church celebrates the anniversary of
the consecration of the Church of the Resurrection (Holy Sepulchre) on
Damage and destruction (614–1009)
This building was damaged by fire in May of 614 when the Sassanid
Empire, under Khosrau II, invaded
Jerusalem and captured the True
Cross. In 630, the Emperor
Heraclius restored it and rebuilt the
church after recapturing the city. After
Jerusalem came under Arab
rule, it remained a Christian church, with the early Muslim rulers
protecting the city's Christian sites. A story reports that the Caliph
Umar ibn al-Khattab visited the church and stopped to pray on the
balcony; but at the time of prayer, he turned away from the church and
prayed outside. He feared that future generations would misinterpret
this gesture, taking it as a pretext to turn the church into a mosque.
Eutychius added that
Umar wrote a decree prohibiting Muslims from
praying at this location. The building suffered severe damage due to
an earthquake in 746.
Early in the ninth century, another earthquake damaged the dome of the
Anastasis. The damage was repaired in 810 by
Patriarch Thomas. In the
year 841, the church suffered a fire. In 935, the Orthodox Christians
prevented the construction of a Muslim mosque adjacent to the Church.
In 938, a new fire damaged the inside of the basilica and came close
to the rotunda. In 966, due to a defeat of Muslim armies in the region
of Syria, a riot broke out, which was followed by reprisals. The
basilica was burned again. The doors and roof were burnt, and the
Patriarch John VII was murdered.
On 18 October 1009, Fatimid caliph
Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah
Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah ordered the
complete destruction of the church as part of a more general campaign
against Christian places of worship in Palestine and Egypt. The
damage was extensive, with few parts of the early church
remaining. Christian Europe reacted with shock and expulsions of
Jews (for example, Cluniac monk
Rodulfus Glaber blamed the Jews, with
the result that
Jews were expelled from
Limoges and other French
towns) and an impetus to later Crusades.
Reconstruction (11th century)
Holy Sepulchre courtyard
In wide-ranging negotiations between the Fatimids and the Byzantine
Empire in 1027–28, an agreement was reached whereby the new Caliph
Ali az-Zahir (Al-Hakim's son) agreed to allow the rebuilding and
redecoration of the Church. The rebuilding was finally completed
with the financing at a huge expense by Emperor Constantine IX
Patriarch Nicephorus of
Constantinople in 1048. As
a concession, the mosque in
Constantinople was re-opened and the
khutba sermons were to be pronounced in az-Zahir's name. Muslim
sources say a by-product of the agreement was the recanting of Islam
by many Christians who had been forced to convert under Al-Hakim's
persecutions. In addition, the Byzantines, while releasing 5,000
Muslim prisoners, made demands for the restoration of other churches
destroyed by Al-Hakim and the re-establishment of a
Jerusalem. Contemporary sources credit the emperor with spending vast
sums in an effort to restore the Church of the
Holy Sepulchre after
this agreement was made. Despite the Byzantines spending vast sums
on the project, "a total replacement was far beyond available
resources. The new construction was concentrated on the rotunda and
its surrounding buildings: the great basilica remained in ruins."
The rebuilt church site consisted of "a court open to the sky, with
five small chapels attached to it." The chapels were to the east
of the court of resurrection, where the wall of the great church had
been. They commemorated scenes from the passion, such as the location
of the prison of Christ and of his flagellation, and presumably were
so placed because of the difficulties of free movement among shrines
in the streets of the city. The dedication of these chapels indicates
the importance of the pilgrims' devotion to the suffering of Christ.
They have been described as 'a sort of
Via Dolorosa in
miniature'... since little or no rebuilding took place on the
site of the great basilica. Western pilgrims to
Jerusalem during the
eleventh century found much of the sacred site in ruins." Control
of Jerusalem, and thereby the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, continued
to change hands several times between the Fatimids and the Seljuk
Turks (loyal to the Abbasid caliph in Baghdad) until the arrival of
Crusaders in 1099.
Crusader period (1099–1244)
Coat of arms
Coat of arms of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre
Many historians maintain that the main concern of Pope Urban II, when
calling for the First Crusade, was the threat to
the Turkish invasion of
Asia Minor in response to the appeal of
Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos. Historians agree that the fate
Jerusalem and thereby the Church of the
Holy Sepulchre was of
concern if not the immediate goal of papal policy in 1095. The idea of
Jerusalem gained more focus as the Crusade was underway. The
rebuilt church site was taken from the Fatimids (who had recently
taken it from the Abassids) by the knights of the
First Crusade on 15
Émile Signol (1804–1892) of the capture of
Crusaders on 15 July 1099
1. The Holy Sepulchre
Dome of the Rock
First Crusade was envisioned as an armed pilgrimage, and no
crusader could consider his journey complete unless he had prayed as a
pilgrim at the Holy Sepulchre. Crusader Prince Godfrey of Bouillon,
who became the first crusader monarch of Jerusalem, decided not to use
the title "king" during his lifetime, and declared himself "Advocatus
Sancti Sepulchri" ("Protector [or Defender] of the Holy Sepulchre").
By the crusader period, a cistern under the former basilica was
rumoured to have been the location where Helena had found the True
Cross, and began to be venerated as such; although the cistern later
became the "Chapel of the Invention of the Cross," there is no
evidence of the rumour before the 11th century, and modern
archaeological investigation has now dated the cistern to 11th century
repairs by Monomachos.
Crusader graffiti in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre
According to the German clergyman and orient pilgrim Ludolf von
Sudheim, the keys of the Chapel of the
Holy Sepulchre were in hands of
the "ancient Georgians" and the food, alms, candles and oil for lamps
were given them by the pilgrims in the south door of the church.
William of Tyre, chronicler of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem,
reports on the renovation of the Church in the mid-12th century. The
crusaders investigated the eastern ruins on the site, occasionally
excavating through the rubble, and while attempting to reach the
cistern, they discovered part of the original ground level of
Hadrian's temple enclosure; they decided to transform this space into
a chapel dedicated to Helena (the Chapel of Saint Helena), widening
their original excavation tunnel into a proper staircase. The
crusaders began to refurnish the church in a Romanesque style and
added a bell tower. These renovations unified the small chapels on
the site and were completed during the reign of Queen Melisende in
1149, placing all the
Holy places under one roof for the first time.
The church became the seat of the first Latin Patriarchs, and was also
the site of the kingdom's scriptorium. The church was lost to
Saladin, along with the rest of the city, in 1187, although the
treaty established after the
Third Crusade allowed for Christian
pilgrims to visit the site. Emperor Frederick II (r. 1220–50)
regained the city and the church by treaty in the 13th century while
he himself was under a ban of excommunication, with the curious
consequence that the holiest church in Christianity was laid under
interdict. The church seems to have been largely in Greek Orthodox
Patriarch Athanasius II of Jerusalem's hands, c. 1231–47, during the
Latin control of Jerusalem. Both city and church were captured by
the Khwarezmians in 1244.
Ottoman and later periods
Top view of the church and surrounding areas, detailed descriptions in
Church of the
Holy Sepulchre (1885). Its appearance has essentially
not changed since the 12th century.
Franciscan friars renovated it further in 1555, as it had been
neglected despite increased numbers of pilgrims. The Franciscans
rebuilt the Aedicule, extending the structure to create an
ante-chamber. After the renovation of 1555, control of the church
oscillated between the
Franciscans and the Orthodox, depending on
which community could obtain a favorable "firman" from the "Sublime
Porte" at a particular time, often through outright bribery, and
violent clashes were not uncommon. There was no agreement about this
question, although it was discussed at the negotiations to the Treaty
of Karlowitz in 1699. In 1767, weary of the squabbling, the
"Porte" issued a "firman" that divided the church among the claimants.
A fire severely damaged the structure again in 1808, causing the dome
of the Rotunda to collapse and smashing the Aedicule's exterior
decoration. The Rotunda and the Aedicule's exterior were rebuilt in
1809–1810 by architect Nikolaos Ch. Komnenos of
Mytilene in the then
Baroque style. The fire did not reach the interior of
the Aedicule, and the marble decoration of the Tomb dates mainly to
the 1555 restoration, although the interior of the ante-chamber, now
known as the "Chapel of the Angel," was partly rebuilt to a square
ground-plan, in place of the previously semi-circular western end.
Another decree in 1853 from the sultan solidified the existing
territorial division among the communities and set a "status quo" for
arrangements to "remain forever," causing differences of opinion about
upkeep and even minor changes, including disagreement on the
removal of the "Immovable Ladder", an exterior ladder under one of the
windows; this ladder has remained in the same position since then.
The church after its 1808 restoration
The cladding of red marble applied to the
Aedicule by Komnenos has
deteriorated badly and is detaching from the underlying structure;
since 1947 it has been held in place with an exterior scaffolding of
iron girders installed by the British authorities. A careful
renovation is undergoing, funded by a $4 million gift from King
Abdullah II of Jordan
Abdullah II of Jordan and a $1.3-million gift from Mica Ertegun.
The current dome dates from 1870, although it was restored between
1994–1997, as part of extensive modern renovations to the church
which have been ongoing since 1959. During the 1970–1978 restoration
works and excavations inside the building, and under the nearby
Muristan, it was found that the area was originally a quarry, from
which white meleke limestone was struck. To the east of the Chapel
of Saint Helena, the excavators discovered a void containing a
2nd-century drawing of a Roman ship, two low walls which supported the
platform of Hadrian's 2nd-century temple, and a higher 4th-century
wall built to support Constantine's basilica. After the
excavations of the early 1970s, the Armenian authorities converted
this archaeological space into the Chapel of Saint Vartan, and created
an artificial walkway over the quarry on the north of the chapel, so
that the new Chapel could be accessed (by permission) from the Chapel
of Saint Helena.
In 2016, restoration works were performed in the Aedicule. For the
first time since at least 1555, marble cladding which protected the
estimated burial bed of Jesus from vandalism and souvenir takers
was removed. When the cladding was first removed on October
26, an initial inspection by the National Technical University of
Athens team showed only a layer of fill material underneath. By the
night of October 28, the original limestone burial bed was revealed
intact. This suggested that the tomb location has not changed through
time and confirmed the existence of the original limestone cave walls
within the Aedicule. The tomb was resealed shortly thereafter.
The courtyard facing the entrance to the church is known as the
Located around the parvis are a few smaller structures.[citation
South of the parvis, opposite the church:
Broken columns—once forming part of an arcade—stand opposite the
church, at the top of a short descending staircase stretching over the
entire breadth of the parvis. In the 13th century, the tops of the
columns were removed and sent to Mecca by the Khwarezmids.
The Gethsemane Metochion, a small
Greek Orthodox monastery.
On the eastern side of the parvis, south to north:
The Monastery of St Abraham (Greek Orthodox)
The Chapel of St John (Armenian Orthodox)
The Chapel of St Michael (Coptic/Ethiopian Orthodox), giving access to
the roof of the Chapel of St Helen and the Ethiopian monastery.
North of the parvis, in front of the church façade or against it:
Chapel of the Franks—a blue-domed
Roman Catholic Crusader chapel
dedicated to Our Lady of Sorrows, which once provided exclusive access
to Calvary. The chapel marks the 10th Station of the Cross (the
stripping of Jesus' garments).
Greek Orthodox oratory and chapel, just beneath the Chapel of the
Franks, dedicated to St. Mary of Egypt.
The tomb of
Philip d'Aubigny (Phillipe Daubeney, d. 1236)—a knight,
tutor, and royal councilor to
King Henry III of England
King Henry III of England and signer of
the Magna Carta—is placed in front of, and between, the two original
entrance doors of the church, of which the eastern one is walled-up.
It is one of the few tombs of crusaders and other Europeans not
removed from the Church after the Muslim recapture of
Jerusalem in the
12th century. A stone marker was placed on his tomb in 1925, sheltered
by a wooden trapdoor which hides it from view.
A group of three chapels is bordering the parvis on its west side.
They originally formed the baptistery complex of the Constantinian
church. The southernmost chapel was the vestibule, the middle chapel
the actual baptistery, and the north chapel the chamber in which the
patriarch chrismated the newly baptized before leading them into the
rotunda north of this complex. Now they are dedicated
as (from south to north)
The Chapel of
St. James the Just
St. James the Just (Greek Orthodox),
The Chapel of
St. John the Baptist
St. John the Baptist (Greek Orthodox),
The Chapel of the
Forty Martyrs of Sebaste
Forty Martyrs of Sebaste (Greek Orthodox; at the
base of the bell tower).
The church's bell tower is located to the left of the façade. It is
currently almost half its original size.
Façade and entrance
See also: Immovable Ladder
The entrance to the church, a single door in the south
transept—through the crusader façade—is found past a group of
streets winding through the outer Via Dolorosa, by way of a local souq
in the Muristan. This narrow way of access to such a large structure
has proven to be hazardous at times. For example, when a fire broke
out in 1840, dozens of pilgrims were trampled to death.
The "Immovable Ladder", in its latest incarnation, stands beneath a
window on the façade.
Historically, two large, arched doors allowed access to the church.
However, only the left-hand entrance is currently accessible, as the
right door has long since been bricked up. These entrances are located
in the parvis of a larger courtyard, or plaza.
The Stone of Anointing, where Jesus' body is said to have been
anointed before burial
A mosaic depiction of Christ's body being prepared after his death,
opposite the Stone of Anointing
Main article: Calvary
The Altar of the Crucifixion
The Rock of
Calvary as seen in the Chapel of Adam
Just inside the church is a stairway climbing to
traditionally regarded as the site of Jesus' crucifixion and the most
lavishly decorated part of the church. The exit is via another
stairway opposite the first, leading down to the ambulatory. The
Golgotha and its chapels are just south of the main altar of the
On the ground floor, underneath the
Golgotha chapel proper, are the
Chapel of Adam and the Treasury of the
Greek Orthodox Patriarchate,
holding many relics including an alleged fragment of the Holy Cross.
The raised Chapel of the Calvary, or
Golgotha Chapel, contains the
apex of the Rock of
Calvary (12th Station of the Cross). It is split
into two halves, one
Greek Orthodox and one Catholic, each one with
its own altar. The northern half with the main altar belongs to the
Greek Orthodox. The rock can be seen under glass on both sides of the
altar, and beneath the altar there is a hole in the rock, said to be
the place where the cross was raised. Due to the significance of this,
it is the most visited site in the Church of the
Holy Sepulchre along
with the Tomb of Jesus. The
Roman Catholic (Franciscan) Chapel of the
Nailing of the Cross (11th Station of the Cross) stretches south of
it. Between the Catholic and the Orthodox altar, there is a statue of
Mary, believed by some to be miraculous. It marks the 13th Station of
the Cross, where Jesus' body was removed from the cross and given to
his family and disciples.
Calvary and the two chapels there, on the main floor,
there is the Chapel of Adam. According to tradition, Jesus was
crucified over the place where Adam's skull was buried. According to
some, at the crucifixion, the blood of Christ ran down the cross and
through the rocks to fill the skull of Adam. The Rock of Calvary
appears cracked through a window on the altar wall, with the crack
traditionally claimed to be caused by the earthquake that occurred
when Jesus died on the cross, while some scholars claim it to be the
result of quarrying against a natural flaw in the rock.
Stone of Anointing
Just inside the entrance to the church is the Stone of Anointing (also
Stone of the Anointing or Stone of Unction), which tradition believes
to be the spot where Jesus' body was prepared for burial by Joseph of
Arimathea. However, this tradition is only attested since the crusader
era (notably by the Italian Dominican pilgrim Riccoldo da Monte di
Croce in 1288), and the present stone was only added in the 1810
The wall behind the stone is defined by its striking blue balconies
and tau cross-bearing red banners (depicting the insignia of the
Brotherhood of the Holy Sepulchre), and is decorated with lamps. The
modern three-part mosaic along the wall depicts the anointing of
Jesus' body, preceded on the right by the Descent from the Cross, and
succeeded on the left by the Burial of Jesus.
The wall was a temporary addition to support the arch above it, which
had been weakened after the damage in the 1808 fire; it blocks the
view of the rotunda, separates the entrance from the Catholicon, sits
on top of the now-empty and desecrated graves of four 12th-century
Godfrey of Bouillon
Godfrey of Bouillon and Baldwin I of
Jerusalem—and is no longer structurally necessary. There is a
difference of opinion as to whether it is to be seen as the 13th
Station of the Cross, which others identify as the lowering of Jesus
from the cross and locate between the 11th and 12th stations up on
The lamps that hang over the Stone of Unction, adorned with
cross-bearing chain links, are contributed by Armenians, Copts, Greeks
and Latins.
Immediately to the left of the entrance is a bench that has
traditionally been used by the church's Muslim doorkeepers, along with
some Christian clergy, as well as electrical wiring. To the right of
the entrance is a wall along the ambulatory containing, to the very
right, the staircase leading to Golgotha. Further along the same wall
is the entrance to the Chapel of Adam.
Rotunda and Aedicule
The Rotunda is located in the centre of the Anastasis, beneath the
larger of the church's two domes. In the center of the Rotunda is the
chapel called the Aedicule, which contains the
Holy Sepulchre itself.
Aedicule has two rooms, the first holding the Angel's Stone, which
is believed to be a fragment of the large stone that sealed the tomb;
the second is the tomb itself. Possibly due to the fact that pilgrims
laid their hands on the tomb and/or to prevent eager pilgrims from
removing bits of the original rock as souvenirs, a marble plaque was
placed in the fourteenth century on the tomb to prevent further damage
to the tomb.
Under the status quo, the Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic, and
Armenian Apostolic Churches all have rights to the interior of the
tomb, and all three communities celebrate the
Divine Liturgy or Holy
Mass there daily. It is also used for other ceremonies on special
occasions, such as the
Holy Saturday ceremony of the
Holy Fire led by
Patriarch (with the participation of the Coptic and
Armenian patriarchs). To its rear, in a chapel constructed of iron
latticework upon a stone base semicircular in plan, lies the altar
used by the Coptic Orthodox. Historically, the
Georgians also retained the key to the Aedicule.
From May 2016 to March 2017, the
Aedicule underwent restoration and
repairs after the
Israel Antiquities Authority declared the structure
unsafe. Much of the $3 million project was funded by the World
West of the Aedicule, to the rear of the Rotunda, is a chapel (see
"Syriac Chapel with Tomb of Joseph of Arimathea") located in a
Constantinian apse and containing an opening to a rock-cut ancient
Jewish tomb. This chapel is where the Syriac Orthodox celebrate their
Liturgy on Sundays.
To the right of the Sepulchre on the northwestern edge of the Rotunda
is the Chapel of the Apparition, which is reserved for Roman Catholic
use (see "
Franciscan area north of the Aedicule").
The "Christ Pantocrator" mosaic in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre
Cross over the Catholicon
The omphalos and the north wall of the Catholicon
The Catholicon – On the east side opposite the Rotunda is the
Crusader structure housing the main altar of the Church, today the
Greek Orthodox catholicon. The second, smaller dome sits directly over
the centre of the transept crossing of the choir where the compas, an
omphalos once thought to be the center of the world (associated to the
site of the Crucifixion and the Resurrection), is situated. Since 1996
this dome is topped by the monumental
Golgotha Crucifix which the
Patriarch Diodoros I of
Jerusalem consecrated. It was at the
initiative of Gustav Kühnel to erect a new crucifix at the Church of
Holy Sepulchre in
Jerusalem that would not only be worthy of the
singularity of the site, but that would also become a symbol of the
efforts of unity in the community of Christian faith.
East of this is a large iconostasis demarcating the Orthodox sanctuary
before which is set the throne of the
Jerusalem on the south side facing the throne of the Greek Orthodox
Patriarch of Antioch on the north side.
The "Holy Prison", or Prison of Christ
Prison of Christ – In the north-east side of the complex there is
The Prison of Christ, alleged by the
Franciscans to be where Jesus was
Greek Orthodox allege that the real place that Jesus was
held was the similarly named Prison of Christ, in their Monastery of
the Praetorium, located near the Church of Ecce Homo, between the
Second and Third Stations of the Via Dolorosa. The Armenians regard a
recess in the
Monastery of the Flagellation
Monastery of the Flagellation at the Second Station of
the Via Dolorosa, as the Prison of Christ. A cistern among the ruins
Church of St. Peter in Gallicantu
Church of St. Peter in Gallicantu on Mount Zion is also
alleged to have been the Prison of Christ. To reconcile the
traditions, some allege that Jesus was held in the Mount Zion cell in
connection with his trial by the Jewish High Priest, at the Praetorium
in connection with his trial by the Roman governor Pilate, and near
Golgotha before crucifixion.
Further to the east in the ambulatory are three chapels (from south to
Greek Chapel of
Saint Longinus – The Orthodox Greek chapel is
dedicated to Saint Longinus.
Armenian Chapel of Division of Robes
Greek Chapel of the Derision – the southernmost chapel in the
Chapel of Saint Helena
Chapel of Saint Helena, Jerusalem, called by the Armenians "St.
Gregory the Illuminator"
Chapel of Saint Helena – between the first two chapels are stairs
descending to the Chapel of Saint Helena.
Chapel of Vartan (or Vardan) Mamikonian – on the north side of the
Chapel of Saint Helena is an ornate wrought iron door, beyond which a
raised artificial platform affords views of the quarry, and which
leads to the Chapel of Saint Vartan. The latter chapel contains
archaeological remains from Hadrian's temple and Constantine's
basilica. These areas are open only on request.
Chapel of the
Invention of the Holy Cross
Invention of the Holy Cross – another set of 22 stairs
from the Chapel of Saint Helena leads down to the Roman Catholic
Chapel of the Invention of the Holy Cross, believed to be the place
True Cross was found.
Franciscan area north of the Aedicule
Franciscan Chapel of St.
Mary Magdalene – The chapel indicates
the place where
Mary Magdalene met Jesus after his resurrection.
Franciscan Chapel of the Blessed Sacrament (or Chapel of the
Apparition) – in memory of Jesus' meeting with his mother after the
Syriac Chapel with Tomb of Joseph of Arimathea
The Syriac Orthodox Chapel of Saint
Joseph of Arimathea
Joseph of Arimathea and Saint
Nicodemus. On Sundays and feast days it is furnished for the
celebration of Mass.
It is accessed from the Rotunda, by a door west of the Aedicule. On
the far side of the chapel is the low entrance to an almost complete
1st-century Jewish tomb, initially holding six kokh-type funeral
shafts radiating from a central chamber, of which two are still
exposed. Although this space was discovered recently[when?] and
contains no identifying marks, many Christians believe[vague] that
Joseph of Arimathea
Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus were buried here.
Jews always buried their dead outside the city, the presence of
this tomb proves that the
Holy Sepulchre site was outside the city
walls at the time of the crucifixion.
Armenian monastery south of the Aedicule
South of the
Aedicule is the "Place of the Three Marys", marked by a
stone canopy and a large modern wall mosaic. From here one can enter
the Armenian monastery which stretches over the ground and first upper
floor of the church's southeastern part.
The "Immovable Ladder". Detail from photograph of main entrance above
The Sultan's firman (decree) of 1853, known as the "status quo",
pinned down the now permanent statutes of property and the regulations
concerning the roles of the different denominations and other
The primary custodians are the Greek Orthodox, Armenian Apostolic, and
Roman Catholic Churches, with the
Greek Orthodox Church having the
lion's share. In the 19th century, the Coptic Orthodox, the Ethiopian
Orthodox and the Syriac Orthodox acquired lesser responsibilities,
which include shrines and other structures in and around the building.
Times and places of worship for each community are strictly regulated
in common areas. The
Greek Orthodox act through the
Greek Orthodox Patriarchate as well as through the Brotherhood of the
Holy Sepulchre. The Roman Catholics act through the
of the Holy Land.
The establishment of the 1853 status quo did not halt controversy and
sometimes violence, which continues to break out occasionally. On a
hot summer day in 2002, a Coptic monk moved his chair from its agreed
spot into the shade. This was interpreted as a hostile move by the
Ethiopians, and eleven were hospitalized after the resulting
In another incident in 2004, during Orthodox celebrations of the
Exaltation of the Holy Cross, a door to the
Franciscan chapel was left
open. This was taken as a sign of disrespect by the Orthodox and a
fistfight broke out. Some people were arrested, but no one was
Franciscans during the procession on The Calvary, 2006
On Palm Sunday, in April 2008, a brawl broke out when a Greek monk was
ejected from the building by a rival faction. Police were called to
the scene but were also attacked by the enraged brawlers. On
Sunday, 9 November 2008, a clash erupted between Armenian and Greek
monks during celebrations for the Feast of the Cross.
A less grave sign of this state of affairs is located on a window
ledge over the church's entrance. A wooden ladder was placed there at
some time before 1852, when the status quo defined both the doors and
the window ledges as common ground. This ladder, the "Immovable
Ladder", in its latest incarnation, remains to this day, in almost
exactly the same position it occupied in century-old photographs and
engravings, as it must be replaced whenever it falls apart. An
engraving by David Roberts in 1839 also shows the same ladder in the
No one controls the main entrance. In 1192,
door-keeping responsibilities to the Muslim Nuseibeh family. The
wooden doors that compose the main entrance are the original, highly
carved doors. The Joudeh Al-Goudia family were entrusted as
custodian to the keys of the
Holy Sepulchre by
Saladin in 1187.
Despite occasional disagreements, the religious services take place in
the Church with regularity and coexistence is generally peaceful. An
example of concord between the Church custodians is the recent
(2016–17) full restoration of the Aedicule.
In January 2018,
Palestinian Christians attacked the convoy of the
Patriarch after learning the church was selling
properties after church's controversial property sales to Jewish and
2018 Tax/Land affair
In late February 2018 after a tax dispute over 152 million euros of
uncollected taxes on church properties  the Church had closed
until further notice. The city hall stressed that the Church of the
Holy Sepulchre and all other churches are exempt from the taxes, with
the changes only affecting establishments like "hotels, halls and
businesses" owned by the churches. NPR had reported that the Greek
Orthodox Church calls itself the second-largest landowner in Israel,
after the Israeli government.
There was a lock in protest against an Israeli legislative proposal
which would expropriate church lands that had been sold to private
companies since 2010, a measure which church leaders assert
constitutes a serious violation of their property rights and the
status quo. In a joint official statement the church authorities
protested what they considered to be the peak of a systematic campaign
'a discriminatory and racist bill that targets solely the properties
of the Christian community in the Holy Land,' adding, 'This reminds us
all of laws of a similar nature which were enacted against the Jews
during dark periods in Europe.'
The 2018 Taxation affair does not cover any church buildings or
religious related facilities (because they are exempt by law), but
commercial facilities such as the Notre Dame Hotel which was not
paying the arnona tax, and any land which is owned and used as a
commercial land. The church hold the rights to land where private
homes have been constructed, and some of the disagreement had been
raised after the
Knesset had proposed a bill that will make it harder
for a private company not to extend a lease for land used by
homeowners. According to the JPost
'The stated aim of the bill is to protect homeowners against the
possibility that private companies will not extend their leases of
land on which their houses or apartments stand.'
The church leaders have said that such a bill will make it harder for
them to sell church owned lands.
Connection to temple of Venus
Jerusalem after being rebuilt by Hadrian. Two main east-west roads
were built rather than the typical one, due to the awkward location of
the Temple Mount, blocking the central east-west route.
The site of the Church had been a temple of Venus before Constantine's
edifice was built. Hadrian's temple had actually been located there
because it was the junction of the main north-south road with one of
the two main east-west roads and directly adjacent to the forum (which
is now the location of the (smaller) Muristan); the forum itself had
been placed, as is traditional in Roman towns, at the junction of the
main north-south road with the (other) main east-west road (which is
now El-Bazar/David Street). The temple and forum together took up the
entire space between the two main east-west roads (a few above-ground
remains of the east end of the temple precinct still survive in the
Alexander Nevsky Church complex of the Russian Mission in
From the archaeological excavations in the 1970s, it is clear that
construction took over most of the site of the earlier temple
enclosure and that the Triportico and Rotunda roughly overlapped with
the temple building itself; the excavations indicate that the temple
extended at least as far back as the Aedicule, and the temple
enclosure would have reached back slightly further. Virgilio Canio
Franciscan priest and archaeologist, who was present at the
excavations, estimated from the archaeological evidence that the
western retaining wall of the temple itself would have passed
extremely close to the east side of the supposed tomb; if the wall had
been any further west any tomb would have been crushed under the
weight of the wall (which would be immediately above it) if it had not
already been destroyed when foundations for the wall were made.
Other archaeologists have criticized Corbo's reconstructions. Dan
Bahat, the former city archaeologist of Jerusalem, regards them as
unsatisfactory, as there is no known temple of Aphrodite matching
Corbo's design, and no archaeological evidence for Corbo's suggestion
that the temple building was on a platform raised high enough to avoid
including anything sited where the
Aedicule is now; indeed Bahat notes
that many temples to Aphrodite have a rotunda-like design, and argues
that there is no archaeological reason to assume that the present
rotunda was not based on a rotunda in the temple previously on the
Tourists and pilgrims at one of the two access gates to the Holy
Sepulchre courtyard, photo by Bonfils, 1870s
The Bible describes Jesus's tomb as being outside the city wall,
as was normal for burials across the ancient world, which were
regarded as unclean. Today, the site of the Church is within the
current walls of the old city of Jerusalem. It has been well
documented by archaeologists that in the time of Jesus, the walled
city was smaller and the wall then was to the east of the current site
of the Church. In other words, the city had been much
narrower in Jesus' time, with the site then having been outside the
Herod Agrippa (41–44) is recorded by history as
extending the city to the north (beyond the present northern walls),
the required repositioning of the western wall is traditionally
attributed to him as well.
The area immediately to the south and east of the sepulchre was a
quarry and outside the city during the early 1st century as
excavations under the
Lutheran Church of the Redeemer across the
The church is a part of the
UNESCO World Heritage Site
UNESCO World Heritage Site Old City of
Christian Quarter and the (also Christian)
Armenian Quarter of the
Old City of Jerusalem
Old City of Jerusalem are both located in the northwestern and western
part of the Old City, due to the fact that the
Holy Sepulchre is
located close to the northwestern corner of the walled city. The
adjacent neighbourhood within the
Christian Quarter is called the
Muristan, a term derived from the Persian word for
hospital—Christian pilgrim hospices have been maintained in this
area near the
Holy Sepulchre since at least the time of Charlemagne.
From the 9th century, the construction of churches inspired in the
Anastasis was extended across Europe. One example is Santo Stefano
in Bologna, Italy, an agglomeration of seven churches recreating
shrines of Jerusalem.
Several churches and monasteries in Europe, for instance, in Germany
and Russia, and at least one church in the United States have been
modeled on the Church of the Resurrection, some even reproducing other
holy places for the benefit of pilgrims who could not travel to the
Holy Land. They include the Heiliges Grab of Görlitz, constructed
between 1481 and 1504, the New
Jerusalem Monastery in Moscow Oblast,
Patriarch Nikon between 1656 and 1666, and Mount St.
Franciscan Monastery built by the
Franciscans in Washington,
DC in 1898.
Eastern Christianity portal
Oriental Orthodoxy portal
Art of the Crusades
Burial places of founders of world religions
Canons Regular of the Holy Sepulchre
Constantine I and Christianity
Christianity in Israel
Early Christian art and architecture
Fathers of the Holy Sepulchre
Hashemite custodianship of
Jerusalem holy sites
History of the Orthodox Church
History of Roman and Byzantine domes
List of oldest church buildings
^ The walled Old City area is contested by the State of Palestine, but
the power over the region is de facto exercised by the State of Israel
since conquering it from
Jordan in 1967.
American English also spelled Sepulcher. Also called the Basilica
of the Holy Sepulchre.
^ In other relevant languages:
Arabic: كنيسة القيامة, Kanīsat al-Qiyāmah
Hebrew: כנסיית הקבר, Knesiyat ha-Kever
Greek: Ναός της Αναστάσεως, Naos tes Anastaseos
Armenian: Սուրբ Յարութեան տաճար, Surb Harut'ian
^ English aedicule or edicule, the Latin diminutive of aedes, "house",
meaning "small house" or "shrine"
^ "Complete compendium of Church of the Holy Sepulchre". Madain
Project. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
^ McMahon, Arthur L. (1913). "Holy Sepulchre". In Herbermann,
Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton
Company. access-date= requires url= (help)
^ "Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem". Jerusalem:
Sacred-destinations.com. 21 February 2010. Retrieved 7 July
^ UN Conciliation Commission (1949). United Nations Conciliation
Commission for Palestine Working Paper on the Holy Places.
^ Cust, L. G. A. (1929). The Status Quo in the Holy Places. H.M.S.O.
for the High Commissioner of the Government of Palestine.
^ a b NPNF2-01. Eusebius Pamphilius: Church History, Life of
Constantine, Oration in Praise of Constantine. Christian Classics
Ethereal Library. 13 July 2005. Retrieved 2014-09-19. Though
Eusebius's account makes no mention of Helena's presence at the
excavation, nor of the finding of the cross but only the tomb.
According to Eusebius, the tomb exhibited "a clear and visible proof"
that it was the tomb of Jesus.
^ Pringle, Denys (2007). The Churches of the Crusader Kingdom of
Jerusalem. 3. Cambridge University Press. p. 6.
ISBN 978-0521390361. Retrieved 2014-09-19. (Subscription required
^ The Pilgrim of Bordeaux reports in 333: "There, at present, by the
command of the Emperor Constantine, has been built a basilica, that is
to say, a church of wondrous beauty". Itinerarium Burdigalense, p. 594
^ "NPNF2-02. Socrates and Sozomenus Ecclesiastical Histories".
Christian Classics Ethereal Library. 13 July 2005. Retrieved
^ Kουβούκλιον; Modern Greek for small compartment
^ "Commemoration of the Founding of the Church of the Resurrection
(Holy Sepulchre) at Jerusalem".
Orthodox Church in America. Retrieved
2 March 2012.
^ Kroesen, Justin (2000). The Sepulchrum Domini Through the Ages: Its
Form and Function. Leuven. p. 11. ISBN 9789042909526 – via
WorldCat, Google Books.
Adémar de Chabannes
Adémar de Chabannes recorded that the church of Saint George at
Lydda 'with many other churches of the saints' had been attacked, and
the 'basilica of the Lord's Sepulchre destroyed down to the ground'.
...The Christian writer Yahya ibn Sa'id reported that everything was
razed 'except those parts which were impossible to destroy or would
have been too difficult to carry away'." Morris 2005
^ a b c d Morris 2005
^ Bokenkotter, Thomas (2004). A Concise History of the Catholic
Church. Doubleday. p. 155. ISBN 0-385-50584-1.
^ MacCulloch, Diarmaid (2009-09-24). A History of Christianity: The
First Three Thousand Years. Penguin Books Limited.
^ a b c Lev, Yaacov (July 1991). State and Society in Fatimid Egypt.
Leiden; New York: E.J. Brill. p. 40. ISBN 978-90-04-09344-7.
(Subscription required (help)).
^ Foakes-Jackson, Frederick John (1921). An Introduction to the
History of Christianity, A.D. 590–1314. London: Macmillan.
^ Fergusson, James (1865). A History of Architecture in All Countries.
London: J. Murray.
^ Gold, Dore (29 January 2007). The Fight for Jerusalem: Radical
Islam, the West, and the Future of the Holy City. Washington, D.C.:
Regnery Publishing. ASIN 159698029X.
ISBN 1-59698-029-X. CS1 maint: ASIN uses ISBN (link)
^ Venetian Adventurer: The Life and Times of Marco Polo, p. 88
^ a b c Pilgrimages and Pilgrim shrines in Palestine and Syria after
1095, Henry L. Savage, A History of the Crusades: The Art and
Architecture of the Crusader States, Volume IV, ed. Kenneth M. Setton
and Harry W. Hazard, (University of Wisconsin Press, 1977), 37.
^ Pringle, Denys (1993). The Churches of the Crusader Kingdom of
Jerusalem: Volume 3, The City of Jerusalem: A Corpus. Cambridge
University Press. pp. 31–32. ISBN 978-0-521-39038-5.
^ a b c Murphy-O'Connor, Jerome (February 1998). The Holy Land. Oxford
University Press. pp. 56, 59. ISBN 978-0191528675.
(Subscription required (help)).
^ Mailáth, János Nepomuk Jozsef (1848). Geschichte der europäischen
Staaten, Geschichte des östreichischen Kaiserstaates [History of the
European states, history of Austrian Imperial State]. 4. Hamburg: F.
Perthes. p. 262.
^ Cohen, Raymond (May 2009). "The Church of the Holy Sepulchre: A Work
in Progress". The Bible and Interpretation. Retrieved
^ Kristin Romey (26 October 2016). "Exclusive: Christ's Burial Place
Exposed for First Time in Centuries". National Geographic. Retrieved
30 October 2016.
^ Hesemann, Michael (1999). Die Jesus-Tafel (in German). Freiburg.
p. 170. ISBN 3-451-27092-7.
^ a b Lancaster, James E. (1998). "Finding the Keys to the Chapel of
St. Vartan". Jim Lancaster's Web Space. Retrieved 2 March 2012. the
height difference can be easily seen; the yellowish wall on the left
is the 4th century wall, the pinkish wall on the right is the 2nd
^ a b c Kristin Romey (31 October 2016). "Unsealing of Christ's
Reputed Tomb Turns Up New Revelations". National Geographic. Retrieved
1 November 2016.
^ Stephanie Pappas (31 October 2016). "Original Bedrock of Jesus' Tomb
Revealed in New Images". Live Science. Retrieved 1 November
^ LoLordo, Ann (28 June 1999). "Trouble in a holy place". The
Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 2014-09-19.
^ William R. Cook of State University of New York, lecture series
^ "The Brotherhood of the Holy Sepulcher".
Greek Orthodox Patriarchate
of Jerusalem. Archived from the original on 24 May 2008. Retrieved
^ "Jesus' Burial Tomb Uncovered: Here's What Scientists Saw Inside".
2016-10-31. Retrieved 2016-10-31.
^ "Miracle of
Holy Fire which happens every year". Holyfire.org.
Retrieved 2 March 2012.
^ Janin, Raymond (1913). Échos d'Orient [Echos of the Orient]. 16.
Institut français d'études byzantines. p. 35.
^ DeSandoli, Sabino (1986). The Church of Holy Sepulchre: Keys, Doors,
Doorkeepers. Franciscian Press. p. 47.
^ Jeffery, George (1919). A Brief Description of the Holy Sepulchre
Jerusalem and Other Christian Churches in the Holy City: With Some
Account of the Medieval Copies of the
Holy Sepulchre Surviving in
Europe. Cambridge University Press. p. 69. Retrieved
^ Goldman, Russell. "
Tomb of Jesus Reopens to Public After $3 Million
Restoration". The New York Times. The New York Times. Retrieved 23
^ "The Cross of Golgotha". Michael Hammers. 24 June 2014. Retrieved
^ "Chapel of St. Helena". www.holysepulchre.custodia.org. Retrieved
^ a b "The
Franciscans at the Holy Sepulchre". The
Franciscans of the
Holy Land. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
^ Michael., Dumper,; E., Stanley, Bruce (2007-01-01). Cities of the
Middle East and North Africa : a historical encyclopedia.
ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781576079195. OCLC 80014324.
^ Armstrong, Chris (1 July 2002). "Christian History Corner: Divvying
up the Most Sacred Place". Christianity Today. Retrieved 2 March
^ Fisher-Ilan, Allyn (28 September 2004). "Punch-up at tomb of Jesus".
The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2014-09-19.
^ El Deeb, Sarah (21 April 2008). "Christians brawl at Jesus' tomb".
San Francisco Chronicle. Associated Press. Retrieved 2014-09-19.
^ "Riot police called as monks clash in the Church of the Holy
Sepulchre". The Times. London. 10 November 2008. Retrieved 2014-09-19.
(Subscription required (help)).
^ O'Laughlin, Toni (10 November 2008). "The monks who keep coming to
blows in Jerusalem". The Guardian. Retrieved 2014-09-19.
Holy Sepulchre Ladder". Coastdaylight.com. Retrieved 7 July
^ "Who moved thy ladder?". Danny the Digger. 2010. Retrieved
2014-09-19. An unusual and rare location of the ladder was documented
by an Israeli tour guide in February 2009
^ "Entrance to the holy sepulchre; title page, vol. 1". Library of
Congress. 1842. Retrieved 2014-09-19.
^ William R. Cook of University of New York, lecture series
^ The Guardian
Retrieved 21 March 2017. Missing or empty title= (help)
^ Jonathan Lis and Nir Hasson,
Jerusalem churches warn of Israel's
'systematic' erosion of Christian presence in Holy Land
^ a b https://www.inn.co.il/News/News.aspx/367223
^ a b
^ Corbo, Virgilio (1981). Il Santo Sepolcro di Gerusalemme [The Holy
Sepulchre of Jerusalem] (in Italian).
^ Bahat, Dan (May–June 1986). "Does the
Holy Sepulchre Church Mark
the Burial of Jesus?". Biblical Archaeology Review. Retrieved
2014-09-19. (Subscription required (help)).
^ for example, Hebrews 13:12
^ Toynbee, Jocelyn M. C. Death and Burial in the Roman World, pp.
48–49, JHU Press. 1996. ISBN 0-8018-5507-1. An exception in the
Classical World were the Lycians of Anatolia. There are also the
Egyptian mortuary-temples, where the object of worship was the deified
royal person entombed, but Egyptian temples to the major gods
contained no burials.
^ Trainor, Terry (21 May 2012). Bedlam. St. Mary of Bethlehem.
Trainor, Terry. ISBN 9781471714283.
^ Monastero di Santo Stefano:
Basilica Santuario Santo Stefano:
Biddle, Martin (25 February 1999). The Tomb of Christ. Scarborough:
Sutton Publishing. ISBN 0-7509-1926-4.
Biddle, Martin; Seligman, Jon; Tamar, Winter & Avni, Gideon (7
July 2000). The Church of the Holy Sepulchre. New York: Rizzoli in
Israel Antiquities Authority, distributed by St.
Martin's Press. ISBN 0-8478-2282-6.
Coüasnon, Charles (1974). The Church of the
Holy Sepulchre in
Jerusalem. London: Oxford University Press for the British Academy.
Gibson, Shimon; Taylor, Joan E. (1994). Beneath the Church of the Holy
Sepulchre Jerusalem: The archaeology and early history of traditional
Golgotha. London: Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
bCohen, Raymond (10 March 2008). Saving the Holy Sepulchre: How Rival
Christians Came Together to Rescue Their Holiest Shrine. Oxford
University Press. ISBN 0-19-518966-3. (Subscription required
Bowman, Glenn (16 September 2011). ""In Dubious Battle on the Plains
of Heav'n": The Politics of Possession in Jerusalem's Holy Sepulchre".
University of Kent.
Weitzmann, Kurt, ed. (1979). Age of spirituality: late antique and
early Christian art, third to seventh century. New York: Metropolitan
Museum of Art. ISBN 978-0870991790.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Church of the Holy Sepulchre.
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Sacred Destinations (article, interactive plan, photo gallery)
Holy Sepulchre in
Jerusalem (article and photos)
Virtual Tour (Church of the
Holy Sepulchre Virtual Tour)
Private Virtual Tour (Church of the
Holy Sepulchre Private Virtual
Homily of John Paul II in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre
Franciscan Custody in the Holy Land (
Roman Catholic custodians)
Brotherhood of the Holy Sepulchre
Brotherhood of the Holy Sepulchre (
Greek Orthodox custodians)
St. James Brotherhood (Armenian custodians)
The Joudeh Family (Muslim Custodian of the keys of the Holy Sepulchre)
Nuseibeh family (Muslim
Holy Sepulchre Door Keepers)
Cemeteries in Jerusalem
Mount Zion Cemetery
Franciscan Cemetery, Mount Zion
Mount of Olives Jewish Cemetery
Shaare Zedek Cemetery
Jerusalem British War Cemetery
Cave of Nicanor
Cave of the Ramban
Herod Family Tomb
Tomb of Absalom
Tomb of Benei Hezir
Tomb of Simeon the Just
Tombs of the Sanhedrin
Tomb of the Virgin Mary
Tomb of Zechariah
Tombs of the Kings
Old City of Jerusalem
Old City of Jerusalem and its walls
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site by UNESCO
Western Wall Tunnel
Little Western Wall
Ohel Yitzchak Synagogue
Tiferet Yisrael Synagogue
Ohr ha-Chaim Synagogue
Tzuf Dvash Synagogue
1. Jaffa 2. Zion 3. Dung 4. Golden 5. Lions 6. Herod
7. Damascus 8. New (Double, Single, Tanners')
Church of the Holy Sepulchre
See also: New Church of the Theotokos
Chapel of Simon of Cyrene
Monastery of the Flagellation
Church of the Condemnation
Church of the Flagellation
Church of the Holy Family
Church of Saint James Intercisus
Co-Cathedral of the Most Holy Name of Jesus
Church of Saint Mary of the Germans
Church of Saint Mary of the Latins
Convent of the Sisters of Zion
Church of Ecce Homo
Monastery of Saint Saviour
Church of Saint Anne
Cathedral of the Annunciation
Church of Our Lady of the Spasm
Church of Saint John the Baptist
Cathedral of Saint James
Church of the Holy Archangels
Church of Saint Toros
Monastery of Saint Mark
Church of the Redeemer
Dome of the Ascension
Dome of the Chain
Dome of al-Khalili
Dome of the Prophet
Dome of the Rock
Dome of Yusuf
Al-Khanqah al-Salahiyya Mosque
Mosque of Omar
Remnants or rebuilt buildings in italic (governing authority in small)