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Christian IV (Danish: Christian den Fjerde; 12 April 1577 – 28 February 1648), sometimes colloquially referred to as Christian Firtal in Denmark
Denmark
and Christian Kvart or Quart in Norway, was king of Denmark-Norway
Denmark-Norway
and Duke of Holstein
Holstein
and Schleswig
Schleswig
from 1588 to 1648. His 59-year reign is the longest of Danish monarchs, and of Scandinavian monarchies. A member of the house of Oldenburg, Christian began his personal rule of Denmark
Denmark
in 1596 at the age of 19. He is frequently remembered as one of the most popular, ambitious, and proactive Danish kings, having initiated many reforms and projects. Christian IV obtained for his kingdom a level of stability and wealth that was virtually unmatched elsewhere in Europe.[1] He engaged Denmark
Denmark
in numerous wars, most notably the Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
(1618–48), which devastated much of Germany, undermined the Danish economy, and cost Denmark
Denmark
some of its conquered territories.[2] He renamed the Norwegian capital Oslo
Oslo
as Christiania after himself, a name used until 1925.

Contents

1 Early years

1.1 Birth and family 1.2 The young king 1.3 Coming of age and coronation 1.4 Marriage

2 Reign

2.1 Military and economic reforms 2.2 The Kalmar
Kalmar
War 2.3 The Thirty Years' War 2.4 Containment of Sweden 2.5 Torstenson War 2.6 The Norwegian issue 2.7 Securing the Northern Lands under the Danish Crown 2.8 Last years and death

3 The cultural king 4 City foundations 5 Legacy

5.1 In fiction

6 Issue and private life 7 Gallery 8 Ancestry 9 Titles and style 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Early years[edit] Birth and family[edit]

Frederiksborg Castle, ca. 1585.

Christian was born at Frederiksborg Castle
Frederiksborg Castle
in Denmark
Denmark
on 12 April 1577 as the third child and eldest son of King Frederick II of Denmark–Norway
Denmark–Norway
and Sofie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin.[3] He was descended, through his mother's side, from king John of Denmark, and was thus the first descendant of King John to assume the crown since the deposition of King Christian II. At the time, Denmark
Denmark
was still an elective monarchy, so in spite of being the eldest son Christian was not automatically heir to the throne. However, in 1580, at the age of 3, his father had him elected Prince-Elect and successor to the throne. The young king[edit]

At the death bed of Niels Kaas. The 17-year-old Christian IV receives from the dying chancellor the keys to the vault where the royal crown and sceptre are stored. History painting
History painting
by Carl Bloch, 1880.

At the death of his father on 4 April 1588, Christian was 11 years old.[3] He succeeded to the throne, but as he was still under-age a regency council was set up to serve as the trustees of the royal power while Christian was still growing up. It was led by chancellor Niels Kaas and consisted of the Rigsraadet council members Peder Munk (1534-1623), Jørgen Ottesen Rosenkrantz (1523-1596) and Christopher Walkendorf. His mother Queen Dowager Sophie, 30 years old, had wished to play a role in the government, but was denied by the Council.[4] At the death of Niels Kaas
Niels Kaas
in 1594, Jørgen Rosenkrantz took over leadership of the regency council.

The coronation of King Christian IV on 29 August 1596 History painting
History painting
by Otto Bache, 1887.

Coming of age and coronation[edit] Christian continued his studies at Sorø Academy
Sorø Academy
where he had a reputation as a headstrong and talented student.[5] In 1595, the Council of the Realm
Realm
decided that Christian would soon be old enough to assume personal control of the reins of government. On 17 August 1596, at the age of 19, Christian signed his haandfæstning (lit. "Handbinding" viz. curtailment of the monarch's power, a Danish parallel to the Magna Carta), which was an identical copy of his father's from 1559.[3] Twelve days later, on 29 August 1596, Christian IV was crowned at the Church of Our Lady in Copenhagen
Copenhagen
by the Bishop of Zealand, Peder Jensen Vinstrup (1549-1614). He was crowned with a new Danish Crown Regalia which had been made for him by Dirich Fyring (1580-1603),[6] assisted by the Nuremberg
Nuremberg
goldsmith Corvinius Saur.[7][8] Marriage[edit] On 30 November 1597, he married Anne Catherine of Brandenburg, a daughter of Joachim Friedrich, Margrave of Brandenburg
Margrave of Brandenburg
and Duke of Prussia.[9] Reign[edit] Military and economic reforms[edit]

Coat of arms of Christian IV and Queen Anne Catherine. From Kompagnietor, Flensburg.

Christian took an interest in many and varied matters, including a series of domestic reforms and improving Danish national armaments. New fortresses were constructed under the direction of Dutch engineers. The Danish navy, which in 1596 had consisted of but twenty-two vessels, in 1610 rose to sixty, some of them built after Christian's own designs. The formation of a national army proved more difficult. Christian had to depend mainly upon hired mercenary troops as was common practice in the times—well before the establishment of standing armies—augmented by native peasant levies recruited for the most part from the peasantry on the crown domains.[3] Up until the early 1620s, Denmark's economy profited from general boom conditions in Europe. This inspired Christian to initiate a policy of expanding Denmark's overseas trade, as part of the mercantilist wave fashionable in Europe. He founded a number of merchant cities, and supported the building of factories. He also built a large number of buildings in Dutch Renaissance
Dutch Renaissance
style. His sister Anne had married King James VI of Scotland, who succeeded to the English throne
English throne
in 1603. To foster friendly relations between the two kingdoms, Christian paid a state visit to England in 1606. The visit was generally judged to be a success, although the heavy drinking indulged in by English and Danes alike caused some unfavourable comments: both Christian and James had an ability to consume great amounts of alcohol, while remaining lucid, which most of their courtiers did not share. The entertainment which was intended to crown the visit- a masque of Solomon
Solomon
and the Queen of Sheba- was described by the audience as a drunken fiasco, where most of the players simply fell over from the effects of too much wine. Despite Christian's many efforts, the new economic projects did not return a profit. He looked abroad for new income. Christian IV's Expeditions to Greenland
Greenland
involved a series of voyages in the years 1605-1607 to Greenland
Greenland
and to Arctic
Arctic
waterways in order to locate the lost Eastern Norse Settlement and to assert Danish sovereignty over Greenland. The expeditions were unsuccessful, partly due to leaders lacking experience with the difficult Arctic
Arctic
ice and weather conditions. The pilot on all three trips was English explorer James Hall. An expedition to North America was commissioned in 1619. The expedition was captained by Dano-Norwegian navigator and explorer, Jens Munk. The ships, searching for the Northwest Passage, arrived in Hudson Bay
Hudson Bay
landing at the mouth of Churchill River, settling at what is now Churchill, Manitoba. However, it was a disastrous voyage, with cold, famine, and scurvy killing most of the crew.[5][10]

Tranquebar
Tranquebar
on India's south coast.

In 1618, Christian appointed Admiral Ove Gjedde
Ove Gjedde
to lead an expedition establish a Danish colony in Ceylon. The expedition set sail in 1618, taking two years to reach Ceylon
Ceylon
and losing more than half their crew on the way. Upon arriving in May 1620, the establishment of a colony in Ceylon
Ceylon
failed,[11] but instead the Nayak of Tanjore (now Thanjavur in Tamil Nadu) turned out to be interested in trading opportunities and a treaty was negotiated granting the Danes the village of Tranquebar
Tranquebar
(or Tarangamabadi) on India's south coast[12] and the right to construct a "stone house" (Fort Dansborg) and levy taxes.[13] The treaty was signed on 20 November 1620, establishing Denmark's first colony in India. Christian also assigned the privilege establishing the Danish East India Company.[14] The Kalmar
Kalmar
War[edit] Main article: Kalmar
Kalmar
War In 1611, he first put his newly organised army to use. Despite the reluctance of Rigsraadet, Christian initiated a war with Sweden for the supremacy of the Baltic Sea.[5] It was later known as the Kalmar War because its chief operation was the Danish capture of Kalmar, the southernmost fortress of Sweden. Christian compelled King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden to give way on all essential points at the resulting Treaty of Knäred
Treaty of Knäred
of 20 January 1613.[3] However, despite Denmark's greater strength, the gains of the war were not decisive.[5] He now turned his attention to the Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
in Germany. Here, his objectives were twofold: first, to obtain control of the great German rivers— the Elbe
Elbe
and the Weser— as a means of securing his dominion of the northern seas; and secondly, to acquire the secularised German Archdiocese of Bremen
Archdiocese of Bremen
and Prince-Bishopric of Verden as appanages for his younger sons. He skillfully took advantage of the alarm of the German Protestants after the Battle of White Mountain in 1620, to secure co-adjutorship of the See of Bremen for his son Frederick (September 1621). A similar arrangement was reached in November at Verden. Hamburg
Hamburg
was also induced to acknowledge the Danish overlordship of Holstein
Holstein
by the compact of Steinburg in July 1621.[3] The Thirty Years' War[edit] Main article: Thirty Years' War

Christian IV receives homage from the countries of Europe as mediator in the Thirty Years' War. Grisaille
Grisaille
by Adrian van de Venne, 1643.

Christian IV had obtained for his kingdom a level of stability and wealth that was virtually unmatched elsewhere in Europe.[15] Denmark was funded by tolls on the Øresund
Øresund
and also by extensive war-reparations from Sweden.[16] Denmark's intervention in the Thirty Years' War was aided by France and by Charles I of England, who agreed to help subsidise the war partly because Christian was of uncle of both the Stuart king and his sister Elizabeth of Bohemia
Elizabeth of Bohemia
through their mother, Anna of Denmark. Some 13,700 Scottish soldiers were to be sent as allies to help Christian IV under the command of General Robert Maxwell, 1st Earl of Nithsdale.[17] Moreover, some 6000 English troops under Charles Morgan also eventually arrived to bolster the defence of Denmark
Denmark
though it took longer for these to arrive than Christian hoped, not least due to the ongoing British campaigns against France and Spain. Thus Christian, as war-leader of the Lower Saxon Circle, entered the war with an army of only 20,000 mercenaries, some of his allies from Britain and a national army 15,000 strong, leading them as Duke of Holstein
Holstein
rather than as King of Denmark. Despite the growing power of Roman Catholics in North Germany, and the threat to the Danish holdings in the Schleswig- Holstein
Holstein
duchies, Christian for a time stayed his hand. The urgent solicitations of other powers, and his fear that Gustavus Adolphus should supplant him as the champion of the Protestant
Protestant
cause, finally led him to enter the war on 9 May 1625.[3] He also feared that Sweden could use a war to further expand their holdings in the Baltic Sea. Christian embarked on a military campaign which was later known in Denmark
Denmark
and Norway
Norway
as "The Emperor War" (Danish: Kejserkrigen, Norwegian: Keiserkrigen).[18] He had at his disposal from 19,000 to 25,000 men, and at first gained some successes; but on 27 August 1626 he was routed by Johan Tzerclaes, Count of Tilly in the Battle of Lutter.[3] Christian had not thoroughly planned the advance against the combined forces of the Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
and the Catholic League, as promises of military support from the Netherlands
Netherlands
and England did not materialise.[19] In the summer of 1627 both Tilly and Albrecht von Wallenstein
Albrecht von Wallenstein
occupied the duchies and the whole peninsula of Jutland.[3] Christian now formed an alliance with Sweden on 1 January 1628, as he and Gustavus Adolphus shared the reluctance of German expansion in the Baltic region.[19] Gustavus Adolphus pledged to assist Denmark
Denmark
with a fleet in case of need, and shortly afterwards a Swedo-Danish army and fleet compelled Wallenstein to raise the siege of Stralsund. Thus with the help of Sweden, the superior sea-power enabled Denmark
Denmark
to tide over her worst difficulties, and in May 1629 Christian was able to conclude peace with the emperor in the Treaty of Lübeck, without any diminution of territory.[3] However, the treaty bound Christian not to interfere in the Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
any further, removing any Danish obstacles when Gustavus Adolphus entered the war in 1630.[19] Containment of Sweden[edit] Christian's foreign policy did not suffer from lack of confidence following the Danish defeat in The Thirty Years' War. To compensate for lacking export revenues, and also in order to stifle the Swedish advances in the Thirty Years' War, Christian enacted a number of increases in the Sound Dues
Sound Dues
throughout the 1630s.[5] Christian gained both in popularity and influence at home, and he hoped to increase his external power still further with the assistance of his sons-in-law, Corfitz Ulfeldt
Corfitz Ulfeldt
and Hannibal Sehested, who now came prominently forward.[3] Between 1629 and 1643 the European situation presented infinite possibilities to politicians with a taste for adventure. However, Christian was incapable of a consistent diplomatic policy. He would neither conciliate Sweden, henceforth his most dangerous enemy, nor guard himself against her by a definite system of counter-alliances.[3] Christian contacted the Roman Catholic part of the Thirty Years' War, and offered to broker a deal with Sweden. However, his mediating was highly skewed in favour of the Holy Roman Emperor, and was a transparent attempt of minimising the influence Swedish influence in the Baltics.[20] His Scandinavian policy was so irritating and vexatious that Swedish statesmen advocated for a war with Denmark, to keep Christian from interfering in the peace negotiations with the Holy Roman Emperor, and in May 1643, Christian faced another war against Sweden.[3] The increased Sound Dues
Sound Dues
had alienated the Dutch, who turned to support Sweden.[5] Torstenson War[edit] Main article: Torstenson War

Christian at the Battle of Colberger Heide. History painting
History painting
by Vilhelm Marstrand

Sweden was able, thanks to their conquests in the Thirty Years' War, to attack Denmark
Denmark
from the south as well as the east; the Dutch alliance promised to secure them at sea. In May, the Swedish Privy Council decided upon war; on 12 December the Swedish Field Marshal Lennart Torstensson, advancing from Bohemia, crossed the southern frontier of Denmark; by the end of January 1644 the whole peninsula of Jutland
Jutland
was in Swedish hands. This unexpected attack, conducted from first to last with consummate ability and lightning-like rapidity, had a paralysing effect upon Denmark.[3] In his sixty-sixth year he once more displayed something of the energy of his triumphant youth. Night and day he laboured to levy armies and equip fleets. Fortunately for him, the Swedish government delayed hostilities in Scania
Scania
until February 1644, and the Danes were able to make adequate defensive preparations and save the important fortress of Malmö.[3] The Danish fleet denied Torstensson crossing from Jutland
Jutland
to Funen, and defeated the Dutch auxiliary fleet which came to Torstensson's assistance at the Action of 16 May 1644.[20] Another attempt to transport Torstensson and his army to the Danish islands by a large Swedish fleet was frustrated by Christian IV in person on 1 July 1644. On that day the two fleets encountered at the Battle of Colberger Heide. As Christian stood on the quarter-deck of the Trinity a cannon close by was exploded by a Swedish cannonball, and splinters of wood and metal wounded the king in thirteen places, blinding one eye and flinging him to the deck. But he was instantly on his feet again, cried with a loud voice that it was well with him, and set every one an example of duty by remaining on deck till the fight was over. Darkness at last separated the contending fleets; and the battle was drawn.[3] The Danish fleet subsequently blockaded the Swedish ships in the Bay of Kiel. But the Swedish fleet escaped, and the annihilation of the Danish fleet by the combined navies of Sweden and the Netherlands, after an obstinate fight between Fehmarn
Fehmarn
and Lolland
Lolland
at the end of September, exhausted the military resources of Denmark
Denmark
and compelled Christian to accept the mediation of France and the Netherlands; and peace was finally signed with the Treaty of Brömsebro on 8 February 1645.[3] Here Denmark
Denmark
had to cede Gotland, Ösel and (for thirty years) Halland, while Norway
Norway
lost the two provinces Jämtland
Jämtland
and Härjedalen, giving Sweden the supremacy of the Baltic Sea.[20] The Norwegian issue[edit]

Engraving of Christian IV

Christian IV spent more time in Norway
Norway
than any other Oldenberg monarch and no Oldenburg king made such a lasting impression on the Norwegian people. He visited the country a number of times and founded four cities. He also established and took control over one silver mine (Kongsberg), one copper mine (Røros), and tried to make an iron plant with limited success in Eiker. He also restored the fortress at Akershus, where he invited the people of Norway
Norway
to the official and age-old installment of the king in 1590, and again in 1610. When the king was busy overseeing the reparations and re-building of the fortress at Oslo, he lived in the country all summer, and at the same time tried to establish a centre for producing iron at Eiker, Buskerud. History tells he actually ruled the entire kingdom from this area in the summer of 1603. In 1623, Christian again visited Norway
Norway
for an entire summer, this time to oversee the foundation of Kongsberg. He was also present in the area in 1624, when Oslo
Oslo
burned in August of that year. The king was able to reach the area in a few weeks, being in Eiker. Over the years, fire had destroyed major parts of the city many times, as many of the city's buildings were built entirely of wood. After the fire in 1624 which lasted for three days, Christian IV decided that the old city should not be rebuilt again. He decided that the new town be rebuilt in the area below Akershus
Akershus
Fortress, a castle which later was converted into a palace and royal residence. His men built a network of roads in Akershagen and demanded that all citizens should move their shops and workplaces to the newly built city of Christiania.[21] Securing the Northern Lands under the Danish Crown[edit] During the fourteenth century the Swedish kings tried to push the areas of their control towards the north, and contemporary maps depicted the now Norwegian coastal areas of Troms
Troms
and Finnmark
Finnmark
as a part of Sweden. The possibly boldest move of any Danish-Norwegian regent was to make a voyage to the Northern Lands to secure these lands under the Danish-Norwegian
Danish-Norwegian
crown. Last years and death[edit]

Chapel of Christian IV at Roskilde Cathedral

After the Torstenson War, Rigsraadet took on an increasing role, under the leadership of Corfitz Ulfeldt
Corfitz Ulfeldt
and Hannibal Sehested.[5] The last years of Christian's life were embittered by sordid differences with his sons-in-law, especially with Corfitz Ulfeldt. His personal obsession with witchcraft led to the public execution of some of his subjects during the Burning Times. He was responsible for several witch burnings, most notably the conviction and execution of Maren Spliid (Splids), who was victim of a witch hunt at Ribe
Ribe
and was burned at the Gallows Hill near Ribe
Ribe
on 9 November 1641.[22] On 21 February 1648, at his earnest request, he was carried in a litter from Frederiksborg to his beloved Copenhagen, where he died a week later.[3] He was buried in Roskilde Cathedral. The chapel of Christian IV had been completed 6 years before the King died.[23] The cultural king[edit] Christian was reckoned a typical renaissance king, and excelled in hiring in musicians and artists from all over Europe. Many English musicians were employed by him at several times, among them William Brade, John Bull
John Bull
and John Dowland. Dowland accompanied the king on his tours, and as he was employed in 1603, rumour has it he was in Norway as well. Christian was an agile dancer, and his court was reckoned the second most "musical" court in Europe, only ranking behind that of Elizabeth I of England. Christian maintained good contact with his sister Anne, who was married to James VI of Scotland. His other sister, Elizabeth, was married to the Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and artists and musicians travelled freely between the courts. City foundations[edit] Christian IV is renowned for his many city (town) foundations, and is most likely the Nordic head of state that can be accredited for the highest number of new cities in his realm. These towns/cities are:

Christianopel, now Kristianopel
Kristianopel
in Sweden. Founded in 1599 in the then Danish territory of Blekinge
Blekinge
as a garrison town near the Swedish border. Christianstad, now Kristianstad
Kristianstad
in Sweden. Founded in 1614 in the then Danish territory of Skåne. Glückstadt, now in Germany, founded in 1617 as a rival to Hamburg
Hamburg
in the then Danish territory of Holstein. Christianshavn, now part of Copenhagen, Denmark, founded as a fortification/garrison town in 1619. Konningsberg (King's Mountain), now Kongsberg
Kongsberg
in Norway, founded as an industrial town in 1624 after the discovery of silver ores. Christiania, now Oslo
Oslo
in Norway. After a devastating fire in 1624 the king ordered the old city of Oslo
Oslo
to be moved closer to the fortification of Akershus
Akershus
slot and also renamed it Christiania. The city name was altered to Kristiania in 1877 and then back to Oslo
Oslo
in 1924. The original town of Christian is now known as Kvadraturen = The Quarters. Christian(s)sand, now Kristiansand
Kristiansand
in Norway, founded in 1641 to promote trade at the Agdesiden len (no) in Southern Norway. Røros, now in Norway, founded as an industrial town after the discovery of copper ores.

A short-lived town was:

Christianspris, now in Schleswig, Germany, founded as a garrison town near Kiel
Kiel
in the then Danish territory of Holstein.

Furthermore, Christian is also known for many erections of important buildings in his realm, and these include the observatory Rundetårn, the stock exchange Børsen, the Copenhagen
Copenhagen
fortress Kastellet, Rosenborg Castle, workers' district Nyboder, the Copenhagen
Copenhagen
naval Church of Holmen
Church of Holmen
(Holmens Kirke), Proviantgården, a brewery, the Tøjhus Museum
Tøjhus Museum
arsenal, and two Trinity Churches in Copenhagen
Copenhagen
and modern Kristianstad, now known as respectively Trinitatis Church
Trinitatis Church
and Holy Trinity Church. Christian converted Frederiksborg Castle
Frederiksborg Castle
to a Renaissance
Renaissance
palace and completely rebuilt Kronborg Castle
Kronborg Castle
to a fortress. He also founded the Danish East India Company
Danish East India Company
(Asiatisk Kompagni) inspired by the similar Dutch company. [24] Legacy[edit]

Christian IV monument in Stortorvet, Oslo
Oslo
by Carl Ludvig Jacobsen.

The statue was completed in 1878 and unveiled on 28 September 1880.

When Christian was crowned king, Denmark
Denmark
held a supremacy over the Baltic Sea, which was lost to Sweden during the years of his reign. Nevertheless, Christian was one of the few Danish kings from the House of Oldenburg that achieved a lasting legacy of popularity with the Danish people. As such, he featured in the Danish national play Elverhøj. Furthermore, his great building activities also furthered his popularity.[5] Christian IV spoke, besides his native tongue, German, Latin, French and Italian. Naturally cheerful and hospitable, he delighted in lively society; but he was also passionate, irritable and sensual. He had courage, a vivid sense of duty, an indefatigable love of work, and all the inquisitive zeal and inventive energy of a born reformer. His own pleasure, whether it took the form of love or ambition, was always his first consideration. His capacity for drink was proverbial: when he visited England in 1606, even the notoriously hard-drinking English Court were astonished by his alcohol consumption. In the heyday of his youth his high spirits and passion for adventure enabled him to surmount every obstacle with elan. But in the decline of life he reaped the bitter fruits of his lack of self-control, and sank into the grave a weary and brokenhearted old man.[3] The Christian IV Glacier
Christian IV Glacier
in Greenland
Greenland
is named after him. In fiction[edit]

Christian IV is depicted as a brilliant but hard-drinking monarch in the Eric Flint
Eric Flint
and David Weber
David Weber
alternate-history novel 1634: The Baltic War. Christian IV is featured several times in the book series The Legend of the Ice People. Christian IV also features prominently in the novel Music and Silence by Rose Tremain, which is primarily set in and around the Danish court in the years 1629 and 1630. Christian IV is depicted as a foul-natured person, but a good king who did a lot to make his realm flourish, by the Danish alternative music band Mew in their song, "King Christian". Jeg, Christian (2017) is a biographical movie about the last days of Christian IV's life.[25]

Issue and private life[edit]

King Christian IV and Queen Anne Catherine with the Prince-Elect. It was originally two separate portraits. The King was painted by Pieter Isaacsz, c. 1612

His first queen was Anne Catherine. They were married 1597-1612. She died after bearing Christian seven children. Four years after her death the king privately married Kirsten Munk, by whom he had twelve children.[3] In the course of 1628 he discovered that his wife, Kirsten Munk, was having a relationship with one of his German officers. Christian had Munk placed under house arrest. She endeavoured to cover up her own disgrace by conniving at an intrigue between Vibeke Kruse, one of her discharged maids, and the king. In January 1630 the rupture became final, and Kirsten retired to her estates in Jutland. Meanwhile, Christian openly acknowledged Vibeke as his mistress, and she bore him more several children.[3] With his first wife, Anne Catherine of Brandenburg
Anne Catherine of Brandenburg
he fathered the following children:

Stillborn son (1598).[26] Frederik (15 August 1599 – 9 September 1599). Christian (10 April 1603 – 2 June 1647). Sophie (4 January 1605 – 7 September 1605). Elisabeth (16 March 1606 – 24 October 1608). Frederick III (18 March 1609 – 9 February 1670). Ulrik (2 February 1611 – 12 August 1633); murdered, as Ulrich III Administrator of the Prince- Bishopric of Schwerin
Bishopric of Schwerin
(1624–1633).

Kirsten Munk
Kirsten Munk
and children portrayed by Jacob van Doordt, 1623.

With his second wife, Kirsten Munk, he had 12 children, though the youngest, Dorothea Elisabeth, was rumoured to be the daughter of Kirsten's lover, Otto Ludwig:

Stillborn child (b. & d. 1615). Unnamed infant (b. & d. 1617). Countess Anna Cathrine of Schleswig- Holstein
Holstein
(10 August 1618 – 20 August 1633). Countess Sophie Elisabeth of Schleswig- Holstein
Holstein
(20 September 1619 – 29 April 1657). Countess Leonora Christina of Schleswig- Holstein
Holstein
(8 July 1621 – 16 March 1698); married Corfitz Ulfeldt. Count Valdemar Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Valdemar Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
(26 June 1622 – 26 February 1656). Countess Elisabeth Auguste of Schleswig- Holstein
Holstein
(28 December 1623 – 9 August 1677). Count Friedrich Christian of Schleswig- Holstein
Holstein
(26 April 1625 – 17 July 1627). Countess Christiane of Schleswig- Holstein
Holstein
(15 July 1626 – 6 May 1670); married Hannibal Sehested Countess Hedwig of Schleswig- Holstein
Holstein
(15 July 1626 – 5 October 1678). Countess Maria Katharina of Schleswig- Holstein
Holstein
(29 May 1628 – 1 September 1628). Countess Dorothea Elisabeth of Schleswig- Holstein
Holstein
(1 September 1629 – 18 March 1687).

With Kirsten Madsdatter:

Christian Ulrik Gyldenløve (1611–1640).

With Karen Andersdatter:

Dorothea Elisabeth Gyldenløve (1613–1615). Hans Ulrik Gyldenløve
Hans Ulrik Gyldenløve
(1615–1645).

With Vibeke Kruse:

Ulrik Christian Gyldenløve (1630–1658). Elisabeth Sophia Gyldenløve (1633–1654); married Major-General Klaus Ahlefeld.

Gallery[edit]

Statue of King Christian IV in Oslo

Statue of Christian IV in Kristiansand

Statue of Christian IV in Copenhagen

Bust of Christian IV at Frederiksborg Castle

Sculpture by Christian IV in Roskilde Cathedral
Roskilde Cathedral
by Bertel Thorvaldsen

Statue of Christian IV at Rådhuset in Kristianstad
Kristianstad
by Bertel Thorvaldsen

Ancestry[edit]

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Ancestors of Christian IV of Denmark

16. Christian I of Denmark
Christian I of Denmark
(=#28)

8. Frederick I of Denmark
Frederick I of Denmark
(=#14)

17. Dorothea of Brandenburg
Dorothea of Brandenburg
(=#29)

4. Christian III of Denmark

18. John Cicero, Elector of Brandenburg

9. Anna of Brandenburg

19. Margaret of Thuringia

2. Frederick II of Denmark

20. John V, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg

10. Magnus I, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg

21. Dorothea of Brandenburg

5. Dorothea of Saxe-Lauenburg

22. Henry IV, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg

11. Catherine of Brunswick

23. Catherine of Pomerania-Wolgast

1. Christian IV of Denmark

24. Magnus II, Duke of Mecklenburg

12. Albrecht VII, Duke of Mecklenburg

25. Sophie of Pomerania-Wolgast

6. Ulrich, Duke of Mecklenburg

26. Joachim I Nestor, Elector of Brandenburg

13. Anna of Brandenburg

27. Elizabeth of Denmark

3. Sophie of Mecklenburg-Güstrow

28. Christian I of Denmark
Christian I of Denmark
(=#16)

14. Frederick I of Denmark
Frederick I of Denmark
(=#8)

29. Dorothea of Brandenburg
Dorothea of Brandenburg
(=#17)

7. Elizabeth of Denmark

30. Bogislaw X, Duke of Pomerania

15. Sophie of Pomerania

31. Anna of Poland

Titles and style[edit] In the 1621 Treaty of The Hague and Treaty of Bremen between Denmark and the Dutch Republic, Christian was styled "Lord Christian the Fourth, King of all Denmark
Denmark
and Norway, the Goths and the Wends, duke of Schleswig, Holstein, Stormarn, and Ditmarsh, count of Oldenburg and Delmenhorst, etc."[27][28] References[edit]

^ Paul D. Lockhart, Denmark, 1513-1660: the rise and decline of a Renaissance
Renaissance
monarchy (2007). ^ Paul D. Lockhart, Denmark
Denmark
in the Thirty Years’ War, 1618-1648: King Christian IV and the Decline of the Oldenburg State (1996) ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Bain, Robert Nisbet (1911). "Christian IV.". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.  ^ "Rosenkrantz, Jørgen, 1523-96". Dansk biografisk Lexikon. Retrieved August 15, 2016.  ^ a b c d e f g h "Gads Historieleksikon", 3rd edition, 2006. Paul Ulff-Møller, "Christian 4.", pp.99-100. ISBN 87-12-04259-5 ^ "Dirich Fyring". kongernessamling.dk. Retrieved September 1, 2016.  ^ Kurzer Discurs was Feyrlicheit vnd Geprenge zu Copenhagen
Copenhagen
..., Wegener, Schlewig (1596) Account of Christian's coronation in 1596: digitised by the British Library ^ "Vinstrup, Peder Jensen, 1549-1614, Biskop". Dansk biografisk Lexikon. Retrieved August 15, 2016.  ^ "Anna Cathrine, 1575-1612, Dronning". Dansk biografisk Lexikon. Retrieved August 15, 2016.  ^ "'' Jens Munk
Jens Munk
- Scandinavia's First Great Polar Explorer'' (The Council of Europe Cultural Routes)". Ub.uit.no. Retrieved 2014-06-28.  ^ Esther Fihl (2009). "Shipwrecked on the Coromandel:The first Indo–Danish contact, 1620". Review of Development and Change 14 (1&2): 19-40 ^ Larsen, Kay (1907). Volume 1 of Dansk-Ostindiske Koloniers historie: Trankebar. Jørgensen. pp. 167–169.  ^ Bredsdorff, Asta (2009). The Trials and Travels of Willem Leyel: An Account of the Danish East India Company
Danish East India Company
in Tranquebar, 1639-48. Museum Tusculanum Press. p. 13. ISBN 9788763530231.  ^ Gronseth, Kristian (2007). "A Little Piece of Denmark
Denmark
in India" (PDF). Department of Social Anthropology, University of Oslo. Retrieved 2013-07-07.  ^ Paul D. Lockhart, Denmark, 1513-1660: the rise and decline of a Renaissance
Renaissance
monarchy ( Oxford University
Oxford University
Press, 2007). ^ Wilson, Peter. "Europe's Tragedy". Penguin, 2009, p. 400–433 ^ Murdoch and Grosjean, pp.43-46 ^ Lockhart, Paul Douglas (2007). Denmark, 1513-1660: the rise and decline of a Renaissance
Renaissance
monarchy. Oxford University
Oxford University
Press. p. 166. ISBN 0-19-927121-6. Retrieved 2009-08-07.  ^ a b c "Gads Historieleksikon", 3rd edition, 2006. Paul Ulff-Møller, "Kejserkrigen", p.352. ISBN 87-12-04259-5 ^ a b c "Gads Historieleksikon", 3rd edition, 2006. Paul Ulff-Møller, "Torstensson-krigen", pp.658-659. ISBN 87-12-04259-5 ^ "History of Oslo". visitoslo. Retrieved August 15, 2016.  ^ "Maren Spliid - The Witch". danhostel-ribe.dk. Retrieved August 15, 2016.  ^ " Roskilde Cathedral
Roskilde Cathedral
- Royal Burial Plot". copenhagenet.dk. Retrieved August 15, 2016.  ^ "Asiatisk Kompagni". Dansk biografisk Lexikon. Retrieved August 15, 2016.  ^ "Jeg, Christian". goodcompanyfilms.com. Retrieved 13 February 2017.  ^ Son Oldenburg 1598-1598 in Gen.cookancestry.com [retrieved 16 June 2014]. ^ "Treaty of the Hague". (in Dutch) In Davenport, Frances G. European Treaties Bearing on the History of the United States and Its Dependencies. The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd., 2004. ^ "Treaty of Bremen". (in Dutch) In Davenport, Frances G. European Treaties Bearing on the History of the United States and Its Dependencies. The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd., 2004.

Further reading[edit]

Lockhart, Paul D. Denmark
Denmark
in the Thirty Years’ War, 1618-1648: King Christian IV and the Decline of the Oldenburg State (Susquehanna University Press, 1996) Lockhart, Paul D. Denmark, 1513-1660: the rise and decline of a Renaissance
Renaissance
monarchy ( Oxford University
Oxford University
Press, 2007). Scocozza, Benito, Christian IV, 2006 ISBN 978-87-567-7633-2

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Christian IV of Denmark.

The Royal Lineage at the website of the Danish Monarchy Christian IV at the website of the Royal Danish Collection  "Christian, the name of nine kings of Denmark. II. Christian IV.". The American Cyclopædia. 1879. 

Christian IV of Denmark House of Oldenburg Born: 12 April 1577 Died: 28 February 1648

Regnal titles

Preceded by Frederick II King of Denmark
King of Denmark
and Norway 1588–1648 Succeeded by Frederick III

Preceded by Frederick II and Philip Duke of Holstein
Holstein
and Schleswig 1588–1648 with Philip (1588-1590) John Adolf (1590-1616) Frederick III (1616-1648) Succeeded by Frederick III (Denmark) and Frederick III (Gottorp)

Preceded by Otto V Count of Holstein-Pinneberg 1640 Holstein-Pinneberg merged into the Duchy of Holstein

v t e

Monarchs of Denmark

Early monarchs

c. 916 – 1412

(Harthacnut) Gorm the Old Harald Bluetooth Sweyn Forkbeard1 Harald II Cnut the Great1 Harthacanute1 Magnus the Good Sweyn II Estridsen Harald III Hen Canute the Saint Olaf I Hunger Eric Evergood Niels Eric the Memorable Eric Lamb Sweyn Grathe / Canute V / Valdemar the Great Canute VI Valdemar the Victorious / Valdemar the Young Eric Plough-tax Abel Christopher I Eric Klipping Eric Menved Christopher II / Eric Christoffersen Valdemar III Interregnum Valdemar Atterdag Olaf II Margrethe I2

Palatinate-Neumarkt

1397–1448

Eric of Pomerania2 Christopher of Bavaria2

Oldenburg

1448–1863

Christian I2 John2 Christian II2 Frederick I Christian III Frederick II Christian IV Frederick III Christian V Frederick IV Christian VI Frederick V Christian VII Frederick VI Christian VIII Frederick VII

Schleswig-Holstein- Sonderburg-Glücksburg

since 1863

Christian IX Frederick VIII Christian X3 Frederick IX Margrethe II

Italics indicates Danish monarchs who were also monarchs of Norway. 1 Also monarch of England. 2 Also monarch of Sweden. 3 Also monarch of Iceland.

v t e

Monarchs of Norway

I. Independent Norway

Foreign and non-royal rulers in italics, disputed monarchs in brackets

872–1387

Harald I Fairhair Eric I Bloodaxe Haakon I the Good Harald II Greycloak Harald Bluetooth
Harald Bluetooth
d & Haakon Sigurdsson
Haakon Sigurdsson
r Olaf I Tryggvason Sweyn Forkbeard
Sweyn Forkbeard
de & Eric Haakonsson
Eric Haakonsson
r & Sweyn Haakonsson
Sweyn Haakonsson
r Olaf II the Saint Cnut the Great
Cnut the Great
de & Haakon Ericsson
Haakon Ericsson
r & Sweyn Knutsson r (Ælfgifu r) Magnus I the Good d Harald III Hardrada Magnus II Haraldsson Olaf III Kyrre Haakon Magnusson Magnus III Barefoot Olav Magnusson Eystein I Magnusson Sigurd I the Crusader Harald IV Gille Magnus IV the Blind Sigurd II Munn Inge I Haraldsson Eystein II Haraldsson (Magnus Haraldsson) Haakon II Broadshoulder Magnus V Erlingsson Sverre Sigurdsson Haakon III Sverresson (Guttorm Sigurdsson) Inge II Bårdsson Haakon IV Haakonsson (Haakon the Young) Magnus VI the Law-mender Eric II Magnusson Haakon V Magnusson Magnus VII Ericsson s Haakon VI Magnusson s Olaf IV Haakonsson d

Kalmar
Kalmar
Union

1387–1523

Margaret ds Eric III ds Christopher ds Charles I s Christian I ds John ds Christian II ds

Denmark–Norway

1524–1814

Frederick I d Christian III d Frederick II d Christian IV d Frederick III d Christian V d Frederick IV d Christian VI d Frederick V d Christian VII d Frederick VI d

II. Independent Norway

Only 1814

Christian Frederick

Union with Sweden

1814–1905

Charles II s Charles III John s Oscar I s Charles IV s Oscar II s

III. Independent Norway

Since 1905

Haakon VII Olav V Harald V

r Regent d Also Danish monarch e Also English monarch s Also Swedish monarch

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 7441786 LCCN: n82255980 ISNI: 0000 0000 6301 3491 GND: 118676059 SELIBR: 210443 SUDOC: 030915635 BNF: cb12223595t (data) ULAN: 500

.