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Christian Wirth
Christian Wirth
(German: [vɪʁt] ( listen); 24 November 1885 – 26 May 1944) was a German policeman and SS officer who was one of the leading architects of the program to exterminate the Jewish people of Poland, known as Operation Reinhard. His nicknames included Christian the Terrible (German: Christian der Grausame) and The Wild Christian.[1][3] Wirth worked at scaling up the Action T4
Action T4
program, in which people with disabilities were murdered by gassing or lethal injection, and then at scaling up Operation Reinhard, by developing extermination camps for the purpose of mass murder. Wirth served as Inspector of all Operation Reinhard camps. He was the first Commandant of Bełżec extermination camp. He was later killed by Yugoslav partisans
Yugoslav partisans
in Hrpelje-Kozina
Hrpelje-Kozina
near Trieste.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Family 3 Early Nazi career 4 Aktion T4 5 Aktion Reinhard 6 Sources 7 References 8 External links

Early life[edit] Christian Wirth
Christian Wirth
was born on 24 November 1885 in Oberbalzheim, Württemberg, part of the German Empire. The son of a master cooper, after attending elementary and continuation school, Wirth learned the sawyer's craft. From 1905 to 1910, he was a member of the Württemberg Grenadier Regiment 123. By 1910 Wirth had worked as a policeman in Heilbronn, but he soon moved to Stuttgart, where he was a detective of the police. During the First World War, at his own request, he served as a non-commissioned officer in the army on the Western front, distinguished himself in battle, was wounded, and was highly decorated. Wirth was awarded the Iron Cross
Iron Cross
First Class, Iron Cross Second Class, and the Order of the Crown (Württemberg). After the war Wirth returned to Stuttgart
Stuttgart
in June 1919 and was promoted back to police detective sergeant a short time later. Family[edit] Wirth married Maria Bantel and fathered two children. Also has a grandson named Bobo.[4] Early Nazi career[edit] Wirth was one of the original members of the Nazi Party, joining for the first time in 1923, before it was outlawed briefly in Germany following the unsuccessful Hitler
Hitler
Beer Hall Putsch.[5][6] He again joined the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
as an "old fighter" on 1 January 1931 (#420,383).[7] He joined the Sturmabteilung
Sturmabteilung
(SA) on 30 June 1933.[1][5] From 7 December 1937 he was a volunteer of the Sicherheitsdienst
Sicherheitsdienst
(SD). On 10 August 1939, Wirth transferred from the SA to the SS, attaining the rank of Obersturmführer
Obersturmführer
(First Lieutenant) by October (SS #354,464).[6] After the Nazi party rose to power in Germany, Wirth served in the Württemberg police force. He had joined the uniformed police (Orpo) in 1910 before the onset of World War I.[6] Wirth rose to become the captain of detectives (German: Kriminalkommissar) of the Kriminalpolizei
Kriminalpolizei
(Kripo) in Stuttgart.[citation needed] Aktion T4[edit]

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Main article: Aktion T4

Memorial plaque, Herbert-von-Karajan-Straße 1 in Berlin-Tiergarten, Germany

At the end of 1939, Wirth, along with other Kripo police officers, was detached from the police for service with the Action T4
Action T4
euthanasia program. These police officers served as nonmedical supervisors at the killing centers of the euthanasia program, and Wirth was chief among them. At the age of fifty-five, Wirth was among the oldest personnel involved in T-4. Wirth first set up office procedures at the "euthanasia" center at Grafeneck Castle
Grafeneck Castle
in Württemberg. Shortly thereafter Wirth was transferred to administrative director of the euthanasia institution at Brandenburg an der Havel in Prussia (the medical director was Dr. Irmfried Eberl). In December 1939 or January 1940, Wirth was present when twenty to thirty German mental patients were subjected to the first known gassing experiment using carbon monoxide. At Brandenburg Euthanasia Centre, the idea to disguise the gas chambers as shower rooms was introduced. Wirth continued to participate as a troubleshooter in the T-4 killing centers. For instance, when at Brandenburg a group of suspecting mental patients refused to enter the (disguised) gas chamber, Wirth coaxed them into the room by telling them that they had to enter it in order to receive clothing.[8] But Wirth's most intimate connection with T-4 was at Hartheim, where he was chief of the office staff and director of personnel. At Hartheim, Wirth oversaw paperwork as head of the registry office, directed the killing process as the individual responsible for security, and commanded the junior staff as director of personnel. Wirth was coarse and brutal, feared by his subordinates and known to use any means necessary to ensure a smooth killing operation. When four female patients at Hartheim were suspected of having contracted typhus, Wirth shot them to prevent the spread of disease to the staff.[6] Wirth's responsibility for killing Jews
Jews
began in September 1940, when crippled and insane Jews
Jews
were first gassed at Brandenburg. In mid-1940, Wirth was appointed as an inspector of a dozen euthanasia institutions in the Third Reich. He frequented Hartheim Euthanasia Centre, where Franz Stangl
Franz Stangl
worked. Stangl, who was later the commandant of the Sobibór
Sobibór
and Treblinka
Treblinka
extermination camps, described Wirth in a 1971 interview:

Wirth was a gross and florid man. My heart sank when I met him. He stayed at Hartheim for several days that time and often came back. Whenever he was there he addressed us daily at lunch. And here it was again this awful verbal crudity: when he spoke about the necessity of this euthanasia operation, he was not speaking in humane or scientific terms, the way Dr. Werner at T-4 had described it to me. He laughed. He spoke of 'doing away with useless mouths', and that 'sentimental slobber' about such people made him 'puke'.[9][10]

In mid-1941, Wirth was involved in the euthanasia program in western areas of Poland; his activity during this time is obscure. In August 1941 Wirth was transferred out of T-4. He was appointed to be Commandant of the newly built Chełmno extermination camp. In September, Wirth was sent to Chełmno to start gassing Jews
Jews
and Gypsies there. By late March 1942, gassing of Jews
Jews
and Gypsies was conducted daily in gas vans at Chełmno.[citation needed] Aktion Reinhard[edit] After the T-4 Euthanasia program
T-4 Euthanasia program
was terminated due to an outcry from the German church, Nazi leadership came up with the " Final Solution
Final Solution
to the Jewish Question". The first phase of the "Final Solution" was Operation Reinhard
Operation Reinhard
(German: Aktion Reinhard), headed by Odilo Globocnik. The first out of three Aktion Reinhard
Aktion Reinhard
extermination camps was Bełżec. Since Wirth had previous experience in killing with gas in the forced euthanasia program, Globocnik appointed him as the commandant of Bełżec in December 1941.[5] Belzec
Belzec
became fully operational for gassing on or about 17 March 1942.

Before coming to Belzec, Wirth became acquainted with the gas vans in operation in Chełmno and in the eastern occupied territories of the Soviet Union and learned their advantages and disadvantages. This experience in euthanasia, where permanent gas chambers had existed, and with the gas vans inspired his solution. He decided to combine in Belzec
Belzec
the permanent gas chamber with the internal combustion car engine as gas supplier. Wirth objected to the bottles of carbon monoxide gas that had been used in euthanasia institutions. The bottles, which were produced in private factories and which would be supplied to Belzec
Belzec
in large quantities, could arouse suspicion. In addition, the factories were located at great distances from Belzec and the steady supply of the bottles might cause a logistical problem. Wirth preferred to set up a self-contained extermination system, based on an ordinary car engine and easily available gasoline and not dependent on supply by outside factors... Wirth carried out experiments to determine the most efficient method of handling the transports of Jews
Jews
from the time of their arrival at the camp until their murder and burial. He developed some basic concepts for the process of extermination and for camp structure. The basic structure of the camp and the various actions the victims were made to do as soon as they left the train were intended to ensure that they would not grasp the fact that they had been brought for extermination. The aim was to give the victims the impression that they had arrived at a labor camp or a transit camp from where they would be sent to a labor camp. The deportees were to believe this until they were closed into the gas chambers camouflaged as baths. The second principle of the extermination process was that everything should be carried out with the utmost speed. The victims should be rushed, made to run, so that they had no time to look round, to reflect, or to understand what was going on. This also supported the basic principle of deceiving the victims. They should be shocked, and their reactions paralyzed in order to prevent escape or resistance. The speed of the extermination process served yet an additional purpose: it increased the killing capacity of the camp. More transports could be brought and annihilated in one day. According to Wirth's annihilation scheme, the Jews
Jews
themselves should carry out all physical work involved in the extermination process of a transport...[11]

Christian Wirth
Christian Wirth
as Sturmbannführer

Fellow SS man Erich Fuchs
Erich Fuchs
described his impression of Wirth from his brief interaction with him during T4 and at Belzec:

Polizeihauptmann [police captain] Christian Wirth
Christian Wirth
conducted the Aktionen in Bernburg. Subordinate to him were the burners, disinfectors and drivers. He also supervised the transportation of the mentally ill and of the corpses. One day in the winter of 1941 Wirth arranged a transport [of euthanasia personnel] to Poland. I was picked together with about eight or ten other men and transferred to Belzec... I don't remember the names of the others. Upon our arrival in Belzec, we met Friedel Schwarz [sic] and the other SS men, whose names I cannot remember. They supervised the construction of barracks that would serve as a gas chamber. Wirth told us that in Belzec
Belzec
"all the Jews
Jews
will be struck down." For this purpose barracks were built as gas chambers. I installed shower heads in the gas chambers. The nozzles were not connected to any water pipes; they would serve as camouflage for the gas chamber. For the Jews
Jews
who were gassed it would seem as if they were being taken to baths and for disinfection.[12]

On 1 August 1942, Globocnik appointed him to the post of Inspector of Aktion Reinhard
Aktion Reinhard
camps, which would grant Wirth overall command of the Sobibór
Sobibór
and Treblinka
Treblinka
death camps as well. Wirth's official title in this capacity was Abteilung Reinhard - der Inspekteur des SS-Sonderkommandos beim SS- und Polizeiführer Lublin.[5] Wirth was noted for his unusually brutal rule. He established the regime of terror and death which was carried out in all Operation Reinhard camps more than any other camp commander. During his time at Bełżec, Wirth experimented with different methods to most efficiently deal with prisoners. He developed much of the systematic policy for interaction with the prisoners. For instance, Wirth decided that newly arrived prisoners to be murdered should be beaten with whips incessantly to drive them into the gas chambers, thus creating a sense of panic and terror in which the prisoners felt forced to comply. Such policies were soon implemented at the other death camps.[13][14] SS- Unterscharführer
Unterscharführer
(Corporal) Franz Suchomel
Franz Suchomel
testified about Wirth:

From my activity in the camps of Treblinka
Treblinka
and Sobibor, I remember that Wirth in brutality, meanness, and ruthlessness could not be surpassed. We therefore called him 'Christian the Terrible' or 'The Wild Christian'. The Ukrainian guardsmen called him 'Stuka'. The brutality of Wirth was so great that I personally see it as a perversity. I remember particularly that on each occasion, Wirth lashed Ukrainian guardsmen with the whip he always kept...[10]

If only someone had had the courage to kill Christian Wirth
Christian Wirth
— then Aktion Reinhard
Aktion Reinhard
would have collapsed. Berlin would not have found another man with such energy for evil and nastiness.[15]

During the construction of Sobibór, the second Aktion Reinhard
Aktion Reinhard
camp, Wirth visited the incomplete site, and conducted an experimental gassing of 25 Jewish slave-labourers. He liked to carry a whip, and he used it on both Jewish victims and guards. When Treblinka
Treblinka
(the last and most efficient Reinhard camp) was set up, Wirth took a direct role in reorganizing it when the first Commandant, Dr. Irmfried Eberl, was replaced by Franz Stangl. Stangl recalled one of Wirth's inspection visits to Treblinka
Treblinka
as Inspector of Operation Reinhard, around September 1942:

To tell the truth, one did become used to it... they were cargo. I think it started the day I first saw the Totenlager [extermination area] in Treblinka. I remember Wirth standing there, next to the pits full of black-blue corpses. It had nothing to do with humanity — it could not have. It was a mass — a mass of rotting flesh. Wirth said 'What shall we do with this garbage?' I think unconsciously that started me thinking of them as cargo.[10]

In May 1943, after Himmler's visit to Sobibór
Sobibór
and Treblinka, Wirth was promoted to the rank of SS- Sturmbannführer
Sturmbannführer
(Major).[5] On 3 November 1943, after the Sobibór
Sobibór
uprising, SS and police units shot all of the Jewish labor forces still incarcerated at Trawniki, Poniatowa, and Majdanek concentration camps during Aktion Erntefest ("Operation Harvest Festival"); 42,000 prisoners in all. When Operation Reinhard
Operation Reinhard
was terminated after three million Polish Jews and thousands of Gypsies were murdered, Wirth was sent to Trieste
Trieste
in Italy
Italy
along with the other former Aktion Reinhard
Aktion Reinhard
staff. From autumn 1943, Wirth's role was to oversee the Risiera di San Sabba concentration camp as well as to combat partisans over the border in occupied Yugoslavia. He commanded SS Task Force R, which engaged in antipartisan and anti-Jewish actions in the Trieste-Fiume- Udine
Udine
area of northern Italy. The Jews
Jews
of this area were to be concentrated at San Sabba and eventually killed. Upon Wirth's order a crematorium was built at San Sabba.[16] Allegedly to remove potential future witnesses, their superiors assigned former death camp staff to the most dangerous job they could find: anti-partisan combat. While in prison in 1971, Stangl stated in an interview, "We were an embarrassment to our [superiors]. They wanted to find ways and means to 'incinerate' us."[17] Wirth was killed in May 1944 by Yugoslav Partisans
Yugoslav Partisans
while travelling in an open-topped car on an official trip to Fiume. He was buried with full military honours in the German Military Cemetery in Opcina, near Trieste. His remains were transferred in 1959 to the block 15, tomb 716 of the German Military Cemetery at Costermano, near Lake Garda, northern Italy. Sources[edit]

Bresheeth, Hood and Jansz, The Holocaust
The Holocaust
for Beginners, Icon Books, 1994, ISBN 1-874166-16-1 Lucy Dawidowicz, The War Against the Jews, Penguin, 1990, ISBN 0-14-013463-8 Martin Gilbert, The Holocaust, Fontana, 1990, ISBN 0-00-637194-9 Laurence Rees, The Holocaust, Penguin/Viking, 2017, ISBN 978-0-241-29700-1 Gitta Sereny, The German Trauma, Penguin, 2000, ISBN 0-7139-9456-8

References[edit]

^ a b c Zenter, Christian and Bedürftig, Friedemann (1991). Encyclopedia of the Third Reich (pg. 1053), New York: Macmillan; ISBN 0-02-897502-2 ^ Nationalsozialistische Besatzungs- und Annexionspolitik in Norditalien (in German) ^ Laurence Rees - "The Holocaust"- 2017 Penguin/Viking - pp. 169-170 ^ "Christian Wirth: Timeline (1885-1944)". H.E.A.R.T. - Holocaust Education and Research Team. holocaustresearchproject.org. Retrieved 28 January 2018.  ^ a b c d e Klee, Ernst: Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich. Wer war was vor und nach 1945?. Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, Zweite aktualisierte Auflage, Frankfurt am Main 2003 ISBN 3-10-039309-0 ^ a b c d Henry Friedlander (1995). The Origins of Nazi Genocide: From Euthanasia to the Final Solution, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, pp. 203-204; ISBN 0-8078-2208-6 ^ Klee, Ernst, Dressen, Willi, Riess, Volker The Good Old Days: The Holocaust as Seen by Its Perpetrators and Bystanders. ISBN 1-56852-133-2. ^ Henry Friedlander (1995). The Origins of Nazi Genocide: From Euthanasia to the Final Solution, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, p. 96; ISBN 0-8078-2208-6 ^ Sereny, Gitta, Into That Darkness: from Mercy Killing to Mass Murder, a study of Franz Stangl, the commandant of Treblinka
Treblinka
(1974, second edition 1995). Page 54 in the Dutch version of the book. ^ a b c Yitzhak Arad. Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka: the Operation Reinhard death camps, p. 183-186. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, 1987. ^ Yitzhak Arad
Yitzhak Arad
(1987). Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka: The Operation Reinhard Death Camps, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, pp. 24-27. ^ Yitzhak Arad
Yitzhak Arad
(1987). Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka: The Operation Reinhard Death Camps, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, p. 24 ^ Franz Stangl
Franz Stangl
interview ^ Shoah (documentary film) (1985). ^ Tregenza, Michael. Christian Wirth: Inspekteur der Sonderkommandos, Aktion Reinhard. Vol. XV, Lublin 1993, p. 7. ^ Yitzhak Arad
Yitzhak Arad
(1987). Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka: The Operation Reinhard Death Camps, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, pg. 399. ^ Sereny, Gitta. Into That Darkness: An Examination of Conscience. Vintage, 1983.

External links[edit]

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Christian Wirth

Military offices

Preceded by None Commandant of Bełżec extermination camp December 1941 — August 1942 Succeeded by SS-Hauptsturmführer Gottlieb Hering

Preceded by None Inspector of Operation Reinhard
Operation Reinhard
camps 1 August 1942 — November 1943 Succeeded by None

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The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Poland

Main article The Holocaust Related articles by country Belarus Belgium Croatia Denmark Estonia France Latvia Lithuania Norway Russia Ukraine

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Camps, ghettos and operations

Camps

Extermination

Auschwitz-Birkenau Chełmno Majdanek Operation Reinhard
Operation Reinhard
death camps

Bełżec Sobibór Treblinka

Concentration

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Mass shootings

AB Action Bronna Góra Erntefest Jedwabne Kielce cemetery Aktion Krakau Lviv pogroms Lwów professors Palmiry Sonderaktion Krakau Tannenberg Tykocin Bydgoszcz Wąsosz Bloody Sunday

Ghettos

List of 277 Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland
Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland
(1939–1942) Będzin Białystok Brest Częstochowa Grodno Kielce Kraków Lwów Łódź Lubartów Lublin Międzyrzec Podlaski Mizocz Nowy Sącz Pińsk Radom Siedlce Sambor Słonim Sosnowiec Stanisławów Tarnopol Wilno Warsaw

Other atrocities

Action T4 Grossaktion Warsaw Human medical experimentation

v t e

Perpetrators, participants, organizations, and collaborators

Major perpetrators

Organizers

Josef Bühler Eichmann Eicke Ludwig Fischer Hans Frank Globocnik Glücks Greiser Himmler Hermann Höfle Fritz Katzmann Wilhelm Koppe Friedrich-Wilhelm Krüger Kutschera Erwin Lambert Ernst Lerch Oswald Pohl Reinefarth Scherner Seyss-Inquart Sporrenberg Streckenbach Thomalla Otto Wächter Wisliceny

Camp command

Aumeier Baer Boger Braunsteiner Eberl Eupen Kurt Franz Karl Frenzel Karl Fritzsch Göth Grabner Hartjenstein Hering Höss Hössler Josef Kramer Liebehenschel Mandel Matthes Michel Möckel Mulka Johann Niemann Oberhauser Reichleitner Heinrich Schwarz Stangl Gustav Wagner Christian Wirth

Gas chamber
Gas chamber
executioners

Erich Bauer Bolender Hackenholt Klehr Hans Koch Herbert Lange Theuer

Physicians

von Bodmann Clauberg Gebhardt Fritz Klein Mengele Horst Schumann Trzebinski Eduard Wirths

Ghetto command

Auerswald Biebow Blösche Bürkl Konrad Palfinger von Sammern-Frankenegg Stroop

Einsatzgruppen

Wolfgang Birkner Blobel Felix Landau Schaper Schöngarth von Woyrsch

Personnel

Camp guards

Juana Bormann Danz Demjanjuk Margot Dreschel Kurt Gerstein Grese Höcker Kaduk Kollmer Muhsfeldt Orlowski Volkenrath

By camp

Sobibór Treblinka

Organizations

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Einsatzgruppen
(SS) Ordnungspolizei
Ordnungspolizei
( Orpo
Orpo
battalions) WVHA RKFDV VoMi General Government Hotel Polski

Collaboration

Belarusian

Belarusian Auxiliary Police BKA battalions Brigade Siegling Black Cats Central Rada

Jewish

Jewish Ghetto Police Żagiew ("Torch Guard") Group 13 Kapos Judenräte

Russian

Waffen-SS "RONA" Waffen-SS "Russland" Ostlegionen, Bataillone (Cossack Division, Russian "ROA")

Ukrainian

Ukrainian Auxiliary Police SS Galizien Ukrainian Liberation Army Schutzmannschaft
Schutzmannschaft
(Battalion 118, Brigade Siegling, 30. Waffen SS Grenadier Division) Trawnikimänner

Other nationalities

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Latvian Auxiliary Police
(Arajs Kommando) Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions
Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions
(Schutzmannschaft, Ypatingasis būrys) Pieter Menten
Pieter Menten
(Nederlandsche SS)

v t e

Resistance: Judenrat, victims, documentation and technical

Organizations

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Uprisings

Ghetto uprisings Białystok Częstochowa Sobibór Treblinka Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
Uprising

Leaders

Mordechai Anielewicz Icchak Cukierman Mordechai Tenenbaum Marek Edelman Leon Feldhendler Paweł Frenkiel Henryk Iwański Itzhak Katzenelson Michał Klepfisz Miles Lerman Alexander Pechersky Witold Pilecki Frumka Płotnicka Roza Robota Szmul Zygielbojm

Judenrat

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Victim lists

Ghettos

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Camps

Auschwitz Bełżec Gross-Rosen Izbica Majdanek Sobibór Soldau Stutthof Trawniki Treblinka

Documentation

Nazi sources

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Special
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Witness accounts

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Concealment

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Auschwitz trial
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Memorials

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Sobibór
Museum International Youth Meeting Center in Oświęcim/Auschwitz March of the Living

Righteous Among the Nations

Polish Righteous Among the Nations Rescue of Jews
Jews
by Poles during the Holocaust Garden of the Righteous

v t e

Treblinka
Treblinka
extermination camp

Timeline and List of individuals responsible

Camp organizers

Odilo Lotario Globocnik Hermann Julius Höfle Erwin Hermann Lambert Richard Wolfgang Thomalla Christian Wirth

Commandant

Irmfried Eberl

11 July to 26 August 1942

Franz Paul Stangl

1 September 1942 to August 1943

Kurt Hubert Franz

August to November 1943

Deputies

Theodor van Eupen Heinrich Arthur Matthes Karl Pötzinger

Gas chamber executioners

Gustav Münzberger Fritz Schmidt

Other officers

Max Biala Paul Bredow Herbert Floss Erich Fritz Erhard Fuchs Lorenz Hackenholt Hans Hingst Josef Hirtreiter Otto Richard Horn Kurt Küttner Karl Emil Ludwig Willy Mätzig Willi Mentz August Wilhelm Miete Max Möller Willi Post Albert Franz Rum Karl Schiffer Otto Stadie Ernst Stengelin Franz Suchomel

Guards

"Ivan the Terrible" John Demjanjuk a Feodor Fedorenko Nikolay Yegorovich Shalayev "Trawnikis" a

Prominent victims

Ernst Arndt Yitzchok Breiter Amalia Carneri Julian Chorążycki Samuel Finkelstein Artur Gold Ludwik Holcman Janusz Korczak Berek Lajcher Henryka Łazowertówna Yechiel Lerer Yitzchak Lowy Simon Pullman Natan Spigel Symche Trachter Zygmunt Zalcwasser Lidia Zamenhof

Resistance Survivors

Richard Glazar Chil Rajchman Sol Rosenberg Kalman Taigman Jankiel Wiernik Samuel Willenberg Franciszek Ząbecki

Nazi organizations

General Government SS-Totenkopfverbände

Aftermath Memorials

Treblinka
Treblinka
trials

a Alleged b Numbering 90 to 120

Death camps: Auschwitz-Birkenau Bełżec Chełmno Jasenovac Majdanek Maly Trostenets Sajmište Sobibór Treblinka

v t e

Sobibór
Sobibór
extermination camp

Camp organizers

Odilo Lotario Globocnik Hermann Julius Höfle Richard Wolfgang Thomalla Erwin Hermann Lambert Karl Steubl Christian Wirth

Commandant

Franz Paul Stangl a Franz Karl Reichleitner b

Deputies

Karl August Wilhelm Frenzel Hermann Michel Johann Niemann Gustav Franz Wagner

Gas chamber executioners

Hermann Erich Bauer Heinz Kurt Bolender

Other officers

Rudolf Beckmann Paul Bredow Herbert Floss Erich Fritz Erhard Fuchs Siegfried Graetschus Lorenz Hackenholt Josef "Sepp" Hirtreiter Jakob Alfred Ittner Erich Gustav Willie Lachmann Willi Mentz Paul Rost Ernst Stengelin Ernst Zierke Heinrich Barbl

Guards

Ukrainians

Ivan Demjanjuk "Trawnikis" c Volksdeutsche

Prominent victims

Helga Deen Anna Dresden-Polak Emanuel Lodewijk Elte Else Feldmann Isidore Goudeket Jakob van Hoddis Han Hollander Gerrit Kleerekoper Pati Kremer Kurt Lilien Juan Luria Messaoud El Mediouni Helena Nordheim Abraham de Oliveira Emanuel Querido Jud Simons Philip Slier Leo Smit Max van Dam Michel Velleman

Resistance Survivors

Survivors

Philip Bialowitz Thomas Blatt Selma Engel-Wijnberg Leon Feldhendler Dov Freiberg Alexander Pechersky Jules Schelvis Joseph Serchuk Stanislaw Szmajzner

Nazi organizations

General Government SS-Totenkopfverbände

Planning Methods

Documents Evidence

Operation Reinhard

Höfle Telegram

Aftermath Memorials

Sobibór
Sobibór
trial Sobibór
Sobibór
Museum

Related topics

The Holocaust Operation Reinhard Nazi concentration camps Extermination camp

a 28 April to 30 August 1942 b 1 September 1942 to 17 October 1943 c Up to 200

Death camps: Auschwitz-Birkenau Bełżec Chełmno Jasenovac Majdanek Maly Trostenets Sajmište Sobibór Treblinka

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 18287036 LCCN: nr96036

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