Scandinavia as well as other Nordic countries
and the Baltic countries, took place between the 8th and the
12th centuries. The realms of
Sweden is an 11th or 12th century merger
of the former countries
Götaland and Svealand), established their
own Archdioceses, responsible directly to the Pope, in 1104, 1154 and
1164, respectively. The conversion to
Christianity of the Scandinavian
people required more time, since it took additional efforts to
establish a network of churches. The Sami remained unconverted until
the 18th century. Newer archeological research suggests there were
Götaland already during the 9:th Century, it is further
Christianity came from the South-West and moved towards the
Denmark was also the first of the Scandinavian countries which was
Harald Bluetooth declared this around 975 AD, and
rose the larger of the two
Jelling Stones. The oldest
still-existing church built in stone, is found in (former) Denmark,
Dalby Holy Cross Church from around 1040 AD.
Although the Scandinavians became nominally Christian, it took
considerably longer for actual Christian beliefs to establish
themselves among the people in some regions, while the people
were Christianized before the king in other regions. The old
indigenous traditions that had provided security and structure were
challenged by ideas that were unfamiliar, such as original sin, the
Incarnation, and the Trinity. Archaeological excavations of burial
sites on the island of
Lovön near modern-day
Stockholm have shown
that the actual
Christianization of the people was very slow and took
at least 150–200 years, and this was a very central location in
the Swedish kingdom. Thirteenth-century runic inscriptions from the
merchant town of Bergen in
Norway show little Christian influence, and
one of them appeals to a Valkyrie.
During the early Middle Ages the papacy had not yet manifested itself
as the central Roman Catholic authority, so that regional variants of
Christianity could develop. Since the image of a "victorious
Christ" frequently appears in early Germanic art, scholars have
suggested that Christian missionaries presented Christ "as figure of
strength and luck" and that possibly the Book of Revelation, which
presents Christ as victor over Satan, played a central part in the
Christianity among the Vikings.
1 Mission of Hamburg-Bremen
2 Scandinavian countries
3 Other Nordic countries
3.1 Faroe Islands
4 The Baltic countries
5 Motives for conversion
6 Last pagans
7 See also
9 Further reading
9.1 In other languages
Mission of Hamburg-Bremen
Viking Age image stone Sövestad 1 from
Skåne depicts a man
carrying a cross.
Recorded missionary efforts in
Denmark started with Willibrord,
Apostle to the Frisians, who preached in Schleswig, which at the time
was part of Denmark. He went north from
Frisia sometime between
710 and 718 during the reign of King Ongendus.
Willibrord and his
companions had little success: the king was respectful but had no
interest in changing his beliefs. Agantyr did permit 30 young men to
Frisia with Willibrord. Perhaps Willibrord's intent was to
educate them and recruit some of them to join his efforts to bring
Christianity to the Danes. A century later Ebbo,
Reims and Willerich, later Bishop of Bremen, baptized a few persons
during their 823 visit to Denmark. He returned to
Denmark twice to
proselytize but without any recorded success.
In 826, the King of
Harald Klak was forced to flee from
Denmark by Horik I, Denmark's other king. Harald went to Emperor Louis
I of Germany to seek help getting his lands in
Jutland back. Louis I
offered to make Harald Duke of
Frisia if he would give up the old
gods. Harald agreed, and his family and the 400 Danes with him were
baptized in Ingelheim am Rhein. When Harald returned to Jutland,
Emperor Louis and
Ebbo of Rheims
Ebbo of Rheims assigned the monk
Ansgar to accompany
Harald and oversee
Christianity among the converts. When Harald
Klak was forced from
Denmark by King
Horik I again,
Denmark and focused his efforts on the Swedes.
Ansgar traveled to
Birka in 829 and established a small Christian community there. His
most important convert was Herigar, described as a prefect of the town
and a counselor to the king. In 831 the
founded and assigned responsibility for proselytizing Scandinavia.
Horik I sacked
Hamburg in 845 where
Ansgar had become the archbishop.
The seat of the archdiocese was transferred to Bremen. In the same
year there was a pagan uprising in
Birka that resulted in the
martyrdom of Nithard and forced the resident missionary Bishop
Gautbert to flee.
Ansgar returned to
Birka in 854 and
860 to reestablish some of the gains of his first visits. In Denmark
he won over the trust of then-King
Horik II (not Horik I, who was
murdered in 854 and opposed Christianity) who gave him land in Hedeby
(proto-town to be replaced by Schleswig) for the first Christian
chapel. A second church was founded a few years later in
Denmark's west coast.
Ribe was an important trading town, and as a
Denmark was made a diocese in 948 with
Ribe as its
seat, a part of the
Archdiocese of Hamburg-Bremen
Archdiocese of Hamburg-Bremen under its first
bishop, St. Leofdag who was murdered that year while crossing the Ribe
The supremacy of the archdiocese of Hamburg-
Bremen over ecclesiastical
life in the north gradually declined as the papacy, from the
Pope Gregory VII
Pope Gregory VII onwards, involved itself more with the
North directly. A significant step in this direction was the
foundation of an archbishopric for the whole of
Both the accounts of Willibrod and of Harald are semi-mythical, and
integrate mythical and legendary themes from the Nordic pagan
tradition into their Christian stories. A syncretized variant of the
story of Harald, that has him battling Ragnar Lodbrok to establish
Christianity in Denmark, appears in Book Nine of Saxo Grammaticus'
Gesta Danorum. Ebbo is the name of a mythical Nordic figure, Ibor,
also known as Egil or Orvandil, who is an archer, elf, and smith who
turns against the Aesir gods and wages war upon them, and the story of
Ebbo of Rheims
Ebbo of Rheims integrates themes of the divine Ebbo's story, including
peasant (non-Aesir) birth and migration. Harald's usurpation and his
Christianization are related to several stories of
"usurpation" and "changes in sacrifices", including the usurpation of
Mithothyn and the introduction of the worship of Frey at Uppsala, in
that they utilize similar motifs and mythical figures.
The spread of
Denmark occurred intermittently. Danes
encountered Christians when they participated in
Viking raids from the
9th century to the 1060s. Danes were still tribal in the sense that
local chiefs determined attitudes towards
Christianity and Christians
for their clan and kinsmen. Bringing Christian slaves or future wives
back from a
Viking raid brought large numbers of ordinary Danes into
close contact with Christians for perhaps the first time.
As the chiefs and kings of
Denmark became involved in the politics of
Normandy, England, Ireland, France, and Germany, they adopted a kinder
attitude toward their Christian subjects. In some cases the conversion
of the chief or king appears to be purely political to assure an
alliance or prevent powerful Christian neighbours from attacking.
There were instances when the conversion of a powerful chief (Danish:
jarl) or one of the kings was followed by wholesale conversions among
their followers. In a few instances conversion was brought about by
trial by ordeal miracles wrought by saintly Christians in the presence
of the king or other great men of the time.
Christian missionaries recognized early on that the Danes did not
worship stone or wooden idols as the north Germans or some Swedes did.
They could not simply destroy an image to prove that Christ was a
superior god. The great religious sites at Viborg, Lejre, Lund, and
Odense were also the location of Denmark's great assembly places
(Danish: landsting). Religious sites in
Denmark were often located at
sacred springs, magnificent beech groves, or isolated hilltops.
Missionaries simply asked to build chapels in those places. Over time
the religious significance of the place transferred itself to the
Even after becoming Christian, Danes blended the two belief systems
together. Families who lived close to the earth did not want to offend
the local spirits (Danish: landvætter), so offerings were left just
as they had been in pre-Christian times. Sacred springs (Danish:
kilder) were simply consecrated to one of the local saints associated
with the spring and life went on much as it had before. Christian
missionaries were able to help the process along by locating churches
on or near sacred places, in some cases actually using wood from the
sacred groves for church construction. Thor's hammer sign was easily
absorbed by the cross.
Denmark has several saints, canonized by local bishops as was the
custom in early
Scandinavia or revered by locals as saints. Often
these saints derive their veneration from deeds associated with the
Christianization of Denmark. Viborg has St Kjeld,
Aarhus has St Niels
(also called St Nickolas),
Odense has St Canute (Danish: Sanct Knud).
Others include Canute Lavard, Ansgar, St Thøger of Vendsyssel, St
Wilhelm, St Leofdag of Ribe, and others gave their lives and efforts
to the task of making the Danes Christian.
Gorm the Old
Gorm the Old (Danish: den Gamle), who was known in his lifetime
as Gorm the Sleepy, was the first king of all of Denmark. Until his
day, Danish kings were presumably local kings without influence over
all the Danes.
Denmark consisted of
Schleswig and Holstein
all the way down to the Eider River, the main islands of Zealand,
Funen, Langeland, the nearby lesser islands, and Skåneland. Gorm was
said to be "hard and heathen", but Queen Thyra's influence permitted
Christians to live more or less without trouble. Gorm and Queen
Thyra's son, King Harald Bluetooth, boasted on one of the stones at
Jelling that he had "made the Danes Christian".
Harald Bluetooth is
also mentioned in the inscription on the Curmsun Disc, dated AD
960s–980s. On the reverse of the disc there is an octagonal ridge,
which runs around the edge of the object. In the center of the
octagonal ridge there is a Latin cross which may indicate that Harald
Bluetooth was Christian.
The first Danish king to convert to
Christianity was Harald Klak, who
had himself baptised during his exile in order to receive the support
of Louis the Pious. Rimbert reports that he set out to return
home, accompanied by missionaries; however, Sanmark regards it as
"unlikely" that he actually returned home and thus considers his
impact on the conversion of
Denmark as "probably minor."
Christianity only gained a strong hold in
Denmark following the
baptism of Harald Bluetooth. Initially, Harald had remained pagan,
although he had allowed public preaching by Christian missionaries as
early as 935. Around 960, Bluetooth converted to Christianity,
reportedly when the Frisian monk Poppo held a fire-heated lump of iron
in his hand without injury. Harald's daughter, Gunhilde, and his son,
Sweyn Forkbeard were baptized, too. There was also a political reason
for conversion. German histories record Harald being baptized in the
presence of Emperor Otto I, Sweyn Forkbeard's godfather. One
consequence of his conversion is that Danish kings abandoned the old
royal enclosure at
Jelling and moved their residence to
the island of Zealand.
Sweyn rebelled against his father, who spent an inordinate amount of
time and money raising a great stone at
Jelling to commemorate his
accomplishments. One day King Harald asked a traveller if he had ever
seen human beings move such a heavy load. "I have seen Sweyn drag all
Denmark away from you, sir. Judge for yourself which of you bears
the heavier weight." Harald left the stone lying in the path,
realizing at last that Sweyn had nearly succeeded in stealing the
whole kingdom. Several battles brought the rebellion to stalemate, but
in 985 Harald was mortally wounded by an arrow. Later his remains were
buried in the little timber church at Roskilde, then Denmark's
capital. His remains are supposed to be walled up in one of the
Sweyn Forkbeard tried to wrest control of the church in
Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire and as a result was slandered by German
historians of his day. He has been accused of relapsing from his
Christian beliefs and persecuting Christians in England. In fact Sweyn
gave land to the large cathedral at
Lund to pay for the maintenance of
the chapter. His army destroyed Christian churches in
England as part
of his invasion following the
St. Brice's Day massacre of Danes
organized by Aethelred. But when Sweyn became King of
England and of
Denmark, politics required that he show a kinder face toward the
church which had opposed him.
Another Christianizing influence was the mass emigration of Danes to
Normandy in the
Viking years. Thousands of Danes settled
in east central
England and in northern
France displacing or
intermarrying with the locals who were Christian. Once part of a
Danish clan became Christian, it often meant that the rest of the
family's view toward
By the early 11th century, certainly during the reign of Canute IV,
Denmark can be said to be a Christian country. Later known as St.
Canute, Canute IV was murdered inside St. Albans Church in 1086 after
nobles and peasants alike rebelled at his enforcing the tithe to pay
for the new monasteries and other ecclesiastical foundations which
were introduced into
Denmark for the first time during his reign. Both
the institutions and the tax were considered foreign influences, and
Canute's refusal to use the regional assemblies as was customary to
establish new laws, resulted in his death and that of his brother,
Prince Benedict, and seventeen other housecarls. In many ways the
canonization of St. Canute in 1188 marks the triumph of Christianity
in Denmark. When St. Canute's remains were moved into Odense
Cathedral, the entire nation humbled itself with a three-day fast.
Although he was not the first Dane to be made a saint, it was the
first time for a king, the symbol of a more or less united Denmark,
was recognized as an example worthy of veneration by the faithful.
From that time until 1536 when
Denmark became a Lutheran country under
the King (or Queen) of
Denmark as the titular head of the Danish
National Church, (Danish: Folkekirke) the struggle between the power
of the king and nobles and the church would define much of the course
of Danish history.
See also: History of Norway
Haakon Jarl was given missionaries by the king of Denmark, but before
departure, Haakon sent the missionaries back.
The first recorded attempts at spreading
made by King
Haakon the Good
Haakon the Good in the tenth century, who was raised in
England. His efforts were unpopular and were met with little success.
The subsequent King Harald Greyhide, also a Christian, was known for
destroying pagan temples but not for efforts to popularize
He was followed by the staunchly pagan
Haakon Sigurdsson Jarl, who led
a revival of paganism with the rebuilding of temples. When Harold I of
Denmark attempted to force
Christianity upon him around 975, Haakon
broke his allegiance to Denmark. A Danish invasion force was defeated
at the battle of Hjörungavágr in 986.
In 995 Olaf Tryggvason became King Olaf I of Norway. Olaf had raided
various European cities and fought in several wars. In 986, however,
he (supposedly) met a Christian seer on the Isles of Scilly. As the
seer foretold, Olaf was attacked by a group of mutineers upon
returning to his ships. As soon as he had recovered from his wounds,
he let himself be baptized. He then stopped raiding Christian cities
and lived in
England and Ireland. In 995 he used an opportunity to
return to Norway. When he arrived, Haakon Jarl was already facing a
revolt, and Olaf Tryggvason could convince the rebels to accept him as
their king. Haakon Jarl was later betrayed and killed by his own
slave, while he was hiding from the rebels in a pig sty.
Olaf I then made it his priority to convert the country to
Christianity using all means at his disposal. By destroying temples
and torturing and killing pagan resisters he succeeded in making every
Norway at least nominally Christian. Expanding his efforts
to the Norse settlements in the west the kings' sagas credit him with
Christianizing the Faroes, Orkney, Shetland,
Iceland and Greenland.
After Olaf's defeat at the
Battle of Svolder
Battle of Svolder in 1000 there was a
partial relapse to paganism in
Norway under the rule of the Jarls of
Lade. In the following reign of Saint Olaf, pagan remnants were
stamped out and
Nicholas Breakspear, later Pope Adrian IV, visited
Norway from 1152 to
1154. During his visit, he set out a church structure for Norway. The
Papal bull confirming the establishment of a Norwegian archdiocese at
Nidaros is dated November 30, 1154.
See also: History of Sweden
Ansgar made an unsuccessful attempt as early as in the 830s.
The first known attempts to Christianize
Sweden were made by
830, invited by the Swedish king Björn at Haugi. Setting up a church
Birka he met with little Swedish interest. A century later Unni,
archbishop of Hamburg, made another unsuccessful attempt. In the 10th
century English missionaries made inroads in Västergötland.
Adam of Bremen's historical treatise Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae
pontificum mentions a pagan
Temple at Uppsala
Temple at Uppsala in central Sweden.
"The reliability of Adam's description of the cult site at Gamla
Uppsala has been seriously questioned." Although Uppsala's status
as a pre-Christian cultic center is well documented, Adam's account
could not be confirmed by archaeological findings. The "presumed
cult buildings which have been excavated do not resemble Adam's
description of a temple 'totally covered with gold."
The supporters of the cult at Uppsala drew a mutual agreement of
toleration with Olof Skötkonung, the first Christian king of
Sweden, who ascended to the throne in the 990s. Presumably Olof
Skötkonung was not in a powerful enough position to violently enforce
the observance of
Christianity in Uppland. Instead he established
an episcopal see at
Skara in Västergötland, near his own stronghold
Husaby around 1000. Another episcopal see was established at
Sigtuna in the 1060s by King Stenkil, according to Adam of
Bremen. This seat was moved to Gamla Uppsala probably some time
between 1134 and 1140. This might have been because of Uppsala's
importance as an old royal residence and thing site, but it may also
have been inspired by a desire to show that the resistance to
Uppland had been defeated. By papal initiative an
Sweden was established at Uppsala in 1164.
What may be one of the most violent occurrences between Christians and
pagans was a conflict between
Inge the Elder
Inge the Elder in the
1080s. This account survives in the
Orkneyinga saga and in the last
Hervarar saga where the saga successively moves from
legendary history to historic Swedish events during the centuries
before its compilation. The reigning king Inge decided to end the
traditional pagan sacrifices at Uppsala which caused a public
counter-reaction. Inge was forced into exile, and his brother-in-law
Blot-Sweyn was elected king on condition that he allow the sacrifices
to continue. After three years in exile, Inge returned secretly to
Sweden in 1087, and having arrived at Old Uppsala, he surrounded the
Blot-Sweyn with his húskarls and set the hall on fire,
slaying the king as he escaped from the burning house. Hervarar saga
reports that Inge completed the
Christianization of the Swedes, but
Heimskringla suggests that Inge could not assume power directly,
but had to dispose of yet another pagan king, Eric of Good
According to M. G. Larsson, the reason why the Swedish core provinces
had coexistence between paganism and
Christianity throughout the 11th
century was because there was a general support for the transition
towards the new religion. However, the old pagan rites were
important and central for legal processes and when someone questioned
ancient practices, many newly Christianized Swedes could react
strongly in support of paganism for a while. Larsson theorizes
that, consequently, the vacillation between paganism and Christianity
that is reported by the sagas and by Adam of
Bremen was not very
different from vacillations that appear in modern ideological
shifts. It would have been impossible for King
Inge the Elder
Inge the Elder to
rule as a Christian king without strong support from his subjects, and
a Norwegian invasion of
Västergötland by Magnus Barefoot put Inge's
relationship with his subjects to the test: he appears to have
mustered most of the Swedish leidang, 3,600 men, and he ousted the
Norwegian occupation force.
Sweden was officially Christianized by the 12th century, the
Sigurd the Crusader
Sigurd the Crusader undertook a crusade against
Småland, the south-eastern part of the Swedish kingdom, in the early
12th century, and officially it was in order to convert the locals.
Gutalagen (a Gotlandic law book from the 1220s) officially in use
until 1595 but in practice until 1645, stated that performing blóts
was punishable by a fine.
See also: History of Jämtland
On the northernmost runestone of the world standing on the island
Frösön in central Jämtland, the Frösö Runestone, it is said that
a man called Austmaðr Christianized the region, probably in the
period 1030–1050 when the runestone was raised. Little is known of
Austmaðr, but he is believed to have been the lawspeaker of the
regional thing Jamtamót.
Other Nordic countries
The Scandinavian medieval kings also ruled over provinces outside of
Scandinavia. These provinces are today known as the Nordic countries.
See also: History of the Faroe Islands
Sigmundur Brestisson was the first Faroe-man to convert to the
Christian faith, bringing
Christianity to the
Faroes at the decree of
Olaf Tryggvason. Initially Sigmundur sought to convert the islanders
by reading the decree to the Alting in
Tórshavn but was nearly killed
by the resulting angry mob. He then changed his tactics, went with
armed men to the residence of the chieftain
Tróndur í Gøtu and
broke in his house by night. He offered him the choice between
Christianity or face beheading; he chose the former. Later
on, in 1005,
Tróndur í Gøtu attacked Sigmundur by night at his yard
in Skúvoy, whereupon Sigmundur fled by swimming to
Suðuroy. He reached land in Sigmundargjógv in Sandvík, but a farmer
in the village killed the exhausted Sigmundur and stole his precious
golden arm ring.
See also: History of Finland
Judging by archaeological finds,
Christianity gained a foothold in
Finland during the 11th century. The Roman Catholic church was
strengthened with growing Swedish influence in the 12th century and
the Finnish "crusade" of
Birger Jarl in the 13th century. Finland was
Sweden since then until the 19th century.
Christianization of Iceland
Irish monks known as
Papar are said to have been present in Iceland
before its settlement by the Norse in the 9th century.
Following King Olaf I's taking of Icelandic hostages, there was
tension between the Christian and pagan factions in 10th century
Iceland. Violent clashes were avoided by the decision of the Althing
in 1000 AD to put the arbitration between them to Þorgeir
Ljósvetningagoði, the leader of the pagan faction. He opted, after a
day and a night of meditation, that the country should convert to
Christianity as a whole, while pagan worship in private would continue
to be tolerated.
The Baltic countries
Samogitia were ultimately Christianized from 1386 until
1417 by the initiative of the Grand Duke of
Lithuania Jogaila and his
cousin Vytautas. This event ended one of the most complicated and
lengthiest processes of
Christianization in European history.[citation
needed] However, pagan customs prevailed for a long time among the
common people of
Lithuania and were covertly practiced.
Motives for conversion
Some conversions appear to have taken place for political and material
gain, as well as spiritual reasons. For instance, some may have simply
wanted to take the rich gifts (such as a fine, white baptismal
garment) that were being handed out by Frankish nobles, who acted as
the baptismal candidates' sponsors, when they were baptized. In the
case of King Harold Bluetooth of Denmark, for example, he only
partially converted to the new faith (at least at first) to preserve
his independence from the Germans, who posed an even greater threat at
the time than the Franks had been prior to this. He also saw that
Christianity had much to offer to his rule. It not only helped to
exalt his status, but it also provided practical help. The Missionary
bishops were literate, and those who had experience of the royal
government in Germany or
England had the potential to be valuable
advisors. There was also an economic motive to convert as pagan
kings were fascinated with Christian wealth. As a result, some chose
to accept the new faith as a way to gain access to this wealth.
In 1721, a new Danish colony was started in
Greenland with the
objective of converting the inhabitants to Christianity. Around the
same time efforts were made in
Sweden to convert the Sami,
who had remained pagan long after the conversion of their neighbours.
Sami religion is still practiced by some.
Research shows that Scandinavian countries such as
Denmark and Sweden
are currently among the least religious nations in the world;
nevertheless, "many Danes and Swedes, for instance, will profess
belief in 'something,' although not necessarily the God of the Bible."
Phil Zuckerman writes in a 2009 article to the Nordic Journal of
Religion and Society, "Surely the historical developments of culture
and religion in
Sweden are crucially informing factors in
explaining the current state of irreligiosity."
Christianization of Lithuania
Christianization of Kievan Rus'
Heimskringla – A mediaeval work that relates the lives of the two
Norwegian missionary kings
^ Kenneth Scott Latourette, A history of expansion of Christianity.
Vol 2. The thousand years of uncertainty: AD 500–AD 1500 (1938) pp.
^ Elena Melnikova, "How Christian Were
Viking Christians?." Ruthenika,
Suppl. 4 (2011) pp. 90–107
^ Schön 2004, 170
^ Schön 2004, 172
^ Schön 2004, 173
^ Sanmark 2004: 15
^ Sanmark 2004: 97
^ Latourette, A history of expansion of Christianity. Vol 2. The
thousand years of uncertainty: AD 500–AD 1500 (1938) pp. 81–87.
^ Hvitfeldt, Arild. Danmarks Riges Krønike
^ a b "St Willibrord" Catholic Encyclopedia, 1913
^ Robinson, Charles (1915). The Conversion of Europe.
^ Rimbert, "Anskar: The Apostle of the North, 801–865", trans. C.H.
Robinson in Carolingian Civilization: A Reader ed. Paul Edward Dutton
(Ontario, Canada: Broadview Press, 2004), chap. 10
^ a b "Ancient See of Hamburg". Catholic Encyclopedia. 1913
^ Rimbert, "Anskar: The Apostle of the North, 801–865", trans. C.H.
Robinson in Carolingian Civilization: A Reader ed. Paul Edward Dutton
(Broadview Press, 2004), chap. 17.
^ "Danmark's Ældste Domkirke" Kristelig Dagblad 25 July 2007
^ a b Sanmark 2004: 107
^ a b c d Sanmark 2004: 81
^ Rimbert, The Life of Anskar (extract)
^ Hvitfeldt, Arild. Danmarks riges Krønike
^ Dr. Sæbjørg Walaker Nordeide, Enseignant-Chercheur, Centre for
Medieval Studies, University of Bergen. "The
^ Kaufhold 2001: 116
^ Kaufhold 2001, 85
^ Sanmark 2004: 163
^ a b Kaufhold 2001, 86
^ Sanmark 2004: 100
^ a b c Sanmark 2004: 85
^ a b c d Sanmark 2004: 109
^ Kaufhold 2001, 117
^ The epithet of this last king reflects one of the purposes of
pre-Christian Germanic kingship, to promote harmony and good harvests,
árs ok friðar.
^ a b c Larsson 2002, 160
^ Larsson 2002, 161
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site on the Icelandic parliament.
^ Sawyer, Bright; Sawyer, Peter (1999). "Why Trust The White Christ?".
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^ Fodor, Eugene (1983). Fodor’s Scandinavia. New York.
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and missionaries in the remaking of Northern Europe (Yale UP, 2012).
In other languages
Hoftun, Oddgeir (2008). Kristningsprosessens og herskermaktens
ikonografi i nordisk middelalder, Oslo: Solum forlag.
ISBN 978-82-560-1619-8 (in Norwegian)
Kaufhold, Martin (2001), Europas Norden im Mittelalter,
Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft ISBN 3-89678-418-8 (in German)
Larsson, M. G. (2002). Götarnas riken. Upptäcksfärder till Sveriges
enande. Atlantis, Stockholm. ISBN 91-7486-641-9. (in Swedish)
Schön, Ebbe. (2004). Asa-Tors hammare, Gudar och jättar i tro och
tradition. Fält & Hässler, Värnamo. ISBN 91-89660-41-2 (in
History of Christianity
Centuries:1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th
15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th 21st
Ministry of Jesus
and Apostolic Age
Paul the Apostle
Council of Jerusalem
Councils: Nicaea I
Church of the East
Fall of Constantinople
Bernard of Clairvaux
Vatican I and II
Diet of Worms
Book of Concord
Three Forms of Unity
First Great Awakening
Neo- and Old Lutherans
Independent Catholic denominations
Second Great Awakening
Third Great Awakening
Genocide by ISIL